The crafty opponent: the defense systems of Staphylococcus aureus and response measures
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious threat to public health. S. aureus infection can cause acute or long-term persistent infections that are often resistant to antibiotics and are associated with high morbidity and death. Understanding the defensive systems of S. aureus can help clinicians make the best use of antimicrobial drugs and can also help with antimicrobial stewardship. The mechanisms and clinical implications of S. aureus defense systems, as well as potential response systems, were discussed in this study. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - May 20, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Improving Vancomycin Stewardship in Critically Ill Children
We report a quality improvement (QI) intervention to reduce vancomycin use in our tertiary care PICU.; Methods: We retrospectively quantified the prevalence of infections caused by organisms requiring vancomycin therapy, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), among patients with suspected bacterial infections. Guided by these data, we performed 3 QI interventions over a 3-year period, including (1) stakeholder education, (2) generation of a consensus-based guideline for empiric vancomycin use, and (3) implementation of this guideline through clinical decision support. (Source: Current Awareness Servi...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - May 20, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces in hospitals and long-term care facilities for reducing hospital- and facility-acquired bacterial and viral infections: a systematic review
Conclusion: Ten c-RCTs focused on reducing multiple MDROs and/or HAIs and four had significant reductions. Three c-RCTs reported only patient MRSA colonization rates (o ne significant reductions), and one focused on C. difficile (no significant differences). Standardized primary and secondary outcomes are required for future c-RCTs including detailed biofilm cleaning/disinfection interventions. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - April 21, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Prevalence and Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Blood Stream Infections Among Nursing Home Residents Admitted to an Acute Care Hospital
Conclusion: Nursing home residents have a high prevalence of MDRO-BSI, which is associated with higher risk of receiving inappropriate initial anti-infective therapy, higher cost, higher ICU LOS, and higher mortality. Our research adds new information about the prev alence of fungemia in this population. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - April 7, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Gastrointestinal colonization of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an unrecognized burden upon hospital infection control
Background: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become endemic in many healthcare settings. Aim: To analyse the incidence, risk factors, outcomes, and genomic relatedness of patients with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal colonization of MRSA. Methods: Epidemiology and genetic analysis by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a hospital network in Hong Kong. Findings: Between October 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2018, a total of 919 (2.7%) of 34,667 patients had newly diagnosed gastrointestinal MRSA colonization by admission screening. The incidence was 0.67 ± 0.32 per 1000 patient-days per quarter. Including ...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - March 21, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Literature review on the distribution characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens in neonatal sepsis
Purpose: Neonatal sepsis (NS) has no specific clinical manifestations and blood culture analysis requires a long period of time. Knowledge of prevalent bacterial isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility is crucial when choosing an empirical therapy to decrease morbidity and mortality. This literature review summarizes the distribution characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens associated with bloodstream infections in Chinese neonates, and thus serves as a reference for pediatricians. Methods: The full-text journal database, CNKI, was searched using the key words " neonatal " , " sepsis " , and...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - March 14, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Long-term impact of contact precautions cessation for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
Conclusions: Discontinuing CP did not negatively impact endemic MRSA HAI rates between pre-postdiscontinuation periods and saved costs for isolation materials. Keywords: Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections; Contact precautions; Healthcare associated infections; MRSA bacteremia LabID events; Personal protective equipment. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - March 14, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Nasal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus does not reduce surgical site infection after primary lumbar fusion
Background Context: Preoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) testing and decolonization has demonstrated success for arthroplasty patients in surgical site infections (SSIs) prevention. Spine surgery, however, has seen varied results. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of nasal MRSA testing and operative debridement rates on surgical site infection after primary lumbar fusion. Study Design/setting: Retrospective cohort study and/or Consolidated medical enterprise PATIENT SAMPLE: Adult patients undergoing primary instrumented lumbar fusions from January 2015 to December 2...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - January 17, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Efficacy of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 against biofilm forming Staphylococcus aureus strains obtained from chronic wound infections
The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 showed inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus strains, which often responsible for wound infections. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilm-containing wound infections is important. Thus, this study aimed to investigate both the antimicrobial and biofilm efficacy of LL-37 against biofilm-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains and biofilm-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains obtained from chronic wound infections and its effect on different quorum sensing and virulence genes at suboptimal concentrations. Fifteen biofilm-forming MRSA a...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - January 17, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Combined sterilization and fabrication of drug-loaded scaffolds using supercritical CO 2 technology
The access of biodegradable scaffolds to the clinical arena is constrained by the absence of a suitable sterilization technique for the processing of advanced polymeric materials. Sterilization with supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ) may circumvent some technological limitations (e.g., low temperature, no chemical residues on the material), although scCO 2 can plasticize the polymer depending on the processing conditions used. In this latter case, the integration of the manufacturing and sterilization processes is of particular interest to obtain sterile and customized scaffolds in a single step. In this work, scCO 2 was exploit...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - January 17, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Antimicrobial effectiveness of wound matrices containing native extracellular matrix with polyhexamethylene biguanide
This study compares the antimicrobial and wound healing capabilities, both in vivo and in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA 300, for the following compounds: Collagen Wound Matrix-Anti Microbial (CWM-AM); Collagen Wound Matrix-Anti Microbial XT (CWM-AM XT); Antimicrobial Hydrofiber Wound Dressing (AHWD); Dermal Scaffold with Silver (DRSAg); Collagen Extracellular Matrix (CEM); Collagen Wound Matrix (CWM); Matrix Wound Dressing with Silver (MWDAg); Cadexomer Iodine Gel (CIG); Triple Antibiotic Ointment (TAO); and Antimicrobial Wound Gel (AWG). For the in vitro zone of inhibition assay, AWG...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - January 17, 2022 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Effectiveness and real-world materials compatibility of a novel hydrogen peroxide disinfectant cleaner.
A novel 4% hydrogen peroxide disinfectant was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridioides difficile spores, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and 2 strains of Candida auris. In laboratory testing, a sodium hypochlorite disinfectant caused fading and loss of pliability of a hospital mattress, but the hydrogen peroxide disinfectant did not. These findings suggest that the hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectant may be a useful addition to the sporicidal disinfectant products available for use in healthcare settings. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - December 14, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Pathogenicity and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality due to an infectious agent. This pathogen can cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from moderately severe skin infections to fatal pneumonia and sepsis. Treatment of S. aureus infections is complicated by antibiotic resistance and a working vaccine is not available. There has been ongoing and increasing interest in the extraordinarily high number of toxins and other virulence determinants that S. aureus produces and how they impact disease. In this review, we will give an overview of how S. aureus initiates and maintains infe...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - December 14, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

The use of functionalized nanoparticles to treat Staphylococcus aureus-based surgical-site infections: a systematic review.
Staphylococcus aureus-based surgical site infections have become the leading cause of failure for total joint arthroplasty operations and remain a major issue across surgical specialties. Moreover, S. aureus-based infections are becoming drastically more difficult to treat due to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and due to the bacteria ' s propensity to produce biofilms. The emergence of highly resistant S. aureus infections has created the need for a novel antimicrobial treatment. Functionalized nanoparticles have recently been suggested as being a viable option to fill this void due to their strong antimic...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - December 14, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Hospital- and System-Wide Interventions for Health Care-Associated Infections: A Systematic Review.
Hospitals face increasing pressure to reduce health care-associated infections (HAI) due to their costs and evidence of preventability. However, there is limited synthesis of evidence regarding interventions that can be successfully implemented hospital- or system-wide. Using Donabedian ' s structure-process-outcome model, we conducted a systematic literature review from 2008 to early 2019, identifying 96 studies with 214 outcomes examining the relationship between hospital- or system-wide interventions and HAIs. This literature ' s methodologic and reporting quality was generally poor. The most common HAIs studied were me...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - December 14, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news