Nigeria:NCDC, PHN, Others Seek End to Disease Epidemics in Nigeria
[Vanguard] Towards ending the series of outbreaks of Lassa fever, Monkeypox, yellow fever, cholera, meningitis, Ebola and other epidemic diseases in Nigeria, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, NCDC, and the Private Sector Health Alliance of Nigeria, PHN, have launched the Alliance for Epidemic Preparedness and Response, A4EPR. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - August 14, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Eating Raw Veggies Linked to Meningitis From Rat Parasite Eating Raw Veggies Linked to Meningitis From Rat Parasite
Rat lungworm infection has spread from Asia to 8 US states. In half the US cases, exposure was via raw vegetables harboring a larval stage of the parasite, which is carried by snails.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - August 9, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

Why Is Italy ’s Government Trying to Overturn a Lifesaving Vaccination Law? Here’s What to Know
Italy’s parliament shocked the scientific community on Tuesday by voting to lift a legal requirement that parents vaccinate their children before sending them to pre-school. The move, driven by Italy’s new populist coalition government, has been widely criticized by doctors, who say vaccinations are essential to avoiding outbreaks of serious diseases like measles. Here’s what to know about the Italian government’s decision: What did the Italian government do with vaccines? Italian lawmakers in the upper house of parliament voted 148 to 110 to amend a law that required children under the age of 6 to...
Source: TIME: Health - August 8, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Ciara Nugent and Jamie Ducharme Tags: Uncategorized Anti-Vaccines Italy Source Type: news

Try These Techniques to Boost Adolescent Immunizations
Residency programs that won AAFP Foundation Adolescent Immunization Awards share techniques that helped them boost vaccination rates for the following vaccine-preventable diseases: influenza; tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis; HPV infection; and meningitis. (Source: AAFP News)
Source: AAFP News - August 3, 2018 Category: Primary Care Source Type: news

Mother and son develop deadly meningitis after eating raw centipedes
A woman and her son from  Guangzhou, China, both suffered crippling headaches and stiff necks after munching on the worm-like creature bought from a local vegetable market. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - August 1, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Avoiding the Headache: Laboratory Considerations for Implementation, Utilization, and Interpretation of Multiplex Molecular Panels for the Diagnosis of Meningitis and Encephalitis, Part II
Meningitis and encephalitis are infections of the central nervous system (CNS) that can range in severity from mild and self-limiting to severe and life threatening. These infections can be caued by a number of bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Appropriate management of these infections is dependent upon an accurate and rapid identification of the infecting organism. Despite diagnostic advances with improved detection and turnaround time, currently, the etiological pathogen in central nervous system infections is identified in only 30 to 50% of symptomatic patients. (Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter - July 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Blake W. Buchan Source Type: news

Pharmacy Technician Charged in Case Tied to U.S. Meningitis Outbreak Pharmacy Technician Charged in Case Tied to U.S. Meningitis Outbreak
Federal prosecutors on Wednesday charged a pharmacy technician who worked at a hospital with making false statements during an investigation related to a Massachusetts compounding pharmacy at the center of a deadly fungal meningitis outbreak in 2012.Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - July 20, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Family Medicine/Primary Care News Source Type: news

New charges filed in New England Compounding Center case
Federal prosecutors have charged another person in the sprawling New England Compounding Center case, accusing a former pharmacy buyer at a Boston hospital with making false statements about payments he allegedly received from the Framingham pharmacy and its sister company, Ameridose. Claudio Pontoriero, 40, of Everett was charged Wednesday with one count of making false statements. The arrest is a part of the meningitis outbreak saga involving the now-shuttered New England Compounding Center,… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - July 19, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Jessica Bartlett Source Type: news

Meningococcal Working Group report
This is a report on raising awareness of the signs and symptoms, and ensuring early diagnosis and treatment, of sepsis and meningococcal disease. It sets out 12 recommendations aimed at organisations and bodies that have a role to play in improving awareness and early diagnosis of sepsis and meningococcal disease. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - July 19, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Pharmacy technician charged in case tied to U.S. meningitis outbreak
Federal prosecutors on Wednesday charged a pharmacy technician who worked at a hospital with making false statements during an investigation related to a Massachusetts compounding pharmacy at the center of a deadly fungal meningitis outbreak in 2012. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - July 18, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

Pharmacy tech charged in case tied to U.S. meningitis outbreak
Federal prosecutors on Wednesday charged a pharmacy technician who worked at a hospital with making false statements during an investigation related to a Massachusetts compounding pharmacy at the center of a deadly fungal meningitis outbreak in 2012. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - July 18, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

4-month-old boy dies of meningitis coming into contact with an unvaccinated person
Four-month-old Killy Schultz, from Chesterfield, Virginia, developed a rash and fever within 24 hours back in June. Doctors told his shocked parents he had contracted meningitis. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - July 17, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Nosocomial neonatal meningitis with Acinetobacter baumannii on myelomeningocele
(Bentham Science Publishers) In this article, together with a review of the literature, we report two cases of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii neonatal meningitis following ruptured myelomeningocele, treated with intravenous colistin with favorable results. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Avoiding the Headache: Laboratory Considerations for Implementation, Utilization, and Interpretation of Multiplex Molecular Panels for the Diagnosis of Meningitis and Encephalitis, Part I
Meningitis and encephalitis are infections of the central nervous system (CNS) that can range in severity from mild and self-limiting to severe and life threatening. These infections can be caused by a number of bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Appropriate management of these infections is dependent upon an accurate and rapid identification of the infecting organism. Despite diagnostic advances with improved detection and turnaround time, currently, the etiological pathogen in central nervous system infections is identified in only 30 to 50% of symptomatic patients. (Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter)
Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter - July 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Blake W. Buchan Source Type: news

Meningococcal infection: Bacterial aggregates form a thick honey-like liquid that flows through blood vessels
(Institut Pasteur) The Inserm team led by Guillaume Dum é nil at the Institut Pasteur, in collaboration with several teams of physicists, has unraveled a key stage in infection by Neisseria meningitidis, a human pathogen responsible for meningitis in infants and young adults. Bacterial aggregates in blood vessels appear to facilitate the progression of the disease. Even if treatment is administered rapidly, the mortality rate due to meningococcal infections remains very high. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

What is the Interval For Non-simultaneous Administration of Live Virus Vaccines?
Discussion Vaccines are a mainstay of infectious disease prevention and health promotion. Infants, children and adults benefit from vaccines the most when they are given on the recommended schedules. However there are times when this is not possible as children come to the physician a little early, or a little late, or had unavailable records and so received addition vaccine, etc. There are many questions that arise because of these timing issues such as the one above. Standard vaccine schedules can be reviewed here. Commonly administered vaccines includes: Live-attenuated vaccines Cholera Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 9, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Quadruple amputee reveals how beauty helped boost her confidence
Hannah Olateju, 18, from London, had all four of her limbs amputated after contracting meningitis, followed by gangrene, at just two years old. She is now hoping to inspire others. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - July 6, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Viruses ID'd As Most Common Cause of Meningitis in U.K. Adults
THURSDAY, July 5, 2018 -- Viruses are the most commonly identified cause of meningitis among U.K. adults, according to a study published online June 29 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Fiona McGill, Ph.D., from the University of Liverpool in the... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - July 5, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Woman went from newlywed to widow in just 10 MONTHS after her husband developed meningitis
Michelle Jackson, 46, from Warrington, Cheshire, has told the heartbreaking story of how her 56-year-old husband Stuart died just 10 months after their wedding from a rare complication of meningitis. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - July 5, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Pneumococcal DNA predicts course of infection
(Radboud University Medical Center) Besides the patient's condition, pneumococcal DNA also appears to provide information about the course of an infection. In the next issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Radboudumc researchers describe several pneumococcal genes predicting whether a patient runs the risk of developing meningitis or dying from the disease. Use of such genetic tests can improve infection diagnostics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

The Hidden Threat of Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal bacteria can cause severe illness, even death. The most severe illnesses are meningitis (infection of the lining covering the brain and spinal cord) and sepsis (bloodstream infection). Two types of meningococcal vaccines are available to prevent this infection that can kill up to 15 percent of patients who become infected. (Source: TMA News Room)
Source: TMA News Room - July 3, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Meningococcal working group report
A report on raising awareness of the signs and symptoms, and ensuring early diagnosis and treatment, of sepsis and meningococcal disease. (Source: NHS Networks)
Source: NHS Networks - July 3, 2018 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Raising awareness of the signs and symptoms, and ensuring early diagnosis and treatment of meningococcal disease
This report sets out twelve recommendations aimed at organisations and bodies that have a role to play in improving awareness and early diagnosis of sepsis and meningococcal disease. The report has been sent to these organisations and they have been asked to set out how they plan to respond by the end of September 2018. The Meningococcal Working Group was established in January 2018 at the request of the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. It was set up to assess what more needs to be done to raise awareness of the signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease among parents, young people and healthcare professiona...
Source: The Kings Fund - Health Management Specialist Collection - July 2, 2018 Category: Health Management Authors: The King ' s Fund Information & Knowledge Service Tags: Patient safety Quality of care and clinical outcomes Source Type: news

Adults with suspected meningitis are waiting too long for lumbar puncture
Patients with viral meningitis experience diagnostic delays and inappropriate treatment, study finds Related items fromOnMedica Call to boost students ’ uptake of meningitis vaccination Mass vaccination plan to combat meningitis GPs urged to step up meningitis vaccination programme Vaccine programme halves MenB cases (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Source: OnMedica Latest News - July 2, 2018 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Delays in Meningitis Dx Hinders Care in U.K. Adults
(MedPage Today) -- Longer waits for lumbar punctures impede identifying specific cause of meningitis (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)
Source: MedPage Today Primary Care - June 29, 2018 Category: Primary Care Source Type: news

Viruses are found to be the most common cause of meningitis but diagnosis is often delayed
(University of Liverpool) The first major paper looking at the causes and consequences of meningitis in the UK has found that viruses are now the most common cause of meningitis in adults and a cause of substantial long-term ill health. The paper also found that the management of many patients with meningitis is sub-optimal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Study highlights diagnostic delays and inappropriate treatment of meningitis in UK hospitals
(The Lancet) Viruses are the most common cause of meningitis in adults aged 16 and older in the UK, according to new research published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal. Although generally seen as a benign condition, this new observational study shows that recovery from viral meningitis can be a long haul for patients, with many still experiencing memory and mental health problems months after they are released from hospital. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Heartbroken mother, 26, reveals the devastating moment she lost her daughter to meningitis
Rebekah Watson, 26, from Doncaster, was bursting with pride after watching her baby girl, Lily Teale, smiling and giggling as she hit the crucial milestone in November last year. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - June 28, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Nigeria:Nigeria Unprepared for Next Disease Epidemic - Survey
[Vanguard] After experiencing series of disease epidemics including Ebola Virus Disease, EVD, Lassa fever, Cerebrospinal Meningitis, CSM, among others in recent times, Nigeria is not ready for the next epidemic, according to PreventEpidemics.org, a new website that highlights gaps in epidemic preparedness and pinpoints specific actions civil society organisations and concerned citizens can take for better preparedness. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - June 26, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Trial from Niger finds village-wide prophylactic antibiotics contained spread of meningitis
(PLOS) Distribution of single doses of the oral antibiotic ciprofloxacin to residents of rural villages in the African meningitis belt reduced the number of meningitis cases during a 2017 meningitis epidemic, according to a new study in PLOS Medicine by Matthew Coldiron and colleagues from Epicentre and M é decins Sans Fronti è res in France, Switzerland and Niger. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Nigeria:'Delays Worsened 2017 Meningitis Outbreak'
[Daily Trust] Time delays worsened last year's outbreak of cerebrospinal meningitis which killed 877 people across Zamfara, Sokoto and Yobe, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control said. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - June 25, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Trojan Horse: How a killer fungus unleashes meningitis and brain infection
(University of Sydney) In a world first, Australian researchers have revealed how a deadly fungus and primary cause of life-threatening meningitis exploits the immune system like a 'Trojan Horse' to promote infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 18, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

UK public shows strong preference for vaccines that prevent severe illness, particularly for children
The UK public has a clear preference for funding vaccination programmes which protect young children against severe diseases, finds a new study that considered the public ’ s preferences on vaccines available on the NHS. The study suggests that the public ’ s preferences about which vaccines are made available on the NHS, particularly children, are not reflected by the current approach. The Meningitis Research Foundation (MRF)-funded study, led by University of Bristol researchers, is published today [13 June] in PLOS ONE. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - June 13, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Research; Faculty of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School; Press Release Source Type: news

Huge drop in children dying of meningitis and pneumonia
Hib and pneumococcus once killed thousands a year in the US and Europe, and still do in developing countries. A new Johns Hopkins report finds vaccines are driving down the rate of deaths. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - June 11, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

1.35 million children's lives saved by HiB and pneumococcal vaccines since 2000
(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Childhood deaths from two leading bacterial causes of pneumonia and meningitis, pneumococcus and Hib, declined sharply during the period 2000 to 2015, especially as vaccines against these pathogens were introduced in high-burden countries, according to new estimates from a team led by scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

1.45 million children's lives saved by HiB and pneumococcal vaccines since 2000
(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Childhood deaths from two leading bacterial causes of pneumonia and meningitis, pneumococcus and Hib, declined sharply during the period 2000 to 2015, especially as vaccines against these pathogens were introduced in high-burden countries, according to new estimates from a team led by scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

In quest to leapfrog Pfizer, Peninsula vaccine company gets $85 million injection
The vaccine that halts pneumonia, meningitis and other bloodstream infections is good, but SutroVax Inc. has 85 million new reasons to believe it can do better. The Foster City company added $85 million in a Series C round and welcomed a well-respected biopharmaceutical executive as chairman as it hopes to surpass Pfizer Inc. to produce a broader, next-generation vaccine against a bacterium that causes pneumococcal disease. Thanks to the Series C found l ed by new investor TPG Growth, the five-year-old… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - June 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ron Leuty Source Type: news

In quest to leapfrog Pfizer, Peninsula vaccine company gets $85 million injection
The vaccine that halts pneumonia, meningitis and other bloodstream infections is good, but SutroVax Inc. has 85 million new reasons to believe it can do better. The Foster City company added $85 million in a Series C round and welcomed a well-respected biopharmaceutical executive as chairman as it hopes to surpass Pfizer Inc. to produce a broader, next-generation vaccine against a bacterium that causes pneumococcal disease. Thanks to the Series C found l ed by new investor TPG Growth, the five-year-old… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - June 7, 2018 Category: American Health Authors: Ron Leuty Source Type: news

In quest to leapfrog Pfizer, Peninsula vaccine company gets $85 million injection
The vaccine that halts pneumonia, meningitis and other bloodstream infections is good, but SutroVax Inc. has 85 million new reasons to believe it can do better. The Foster City company added $85 million in a Series C round and welcomed a well-respected biopharmaceutical executive as chairman as it hopes to jump Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) to produce a broader, next-generation vaccine against a bacterium that causes pneumococcal disease. Thanks to the Series C found led by new investor TPG Growth, the… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - June 7, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ron Leuty Source Type: news

In quest to leapfrog Pfizer, Peninsula vaccine company gets $85 million injection
The vaccine that halts pneumonia, meningitis and other bloodstream infections is good, but SutroVax Inc. has 85 million new reasons to believe it can do better. The Foster City company added $85 million in a Series C round and welcomed a well-respected biopharmaceutical executive as chairman as it hopes to jump Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) to produce a broader, next-generation vaccine against a bacterium that causes pneumococcal disease. Thanks to the Series C found led by new investor TPG Growth, the… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - June 7, 2018 Category: American Health Authors: Ron Leuty Source Type: news

Nigeria:NCDC to Nigerians - Treat CSM As a Medical Emergency
[This Day] The Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has called on Nigerians to treat cerebrospinal meningitis as a medical emergency, as it is a fatal disease that does not give room for first aid treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - June 7, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Pneumococcal Disease: A Vaccine Preventable Threat
Pneumococcal disease is one of the leading causes of illness among children and seniors. The potentially deadly pneumococcal bacteria causes pneumonia, but it also causes meningitis, sinusitis, sepsis, and ear infections. However, a pneumococcal vaccine can protect both children and adults. (Source: TMA News Room)
Source: TMA News Room - June 5, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Nigeria:Insurance Products for Ebola, Meningitis, Lassa Fever Underway
[Vanguard] INSURANCE products to facilitate financial responses to outbreaks of diseases such as Ebola, Meningitis, and Lassa fever in Nigeria and 29 other Africa countries are underway. An agency of the African Union, the African Risk Capacity, ARC, in a statement, weekend, said that it is working with West, East and Central African countries to determine their epidemic risks and select pathogens to be covered. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - June 4, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Heartwarming pictures show a baby struck by the 'worst meningitis case' being allowed home
Kia Gott, from Wyke, West Yorkshire, refused to give up her fight and yesterday Kia was allowed home for the first time on a day-release basis from Bradford Royal Infirmary. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - June 1, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Assessing financial impact of invasive meningococcal disease
(Source: PharmacoEconomics and Outcomes News)
Source: PharmacoEconomics and Outcomes News - June 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news

Kia Gott: Quadruple amputee girl is welcomed home
A one-year-old girl who had her limbs amputated after contracting meningitis C has been allowed home. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - May 31, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Girl who survived the 'worst meningitis case' seen in 25 years
Kia Gott is improving day by day in the high dependency unit at Bradford Royal Infirmary after contracting the killer disease. She has been in hospital since September. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - May 30, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Teenager 19 survived liver transplant and meningitis got diagnosed with CANCER and is recovering
Sophie Houghton-Hinks, 19, from Poole was fortunate to receive a life-saving liver transplant only to then contract meningitis that left her brain scarred, following by cancer which spread all over her body. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - May 25, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

BioGX Launches Six CE-Mark Tests for Meningitis and Antibiotic Resistance
AMSTERDAM, May 24, 2018 -- (Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network) -- BioGX B.V. continues its *BD MAX™ menu expansion with the launch of six additional CE-Mark infectious disease tests on Becton, Dickinson and Company's BD MAX™ Sample-to-Answer platform.... Diagnostics, Product Launch BioGX, BD , meningitis, vancomycin resistance (Source: HSMN NewsFeed)
Source: HSMN NewsFeed - May 24, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news