The Cerebrospinal Fluid in Multiple Sclerosis

Conclusions OCB are important biomarkers that can support MRI diagnostics and help to avoid false-positive MS diagnoses. Therefore, the revised McDonalds criteria have increased the importance of the OCB. New biomarkers such as AQP4 have now established themselves in clinical practice, and others such as Anti-MOG and NfL are about to enter clinical routine. An important focus in the search for new biomarkers is the monitoring of therapy efficacy and the prediction of severe side effects. Many other CSF molecules such as CHI3L1, IL-6, or CXCL13 show potential as markers for clinical practice, but further research is needed to prove their importance. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Abbreviations AQP4, aquaporin 4; C1inh, Complement component 1-inhibitor; CAM, cell adhesion molecule; CDMS, clinical definite MS; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CHI3L, protein chitinase 3-like; CIS, clinically isolated syndrome; CXCL, chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; HC, healthy control; IL, interleukin; JCV, John Cunningham virus; MOG, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; MS, multiple sclerosis; Nf, neurofilament; NfH, Nf heavy; NfL, Nf light...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, silver nanoparticles were covalently-bonded on polyvinylchloride (PVC) film, and zinc oxide nanowires with a radiating acicular structure were then self-assembled on the composite surface. The composite film reduced the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus by nearly two orders of magnitude in 24 hours. The integration of silver nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanowires holds potential for antimicrobial applications.
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Elieser de Araújo, Rafael Marinho Bandeira, Marcos Dorigão Manfrinato, Jéferson Aparecido Moreto, Roger Borges, Sandra dos Santos Vales, Paulo Atsushi Suzuki, Luciana Sgarbi RossinoAbstractThe aim of this work was to study the influence of thermochemical treatment of ionic plasma nitriding on the resistance to micro-abrasive wear and to the corrosion process of AISI 316L and AISI 470 stainless steels. The thermochemical treatment was performed at different times and temperatures with a gas mix...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and can be profoundly debilitating. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) —the delivery of high-frequency stimulation via electrodes to neural targets—is safe and effective for the treatment of refractory OCD (1,2). DBS has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of Parkinson's disease since 2002 and OCD since 2009. Although this treatment is effective on a group level, why specific patients respond but others less so remains an open question.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Deliberate self-harm, encompassing suicide attempts, completed suicides, and nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, is a global public health problem with a particularly strong impact on the world ’s youth and young adults. In the United States, suicide is the third leading cause of death among children 10 to 14 years of age and the second leading cause of death among adolescents and adults 15 to 34 years of age (1). Suicide attempts far outnumber completed suicides, and the personal, socia l, and economic costs of suicidal behavior are staggering.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we propose a deep convolution neural network for stroke magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) segmentation. The main structure of our network consists of two symmetrical deep sub-networks, in which dense blocks are embedded for extracting effective features from sparse pixels to alleviate the over-fitting problem of deep networks. We use the multi-kernel to divide the network into two sub-networks for acquiring more receptive fields, and the dropout regularization method to achieve an effective feature mapping. For the post-processing of the soft segmentation, we use image median filtering to alleviate noises and ...
Source: Neurocomputing - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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