Outbreak Breakthrough: Using Whole-Genome Sequencing to Control Hospital Infection

Carrie Arnold is a freelance science writer living in Virginia. Her work has appeared in Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, Smithsonian, and more. Background image: Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: doi:10.5923/s.microbiology.201401.02 About This Article open Citation: Arnold C. 2015. Outbreak breakthrough: using whole-genome sequencing to control hospital infection. Environ Health Perspect 123:A281–A286; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A281 Published: 1 November 2015 PDF Version (2.7 MB) The level of detail provided by whole-genome sequencing could give hospitals the tools they need to stop outbreaks before they start. Background: © hxdbzxy/Shutterstock; E. coli O157:H7 genome map reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: doi:10.5923/s.microbiology.201401.02 The British soldier on the trauma and burns ward at Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham brought home more than his injuries when he was evacuated from Afghanistan in July 2011. Like many wounded veterans,1 he also carried an opportunistic pathogen called Acinetobacter baumannii that was resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials. If this specific strain of bacteria spread to others in the hospital, the doctors there would have few, if any, options for treating their patients. Keeping the bacterium contained through vigorous infection control procedures seemed the only hope. After a week, another patient developed symptoms of infection w...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Featured Focus News November 2015 Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Conclusions: (1) Data at our center suggests at least a regional implementation gap in GBS screening and IAP. (2) The decline in the resistance rate ofE. coli for all antimicrobial substances might indicate that the reduction of prenatal antibiotics use is beneficial and that neonatal antibiotic stewardship programs should include pregnant women as well.What is Known:• GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis led to a 32%-reduction in GBS disease in Germany with a 0.75 (92:122) ratio of early-onset disease to late-onset disease in 2009–2010.• Prenatal antibiotic use might increase the risk of E....
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
This study therefore investigated the impacts of RRCC on air pollution based on detailed household heating data obtained from intensive face-to-face interviews in Shandong province, China. The total contributions and specific contributions of coal, stoves, and coal-stove combinations to air pollution were simulated using the WRF-CAMx-PSAT model. The RRCC for heating had a considerable impact on air pollution, contributing 36.1, 9.1, and 16.1% of atmospheric SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 in winter, respectively. Different coal-stove combinations had different impacts on air pollution and mitigation efficiencies. The combination of bi...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and StrabismusAuthor(s): Mary-Grace Reeves, Angeline Nguyen, Benjamin Erickson
Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and StrabismusAuthor(s): Xi Chen, Ryan Imperio, Kai R. Seely, Christian Viehland, Joseph A. Izatt, S. Grace Prakalapakorn, Sharon F. Freedman, Cynthia A. Toth
Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and StrabismusAuthor(s): Nora Mahmoud Mohammed, Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal, Mohammed Ahmed Abdelhafez, Mostafa Mohammed Diab
Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and StrabismusAuthor(s): Amir Sternfeld, Syeda Sumara Taranum Basith, Sudhi P. Kurup, Surendra Basti
Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and StrabismusAuthor(s): Selcen Çelik, Aslı İnal, Osman Bulut Ocak, Ebru Demet Aygıt, Zahid Hüseyinhan, Ceren Gürez, Işıl Paşaoğlu, Birsen Gökyiğit
Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
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