Hepatosplenic Tuberculosis on Pretherapy and Posttherapy FDG PET/CT
A 65-year-old woman underwent FDG PET/CT for presumed hepatosplenic malignancy suggested by an abdominal CT. The images revealed multiple foci of intense FDG activity in both the liver and the spleen. However, a splenic biopsy result revealed no malignant cells, and either tuberculosis or sarcoidosis was proposed. Following an incomplete antituberculosis therapy, a repeat FDG PET/CT showed resolution of the abnormal activity in the liver and the spleen. (Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine)
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - January 8, 2020 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and other risk factors for kanamycin-induced hearing loss in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
. (Source: International Journal of Audiology)
Source: International Journal of Audiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Audiology Authors: Nazanin Ghafari Richard Court Maxwell Tawanda Chirehwa Lubbe Wiesner Lucretia Petersen Gary Maartens Tawanda Gumbo Helen McIlleron Lebogang Ramma Source Type: research

Circulation of M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Authors: Cerezo-Cortés MI, Rodríguez-Castillo JG, Hernández-Pando R, Murcia MI Abstract Lineage 2 (East Asian), which includes the Beijing genotype, is one of the most prevalent lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) throughout the world. The Beijing family is associated to hypervirulence and drug-resistant tuberculosis. The study of this genotype's circulation in Latin America is crucial for achieving total control of TB, the goal established by the World Health Organization, for the American sub-continent, before 2035. In this sense, the present work presents an overview of the status o...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - January 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Therapeutic issues with, and long-term outcomes of, pulmonary mycobacterial tuberculosis treatment in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.
Conclusions: Clinicians may encounter difficulties when treating PTB in patients with RD. Despite the favorable long-term outcomes of RD patients, the outcomes of individual patients such as those with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should be interpreted with caution during post-therapy follow-up. PMID: 31903246 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of levofloxacin- and moxifloxacin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in southern China.
Conclusions: Mutations in QRDR(s) were concomitantly associated with Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes. The prevalence of resistance and cross-resistance between LVX and MXF in MTB isolates from southern China was immensely higher than other countries. Our valuable findings provide the substantial implications to improve the reliability of genotypic diagnostic tests relying on potential resistance conferring mutations in entire gyr genes. PMID: 31903250 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Co-infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient. A case report
Simultaneous infection in tuberculosis (TB) is rare. The mixed infection between Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) has not been reported in children. The aim of this report was to desc... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Napoleon Gonz ález Saldaña, José Iván Castillo Bejarano, Marte Hernández Porras, Eduardo Arias de la Garza, Sofia Fortes Gutiérrez, Jose Luis Copado Gutiérrez and Hugo Juarez Olguin Tags: Case report Source Type: research

Granulomatous interstitial nephritis & #8211; A series of six cases
Subhrajyoti Karmakar, Keya Basu, Moumita Sengupta, Dipankar Sircar, Arpita RoychowdhuryIndian Journal of Nephrology 2020 30(1):26-28 Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is an uncommon variant accounting for about 6% of all tubulointerstitial nephritis. The etiology can be drugs such as antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and infections such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and fungal infections. Renal biopsy remains the gold standard for establishing the diagnosis. Here, we present a series of six cases of granulomatous interstitial nephritis, of which two cases were associated with lupus nephritis and ...
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - January 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Subhrajyoti Karmakar Keya Basu Moumita Sengupta Dipankar Sircar Arpita Roychowdhury Source Type: research

A public-private model to scale up diabetes mellitus screening among people accessing tuberculosis diagnostics in Dhaka, Bangladesh
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kishor Kumar Paul, Yosra M.A. Alkabab, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Shahriar Ahmed, Md Jobaer Amin, Md Delwar Hossain, Scott K. Heysell, Sayera Banu Source Type: research

A case of simultaneous onset of anti ‐melanoma differentiation‐associated gene 5 antibody‐positive dermatomyositis accompanied by interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, EarlyView. (Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - January 8, 2020 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Shota Fujimoto, Keisuke Saito, Kazuyoshi Kuwano Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Lower BCG Protection Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection After Exposure to Beijing Strains.
PMID: 31914319 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Verrall AJ, Chaidir L, Ruesen C, Apriani L, Koesoemadinata RC, van Ingen J, Sharples K, van Crevel R, Alisjahbana B, Hill PC, INFECT study group Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Crystal structure of a hemerythrin-like protein from Mycobacterium kansasii and homology model of the orthologous Rv2633c protein of M. tuberculosis.
Abstract Pathogenic and opportunistic mycobacteria have a distinct class of non-heme di-iron hemerythrin-like proteins (HLPs). The first to be isolated was the Rv2633c protein, which plays a role in infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but could not be crystallized. This work presents the first crystal structure of an ortholog of Rv2633c, the mycobacterial HLP from Mycobacterium kansasii (Mka). This structure differs from those of hemerythrins and other known HLPs.  It is comprised of five a-helices, whereas all other HLP domains have four. In contrast to other HLPs, the HLP domain is not fused to a...
Source: The Biochemical Journal - January 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ma Z, Abendroth J, Buchko GW, Rohde KH, Davidson VL Tags: Biochem J Source Type: research

Multiple colonic and ileal perforations due to unsuspected intestinal amoebiasis—Case report and review
Publication date: January 2020Source: Pathology - Research and Practice, Volume 216, Issue 1Author(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was init...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - January 7, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Intra-hospital prognosis of pericardial diseases in tropical area: Single-Center Study in Central Africa
Publication date: January 2020Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): B. Ellenga Mbolla, C.Y. Datsé, R. Atipo Galloye, S.F. Mongo Ngamami, I. Ondze Kafata, S.G. Kimbally KakyBackgroundPericardial diseases (PD) are varied in tropical area, and the major causes are infections.PurposeTo determine the frequency and the main diseases of pericardium.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2017 in the department of cardiology at University Hospital of Brazzaville. We had included, the patients admitted for PD.ResultsA total of 113 patients,...
Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A retrospective genomic analysis of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in a high-burden setting, with an emphasis on comparative diagnostics and reactivation and reinfection status
Recurrence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) after treatment occurs through relapse of the initial infection or reinfection by a new drug-resistant strain. Outbreaks of DR-TB in high burden regions presen... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kurt Wollenberg, Michael Harris, Andrei Gabrielian, Nelly Ciobanu, Dumitru Chesov, Alyssa Long, Jessica Taaffe, Darrell Hurt, Alex Rosenthal, Michael Tartakovsky and Valeriu Crudu Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Multi-linear regression model, molecular binding interactions and ligand-based design of some prominent compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
AbstractMultidrug-resistant strains ofMycobacterium tuberculosis still remain a major challenge in creating first-hand drugs for treating tuberculosis. Development and syntheses of novel compounds with more potent anti-tubercular agents are usually by the trial and error approach which is time consuming and expensive. QSAR is a theoretical approach which has the potential to reduce the aforementioned problem in discovering new potent drugs againstM. Tuberculosis. This approach was employed to develop the multivariate QSAR model to correlate the chemical structures of the 1,2,4-triazole analogues with their observed activit...
Source: Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics - January 7, 2020 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

The trick that could inject new life into an old tuberculosis vaccine
Nature, Published online: 07 January 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00003-wThe BCG vaccine is nearing its centenary. A new delivery method could protect more people from one of the world’s biggest killers. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - January 7, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Serum proteins TGFBI, PCSK9, and CCL14 are potential biomarkers for different traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Abstract Patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) tend to have a long course of anti-TB treatment and severe side effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a synergistic effect in attenuation of MDR-TB. However, the lack of objective biological standards to classify and diagnose MDR-TB TCM syndromes could result in less effective TCM treatment. Therefore, in this study, we identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in serum of individuals with MDR-TB TCM syndromes by applying isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tand...
Source: Anatomical Record - January 7, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Hu YT, Yi WJ, Jiang TT, Tu HH, Wei LL, Shi LY, Liu CM, Chen J, Han YS, Gan L, Li ZB, Huang H, Li JC Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research

Disseminated infection with Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in a patient under steroid therapy
Corticosteroid recipients with lung infections should be suspected of having nocardiosis; however, nocardiosis can easily mimic malignancy, tuberculosis, or fungal infection. Though cultural identification is possible, it might be missed due to its slow growth pattern.. Therefore, if filamentous bacteria are seen during staining, plate incubation time should be extended. Key Clinical MessageCorticosteroid recipients with lung infections should be suspected of having nocardiosis; however, nocardiosis can easily mimic malignancy, tuberculosis, or fungal infection. Though cultural identification is possible, it might be misse...
Source: Clinical Case Reports - January 7, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ranjit Sah, Shusila Khadka, Samikshya Neupane, Gaurav Nepal, Sonam Singla, Pankhuri Kumari, Sanjit Sah, Ranjana Sah, Shyam Sundar Sah, Mahesh Adhikari, Niranjan Prasad Shah, Bharat Mani Pokharel, Basista Rijal, Dibya Singh Shah Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiological study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis isolated from sputum samples in Eastern Cape, South Africa.
This study gives a general overview of drug resistant strains and the circulating strains in the Eastern Cape, South Africa and it shows that the common Mycobacteria in the province is the Beijing strain. PMID: 31923728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bhembe NL, Green E Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Epitope promiscuity and population coverage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigens in current subunit vaccines under development.
In this study, using computational approaches, we predicted the capacity of the epitopes to be presented by the HLA molecules for ten MTB protein antigens (Mtb39a, Mtb32a, Ag85B, ESAT-6, TB10.4, Rv2660, Rv3619, Rv2608, Rv3620, and Rv1813) constituting five MTB subunit vaccines (M72, H1, H4, H56, and ID93) that are currently in clinical trials. We also assessed the promiscuity of the predicted epitopes based on a reference set of alleles and supertype alleles, and estimated the population coverage of the ten antigens in three high TB burden countries (China, India, and South Africa). Among the ten antigens evaluated, Rv2608...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ong E, He Y, Yang Z Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Deciphering the essentiality and function of SxSx motif in Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB.
Abstract The UvrB subunit is a central component of the UvrABC incision complex and plays a pivotal role in damage recognition, strand excision and repair synthesis. A conserved structural motif (the SxSx motif) present in UvrB is analogous to a similar motif (TxGx) in the helicases of superfamily 2, whose function is not fully understood. To elucidate the significance of the SxSx (Ser143-Val144-Ser145-Cys146) motif in Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB (MtUvrB), different variants of MtUvrB subunit were constructed and characterized. The SxSx motif indeed was found to be essential for MtUvrB function: while Ser143 a...
Source: Biochimie - January 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Thakur M, Muniyappa K Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

7-oxo-DHEA enhances impaired M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses during HIV-TB coinfection
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), affecting approximately one third of the world ’s population. Development of an adequate immune response will determine disease progres... (Source: Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - January 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mar ía Belén Vecchione, Natalia Laufer, Omar Sued, Marcelo Corti, Horacio Salomon and Maria Florencia Quiroga Tags: Research Source Type: research

Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Xpert ® MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification assay for rapidly diagnosing tuberculosis and assessing antibiotic sensitivity. Although previous e... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Young Seok Seo, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Soo Kim and Jong Gyun Ahn Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Controlled Human Infection Models - Is it Really Feasible to Give People Tuberculosis?
PMID: 31904993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 6, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: McShane H Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

How Molecular Epidemiology Can Affect Tuberculosis Control in the Middle East Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Nowadays, due to the incidence of specific strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also increase the rate of drug resistant-TB mortality rate has elevated by this disease. Identification of common strains in the region as well as sources of transmission are essential to control the disease that this has been possible by using molecular epidemiology. In this survey, studies which have been carried out based on spoligotyping method in Muslim Middle East countries were considered to determine their role in control of TB. All studies conducted from 2005 to June 2016 were considered systematically in three e...
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - January 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Asgharzadeh M, Rashedi J, Poor BM, Kafil HS, Zadeh HM, Ahmadpour E Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Mechanistic Modeling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Murine Models for Drug and Vaccine Efficacy Studies.
Abstract TB drug, regimen and vaccine development rely heavily on preclinical animal experiments, and quantification of bacterial and immune response dynamics are essential for understanding drug and vaccine efficacy. A mechanism-based model was built to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv infection in BALB/c and athymic nude mice over time, which consisted of bacterial replication, bacterial death and adaptive immune effects. The adaptive immune effect was best described by a sigmoidal function on both bacterial load and incubation time. Applications to demonstrate the utility of this baseline model showed ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang N, Strydom N, Tyagi S, Soni H, Tasneen R, Nuermberger EL, Savic RM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Isoniazid among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from China.
In this study, 175 blood samples were collected from 89 pulmonary TB patients within 0.5-6 h after morning administration. According to their NAT2 genotypes, 32 (36.0%), 38 (42.7%) and 19 (21.3%) were fast, intermediate and slow acetylators, respectively. The plasma INH concentration was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis was conducted using NONMEM and R software. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination well described the PK parameters of isoniazid. Body weight and acetylator-status significantly affected the INH clearance rate. ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jing W, Zong Z, Tang B, Wang J, Zhang T, Wen S, Xue Y, Chu N, Zhao W, Huang H Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Lack of association between polymorphism of IL-2 -330T/G and pulmonary tuberculosis among Caucasians.
PMID: 31906759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Innate Immunity)
Source: Innate Immunity - January 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ge H, Chen S, Zhu J Tags: Innate Immun Source Type: research

Recurrent tuberculosis in patients infected with the predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreak strain in Denmark. New insights gained through whole genome sequencing.
ng;B Abstract OBJECTIVES: Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) is defined by more than one TB episode per patient and is caused by reinfection with a new M. tuberculosis (Mtb) strain or relapse with the previous strain. In Denmark, a major TB outbreak caused by one specific Mtb genotype "DKC2" is ongoing. Of the 892 patients infected with DKC2 between 1992 and 2014, 32 had recurrent TB with 67 TB episodes in total. METHODS: The 32 cases were evaluated in terms of number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences and time between episodes derived from whole-genome sequencing data. RESULTS: For...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 6, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Folkvardsen DB, Norman A, Rasmussen EM, Lillebaek T, Jelsbak L, Andersen ÅB Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the "closed" Russian town with limited population migration.
Molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the "closed" Russian town with limited population migration. Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jan 06;:104174 Authors: Umpeleva T, Belousova K, Golubeva L, Boteva T, Morozova I, Vyazovaya A, Mokrousov I, Eremeeva N, Vakhrusheva D Abstract The aim of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in one of the "closed" Russian cities under conditions of the limited population migration and high HIV coinfection rate. We analyzed 109 M. tuberculosis isolates recovered from TB pat...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 6, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Umpeleva T, Belousova K, Golubeva L, Boteva T, Morozova I, Vyazovaya A, Mokrousov I, Eremeeva N, Vakhrusheva D Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

In vitro drug discovery models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis relevant for host infection
. (Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery)
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery - January 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tanya Parish Source Type: research

Partial implant retention in two-stage exchange for chronic infected total hip arthroplasty
ConclusionsThe selective partial implant retention two-stage revision for chronic PJI may be a treatment option in properly selected patients with low virulence bugs. (Source: International Orthopaedics)
Source: International Orthopaedics - January 4, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
AbstractBackgroundAllergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus colony in the airways. Due to the diversity of disease manifestations and physicians ’ incomplete knowledge of ABPA, patients with ABPA are often misdiagnosed and given poor prognosis.ObjectivesTo investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis status among patients with ABPA.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed 75 patients diagnosed as ABPA in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between October 2008 and June 2018.ResultsAmong 75 patients, 28% had asth...
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - January 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cuiping Zhang, Zhilong Jiang, Changzhou Shao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Factors associated with mortality in persons co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in Suriname: a retrospective cohort study.
Conclusions: The Ministry of Health of Suriname should develop strategies for early case-finding in key populations, such as for HIV and TB in men 60 years of age and older. Implementation of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for HIV should be pursued. Scaling up TB and HIV treatment, preferably through supervision, are essential to reducing the TB/HIV mortality. PMID: 31892929 [PubMed] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

[Factors associated with tuberculosis mortality in Paraguay, 2015-2016Fatores associados à mortalidade por tuberculose no Paraguai, 2015-2016].
Conclusions: The highest risk of death is presented by men and people with TB/HIV coinfection and the lowest risk is presented by people deprived of liberty. There is a need to improve diagnosis and follow-up of TB cases, with effective implementation of directly observed treatment (DOTS) and timely management of associated diseases such as HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID: 31892928 [PubMed] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

Operational research in the context of advancing towards tuberculosis elimination in the Americas.
Authors: da Silva JB, Espinal M PMID: 31892927 [PubMed] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

[Factors associated with completion of isoniazid preventive therapy in children in Quito, Ecuador (2014-2016 and 2018)Fatores associados à adesão à terapia preventiva com isoniazida em crianças de Quito, Equador (2014-2016 e 2018)].
Conclusions: The majority of children under 5 years of age who initiated IPT completed at least 80% of the prescribed doses, with varying associations and knowledge on the part of their caregivers. In this context, there is a need for further operations research in order to learn more about adherence and about the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health professionals and those affected by tuberculosis, and their environment. PMID: 31892926 [PubMed] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

[Loss to follow-up in patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in EcuadorA Perda de seguimento de pacientes tratados para tuberculose multirresistente a medicamentos no Equador].
Authors: Tatés-Ortega N, Álvarez J, López L, Mendoza-Ticona A, Alarcón-Arrascue E Abstract Objective: Determine the incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) in patients treated for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB), and the factors associated with this discharge status in Ecuador. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients with RR/MDR-TB who followed the World Health Organization's 18-24-month treatment regimen in 2014 and 2015, as reported by the Ministry of Health of Ecuador. The incidence of LTFU was determined, and clinica...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

Determinants of sputum smear nonconversion in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Suriname, 2010 - 2015.
Conclusion: The National TB program of Suriname should develop strategies to address patients at higher risk for delayed smear conversion to prevent further spreading and unfavorable treatment outcomes. To better inform decision-making and future studies, the NTP should expand its data collection to include all risk factors for delayed smear conversion. PMID: 31892924 [PubMed] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

[Tuberculosis in children and adolescents in Ecuador: analysis of reporting, disease characteristics and treatment outcomeTuberculose em crian ças e adolescentes no Equador: análise da notificação, características da doença e resultados do tratamento].
Conclusions: Ecuador presents a high percentage of under-diagnosis of childhood TB and a lower than expected burden, mainly in children under 5 years of age. The high prevalence of HIV and the lack of adequate systematization of adolescent contact screening suggest the need to consider family-centered strategies that involve training health personnel in the management of pediatric patients, with a focus on the specific needs of each population. PMID: 31892930 [PubMed] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

[Prevalence of comorbidity tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in Paraguay, 2016 and 2017Preval ência de comorbidade tuberculose-diabetes mellitus no Paraguai, 2016 e 2017].
[Prevalence of comorbidity tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in Paraguay, 2016 and 2017Prevalência de comorbidade tuberculose-diabetes mellitus no Paraguai, 2016 e 2017]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2019;43:e105 Authors: Céspedes C, López L, Aguirre S, Mendoza-Ticona A Abstract Objective: To estimate the national and regional prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) co-morbidity and identify the factors associated with this co-morbidity in Paraguay. Methods: Cross-sectional study in patients with TB notified in 2016 and 2017 and registered in the database of the ...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

Environmental correlates of growth patterns in Neolithic Liguria (northwestern Italy)
ConclusionsThe pattern of growth in Ligurian Neolithic children may reflect a deprived and highly-infectious environment: three individuals show skeletal lesions consistent with tuberculosis. The relatively faster growth in infancy may result from the buffering provided by maternal milk. Older children and adolescents may exhibit catch-up growth.SignificanceThis study contributes to our understanding of Neolithic selective pressures and possible biocultural adaptive strategies.LimitationsThe cross-sectional nature of the data and the small sample size make it unclear whether the observed pattern is representative of the gr...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - January 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Morphology of Naturally-Occurring Tuberculosis in Cattle Caused by Mycobacterium caprae
This study describes the pathomorphological alterations of bovine tuberculosis through gross and histopathological examinations, assessment of the distribution of lesions and the demonstration of mycobacteria. Samples from lungs, liver, small intestine, their regional lymph nodes and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected from 84 cattle with tuberculosis from the Allgäu, Germany. Organs were evaluated grossly, histopathologically and by transmission electron microscopy. Mycobacteria and mycobacterial antigens were demonstrated using acid-fast staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Bacteriological tests revealed ...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - January 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Light emitting diode (LED) based fluorescence microscopy for tuberculosis detection: a review
AbstractSince time immemorial, tuberculosis (TB) has intimidated the human race owing to its severity. Its socio-economic burden has led to it being a major cause of concern. It is one of the world ’s major causes of death from a single agent. Since most of the middle- and low-income countries are burdened with TB, sputum smear examination using conventional light microscopy is often the only resort for diagnosing TB. However, fluorescence microscopy is used as standard in most high-income c ountries, owing to its increased sensitivity. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), being inexpensive, are increasingly gaining popular...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - January 3, 2020 Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research

Intensified adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for CNS tuberculomas
ConclusionIn contrast to tuberculous meningitis, the treatment for CNS tuberculomas appears to require a prolonged administration of corticosteroids. These findings need to be verified in controlled clinical studies. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - January 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence of tuberculosis in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy for rheumatic diseases: a systematic review
ConclusionThe incidence of TB in patients with rheumatic diseases exposed TNF inhibitor considering all countries was 9.62 cases per 1000 patients exposed. TB incidence was higher in South America and Asia compared with North America and Europe. Most cases occurred in the first XX months of use, and the pulmonary form predominated.Key Points•Higher incidence of tuberculosis in patients exposed to anti-TNF compared with the general population.• Higher incidence of TB in countries of South America and Asia compared with North America and Europe. (Source: Clinical Rheumatology)
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - January 3, 2020 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Multicenter feasibility study to assess external quality panels for molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis in China
In conclusion, we firstly develop feasible EQA panels for molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis in China. Our data demonstrate that a majority of participating laboratories are able to produce perfect results with molecular diagnostics in China, giving us important hints for the implementation of molecular diagnostics. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - January 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

An 8-year study on the prevalence and drug resistance of mycobacteria in clinical specimens (2011–2018)
In this study, 15829 different clinical specimens were collected at the NRITLD National Tuberculosis Center. A multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) was used to identify mutations related to RIF and INH resistance. The genes involved were katG315, inhA for INH and rpoB516, rpoB526 and rpoB531 for RIF. In total (7528/15829, 47.56%), mycobacterial isolates including 6937 MTBC (43.82%) and 591 NTM (3.73%) were obtained. The frequency of MTBC isolates decreased from 65.17% (2015/3092) in 2011 to 47.06% (1224/2601) in 2018. Among NTM isolates, M. simiae was the most prevalent with 55.33% (327/591). The a...
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - January 2, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Drug-induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients in a referral hospital, Ethiopia
This study intended to determine the prevalence and associated factors of drug-induced hepatotoxicity among tuberculosis... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - January 2, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Abebe Zeleke, Bethelihem Misiker and Teshager Aklilu Yesuf Tags: Research note Source Type: research

Insights on patterns of developmental disturbances from the analysis of linear enamel hypoplasia in a Neolithic sample from Liguria (northwestern Italy)
ConclusionLEH may reflect life-history in the local ecology of Neolithic Liguria, where several individuals with osteoarticular tuberculosis have been recorded. Disease burden may have triggered developmental disturbances around the time of weaning. Age at first defect was negatively correlated with age at death and positively with the total number of defects, suggesting that early stress may have affected survivorship.SignificanceThe study contributes to the reconstruction of ecological pressures among Neolithic people of Liguria, and informs on environmental challenges during the Neolithic adaptive expansion.LimitationsT...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - January 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research