Medicine: the appliance of science

A cure for HIV? A new approach to obesity? Tailor-made therapies for cancer? Medical science surges aheadMore than once last year, researchers described leaps in medical science that were so breathtaking, and held so much potential for patients, that they immediately joined the list of fields to watch in the year ahead. In most cases, the work was, and is, at an early stage and its future success far from certain. Such is the nature of science. Most of today's breakthroughs will be tomorrow's failures. But some may go down in history for transforming how medicine is done.Often, medical science surges ahead when different areas converge. That's the case with genome editing, which gives scientists the extraordinary ability to rewrite genes in living organisms. At the heart of the process are enzymes that can sever DNA at chosen locations. But to be useful, it required advances in computational genetics, and exquisite techniques to manipulate biological cells.Then there is the microbiome, the name given to the community of microbes that lives in and on our bodies. The trillions of bacteria that live in our guts, for example, influence our development, our metabolism, and our risk of scores of diseases. The prospect of treating, or preventing disease, through manipulating the microbiome, encouraging some bugs here, and fewer there, is a radical departure for medicine that now looks entirely realistic.Cost is one of the greatest barriers to medical progress, so the falling price o...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: The Guardian Genetics Biology Medical research Microbiology Society Features Cancer Aids and HIV Chemistry Biochemistry and molecular biology Science Source Type: news

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We present bone scan findings in a case of erythromelalgia in an 18 years old student, in whom the symptoms developed suddenly. No underlying disease could be demonstrated and the patient fully recovered. The scan findings were strikingly similar to those of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. PMID: 30006649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
Authors: Miao C, Zhang L, Sun M, Ma C Abstract A 3 years old boy was hospitalized with a month's history of polydipsia, polyuria and low fever. There was no relevant family history. This is a rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with both bone and pituitary infiltration shown on the technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scan and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted images on MRI showed the typical lack of high signal intensity of the posterior pituitary which corresponded to the central signs of diabetes insipidus (DI). The diagnosis of LCH was suspected ...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This is the first case to our knowledge describing both such lesions in one patient and the first case describing the use of 2-(3-{1-carboxy-5-[(6-[18F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid (18F-DCFPyL)-PSMA PET/CT to detect IPAS. Furthermore we highlight the value of nuclear medicine diagnostic work up in complex cases. PMID: 30006647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results from this totally original study indicated that radioactive isotope 125I labeled to caerin peptide 1.9 may be used to treat breast cancer while at the same time the response to treatment may be monitored by simultaneous imaging. PMID: 30006645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: A method of tumor size determination, using PHL on 18F-FDG PET/CT, showed more linear relationship and smaller size differences with pathology than MRI (average 0.6 vs. 1.9cm). It provides sufficient reliability and reproducibility for measuring tumor size in breast cancer. PMID: 30006644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
Abstract Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy is the current standard of care for early stage breast cancer. Successful BCS necessitates complete tumor resection with clear margins at the pathologic assessment of the specimen ("no ink on tumor"). The presence of positive margins warrants additional surgery to obtain negative final margins, which has significant physical, psychological, and financial implications for the patient. The challenge lies in developing accurate real-time intraoperative margin assessment techniques to minimize the presence of "ink on tumor" and ...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Management of the Axilla in the Patient with Breast Cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 2018 Aug;98(4):747-760 Authors: Park KU, Caudle A Abstract Evaluation of the axillary lymph nodes is critical in the management of breast cancer because it is a key predictor of survival outcome. Surgeons must not only be able to perform sentinel lymph node dissection with high accuracy but also understand the implications of the results. Management of clinically node-negative and node-positive cases can vary significantly, as described in this review. With emerging data, management of the axilla in breast cancer will...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Abstract Ductal carcinoma in situ has been stable in incidence for a decade and has an excellent prognosis. Breast conservation therapy is safe and effective for most patients. Adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy is recommended to reduce the risk of local recurrence. Accelerated partial breast irradiation is a promising alternative to decrease toxicity and improve cosmetic results. Adjuvant hormonal therapy can reduce local recurrence, but should be used cautiously. Future directions in management include developing predictive tools for guidance for use of adjuvant therapy and selecting low-risk patients ...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Abstract New emerging breast imaging techniques have shown great promise in breast cancer screening, evaluation of extent of disease, and response to neoadjuvant therapy. Tomosynthesis, allows 3-dimensional imaging of the breast, and increases breast cancer detection. Fast abbreviated MRI has reduced time and costs associated with traditional breast MRI while maintaining cancer detection. Diffusion-weighted imaging is a functional MRI technique that does not require contrast and has shown potential in screening, lesion characterization and also evaluation of treatment response. New image-guided preoperative locali...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Abstract The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system has evolved in response to improved imaging, refined surgical techniques, enhanced pathologic evaluation, and greater understanding of tumor biology. The 8th edition has introduced clinical and pathologic prognostic stages for breast cancer that incorporate biologic variables (grade, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, multigene panels) with TNM categories that define the anatomic stage. The prognostic staging system facilitates more refined stratification than the anatomic stage with respect to survival and is an important advance that...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
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