Medicine: the appliance of science

A cure for HIV? A new approach to obesity? Tailor-made therapies for cancer? Medical science surges aheadMore than once last year, researchers described leaps in medical science that were so breathtaking, and held so much potential for patients, that they immediately joined the list of fields to watch in the year ahead. In most cases, the work was, and is, at an early stage and its future success far from certain. Such is the nature of science. Most of today's breakthroughs will be tomorrow's failures. But some may go down in history for transforming how medicine is done.Often, medical science surges ahead when different areas converge. That's the case with genome editing, which gives scientists the extraordinary ability to rewrite genes in living organisms. At the heart of the process are enzymes that can sever DNA at chosen locations. But to be useful, it required advances in computational genetics, and exquisite techniques to manipulate biological cells.Then there is the microbiome, the name given to the community of microbes that lives in and on our bodies. The trillions of bacteria that live in our guts, for example, influence our development, our metabolism, and our risk of scores of diseases. The prospect of treating, or preventing disease, through manipulating the microbiome, encouraging some bugs here, and fewer there, is a radical departure for medicine that now looks entirely realistic.Cost is one of the greatest barriers to medical progress, so the falling price o...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: The Guardian Genetics Biology Medical research Microbiology Society Features Cancer Aids and HIV Chemistry Biochemistry and molecular biology Science Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Besa Xhabija, Benjamin L. KidderAbstractEpigenetic regulation of chromatin plays a critical role in controlling stem cell function and tumorigenesis. The histone lysine demethylase, KDM5B, which catalyzes the demethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4), is important for embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, and is a critical regulator of the H3K4-methylome during early mouse embryonic pre-implantation stage development. KDM5B is also overexpressed, amplified, or mutated in many cancer types. In cancer cells, KDM5B regulates e...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Cancer GeneticsAuthor(s): Jennelle C. Hodge, David Bosler, Lauren Rubinstein, Navid Sadri, Shashirekha ShettyAbstractThe inv(3)(q21q26.2) altering a single chromosome 3 homolog is an established myeloid malignancy-associated entity. Comparatively, double inv(3) cases involving both homologs are exceedingly rare with 13 reports across AML, CML and MDS. This scarcity was confirmed by finding only 2 new cases out of 34,898 bone marrows collected during a 55 year period at a large medical center (0.0005%). The double inv(3) was detected by karyotype and confirmed by FI...
Source: Cancer Genetics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
New research published inNeuro-Oncology examines the controversial link between intracranial volume and high-grade glioma.
Source: CancerNetwork - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: news
The ground-breaking study, led by the Leukemia&Lymphoma Society, is evaluating several novel targeted therapies for acute myeloid leukemia.
Source: CancerNetwork - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular (English Edition)Author(s): Funda Üstün, Burcu Tokuc, Ebru Tastekin, Gülay DurmuĊŸ AltunAbstractAimIn lung cancer, axillary lymph node metastases (ALM) are rare, and according to the 8th grading system, it is classified as M1b disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate (i) the presence of ALM, and (ii) the effect of the primary tumors characteristics on the development of ALM.MethodsWe performed a descriptive cross-sectional study, with retrospective revision, to identify ALM.ResultsTh...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Gong W, Qi X Abstract Frailty is characterized by a state of vulnerability to poor resolution of homoeostasis after a stressor event and is a consequence of age-related decline in many physiological systems during a lifetime. To access the association between frailty and delayed recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer resections, 241 patients who had undergone elective colorectal cancer resections from July 2015 to August 2017 were investigated. The association of frailty with delayed recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay (LOS), and whether or...
Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: J Invest Surg Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Endobronchial targeting of peripheral airway targets is feasible using existing open-source technology. Notwithstanding the shortcomings of current commercial platforms, technological improvements in EM tracking and registration accuracy fostered by open-source technology may provide the impetus for widespread clinical uptake of electromagnetic navigation in bronchoscopy. PMID: 30428748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies - Category: Surgery Tags: Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol Source Type: research
Authors: Hu H, Yuan G, Wang X, Sun J, Gao Z, Zhou T, Yin W, Cai R, Ye X, Wang Z Abstract Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) is a newly discovered adipokine plays an important role in energy homoeostasis, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although lifestyle modification in obesity and T2D is known to offer metabolic benefits, there is paucity of comprehensive data on change in ANGPTL8. We investigated the effect of lifestyle intervention on ANGPTL8 concentrations. 384 obese/overweight adults with newly diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to diet (n = 128), diet + activity (n = 128) or usual care (contro...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
Linda Woolley, 73, was diagnosed with 'likely' kidney cancer at the University of Colorado Hospital in March. She had both organs removed before doctors realized she was cancer-free.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Materials Research BulletinAuthor(s): Linna Xu, Lijuan Liu, Kai Pan, Naiying Fan, Guofeng Wang, Weiping QinAbstractY2O3/Y2O2S:Ln3+ (Ln = Yb,Er and Yb,Tm) nanocomposites with enhanced upconversion luminescence were successfully prepared by combining hydrothermal with in-situ synthesis method. Under 980 nm excitation, the upconversion luminescence intensity of Y2O3/Y2O2S:Ln3+ increased, and then declined with the rising amount of sulfur powder. Especially, the Y2O3/Y2O2S:Ln3+ nanocomposites can emit brighter upconversion luminescence than those of Y2O3:Ln3+ and Y2O2S...
Source: Materials Research Bulletin - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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