Optimizing ethambutol dosing among HIV/tuberculosis co-infected patients: a population pharmacokinetic modelling and simulation study
ConclusionsLow serum ethambutol concentrations were commonly observed among HIV/TB patients in Botswana, and the oral bioavailability of ethambutol increased following ART initiation. Supplementary ethambutol dosing among HIV/TB patients may provide a strategy to optimize anti-TB treatment regimens in this high-risk population. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Broad-spectrum antibiotic use and poor outcomes in community-onset pneumonia: a cohort study
Question Is broad-spectrum antibiotic use associated with poor outcomes in community-onset pneumonia after adjusting for confounders? Methods We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study of 1995 adults with pneumonia admitted from four US hospital emergency departments. We used multivariable regressions to investigate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on 30-day mortality, length of stay, cost and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). To address indication bias, we developed a propensity score using multilevel (individual provider) generalised linear mixed models to perform inverse-probability of tre...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Webb, B. J., Sorensen, J., Jephson, A., Mecham, I., Dean, N. C. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 2449: Phenolic Compounds as Promising Drug Candidates in Tuberculosis Therapy
Abdullah Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains one of the deadliest, infectious diseases worldwide. The detrimental effects caused by the existing anti-TB drugs to TB patients and the emergence of resistance strains of M. tuberculosis has driven efforts from natural products researchers around the globe in discovering novel anti-TB drugs that are more efficacious and with less side effects. There were eleven main review publications that focused on natural products with anti-TB potentials. However, none of them specifically emphasized antimycobacterial phenolic compounds. Thus, the curr...
Source: Molecules - July 4, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Muhamad Harith Mazlun Siti Fatimah Sabran Maryati Mohamed Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar Zunoliza Abdullah Tags: Review Source Type: research

Outcomes of Stevens –Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in HIV-infected patients when using systemic steroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulins in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Conclusion: HIV-infected SJS and TEN patients were treated in a tertiary dermatology ward with a treatment plan of skin care, and a combination of systemic corticosteroids and IVIG respectively had a survival rate of 97%. (Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine)
Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - July 4, 2019 Category: African Health Authors: Antoinette V. Chateau Source Type: research

Crystal structures of the closed form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase in complex with dihydrofolate and antifolates
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the leading cause of death from a single infectious pathogen, with a high prevalence in developing countries in Africa and Asia. There still is a need for the development or repurposing of novel therapies to combat this disease owing to the long-term nature of current therapies and because of the number of reported resistant strains. Here, structures of dihydrofolate reductase from M.   tuberculosis (MtDHFR), which is a key target of the folate pathway, are reported in complex with four antifolates, pyrimethamine, cycloguanil, diaverdine and pemetre...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section D - July 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ribeiro, J.A. Chavez-Pacheco, S.M. de Oliveira, G.S. Silva, C.S. Giudice, J.H.P. Libreros-Z ú ñ iga, G.A. Dias, M.V.B. Tags: dihydrofolate reductase Mycobacterium tuberculosis antifolates crystal structure research papers Source Type: research

Application of transforaminal-lumbar interbody fusion technology combined with lesion clearance and chemotherapy via catheter for the treatment of spinal tuberculosis.
In conclusion, in the present study, application of TCLC for the treatment of spinal TB achieved satisfactory healing of lesions. The surgical treatment for spinal TB comprised the removal of the disease as far as possible, and the local administration of anti-TB chemotherapy to the lesion is key to successful treatment. PMID: 31258637 [PubMed] (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - July 3, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Primary tonsillar tuberculosis - case report.
We report the case of a 44-year-old male patient with tonsillar tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed in the Department of Ear, Nose & Throat (ENT), "Victor Babeş" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, Romania. The patient addressed to our Clinic with intense odynophagia, referred otalgia, sore throat, fever periods and weight loss. During the ENT clinical exam, we identified an enlarged left tonsil, partially covered with yellowish-white plaque, with ulceration and bleeding spots localized on tonsillar inferior pole. A high suspicion of tonsillar malignancy was raised, and a biopsy was performed revealing ...
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - July 3, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research

Chronic foot pain, an atypical tuberculosis presentation.
Authors: Maignant AF, Salvator H, Montigny JP, Gonin F, Mellot F, Couderc LJ, Catherinot E PMID: 31257061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses)
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - July 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research

Yield of systematic household contact investigation for tuberculosis in a high-burden metropolitan district of South Africa
Systematic household contact investigation (SHCI) is recommended as an active-case-finding (ACF) strategy to identify individuals at high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection, in order to enable early detection... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - July 3, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: N. Gladys Kigozi, J. Christo Heunis and Michelle C. Engelbrecht Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Prevalence of chest symptomatics of tuberculosis among diabetes patients in Udupi taluk
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global HealthAuthor(s): Swapnil NimkarAbstractContextDiabetes is becoming prevalent dramatically in the Asian countries. In India, 15% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are attributed to diabetes mellitus (DM).Objectives1. To determine the prevalence of chest symptomatics among diabetes patients in Udupi taluk. 2. To assess the factors associated with diabetes mellitus which might predispose to tuberculosis.Methods and materialA cross-sectional study was done from March 2013 to Aug 2013. Convenience sampling was adopted. Interviews of 132 diabetes pat...
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - July 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Two-Hit in vitro T-Cell Stimulation Detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in QuantiFERON Negative Tuberculosis Patients and Healthy Contacts From Ghana
IFN- release assays (e.g. QuantiFERON (QFT)) are widely used for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. T-cell responses against QFT antigens ESAT6 and CFP10 are highly Mtb specific but previous studies indicated suboptimal assay sensitivity. Especially for potentially infected healthy contacts (HCs) of tuberculosis patients, alternative antigen usage and more sensitive tests may contribute to improved detection of latent Mtb infection. In a pilot case-control study of tuberculosis patients (n=22) and HCs (n=20) from Ghana, we performed multifaceted in vitro assays to identify optimal assay conditions...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Insights From the Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium paragordonae, a Potential Novel Live Vaccine for Preventing Mycobacterial Infections: The Putative Role of Type VII Secretion Systems for an Intracellular Lifestyle Within Free-Living Environmental Predators
In this study, we report the complete 6.7-Mb genome sequence of Mpg and show that this genome comprises four different plasmids with lengths of 305 kb (pMpg-1), 144 kb (pMpg-2), 26 kb (pMpg-3) and 17 kb (pMpg-4). The first two plasmids, pMpg-1 and -2, encode distinct Type VII secretion systems (T7SS), ESX-P5 and ESX-2, respectively. Genome-based phylogeny indicated that Mpg is the closest relative to M. gordonae, which has a 7.7-Mb genome; phylogenetic analysis revealed an average of 86.68% nucleotide identity between these two species. The most important feature of Mpg genome is the acquisition of massive genes related to...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recombinant BCG With Bacterial Signaling Molecule Cyclic di-AMP as Endogenous Adjuvant Induces Elevated Immune Responses After Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
In this study, we constructed a recombinant BCG (rBCG) by overexpressing DisA, the diadenylate cyclase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and observed the physiological changes of rBCG-DisA. The immunological characteristics of rBCG-DisA were investigated on humoral and cellar immune responses in a mice infection model. Our study demonstrated that overexpression of DisA in BCG does not affect the growth but reduces the length of BCG. rBCG-DisA-immunized mice show similar humoral and cellar immune responses in BCG-immunized mice. After Mtb infection, the splenic lymphocytes from both BCG and rBCG-DisA-immunized mice produ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bactericidal Effect of the Leaf Extract from Musa spp. (AAB Group, Silk Subgroup), cv. “Manzano” Against Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Journal of Medicinal Food, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Medicinal Food)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Food - July 3, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gloria Mar ía Molina-Salinas Andr és Humberto Uc-Cachón Luis Manuel Pe ña-Rodríguez Angel de Jes ús Dzul-Beh Rosa Mar ía Escobedo García-Medrano Source Type: research

Management of active tuberculosis in adults with HIV
Publication date: July 2019Source: The Lancet HIV, Volume 6, Issue 7Author(s): Graeme Meintjes, James C M Brust, James Nuttall, Gary MaartensSummaryEvery year, about 1 million people living with HIV worldwide develop tuberculosis. Although the drug regimens used to treat tuberculosis in these patients are the same as those used in HIV-negative patients, cotreatment of tuberculosis with antiretroviral therapy involves challenges including the optimal timing of antiretroviral initiation, drug-drug interactions, drug tolerability, and the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. Furt...
Source: The Lancet HIV - July 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preservation of cytotoxic granule production in response to mycobacterial antigens by T-lymphocytes from vertically HIV-infected Brazilian youth on effective combined antiretroviral therapy
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Mauro Pedromonico Arrym, Paulo César Martins Alves, Mariana Virginello Castelhano, Taís Nitsch Mazzola, Renata Muller Banzato Pinto de Lemos, Tânia Regina Zaccariotto, Carlos Emilio Levy, Fernando Guimarães, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da SilvaAbstractBackgroundHIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial an...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Needs assessment for a formal emergency medicine residency program in southern Madagascar
ConclusionsWhile the needs assessment indicates substantial need for emergency medicine development in southern Madagascar, the yield (particularly for the metropolitan Fianarantsoa area) would serve the population well. (Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine - July 2, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical presentation and diagnostic work up of suspected pulmonary embolism in a district hospital emergency centre serving a high HIV/TB burden population
ConclusionsPE remains a diagnostic challenge. In our study, the retrospectively calculated CDR was not predictive of PE in a population with a high prevalence of HIV and TB. Emergency physicians should be cautious when making a clinical probability assessment of PE in this setting. However, further studies are needed to develop a predictive CDR for the local environment. (Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine - July 2, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Comparing tuberculosis in children aged under 5 versus 5 to 14  years old in a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia: an 18-year retrospective cross-sectional study
There are few data available about childhood tuberculosis (TB) in rural hospitals in low-income countries. We assessed differences in epidemiological characteristics and treatment outcomes in children with TB ... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - July 2, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Jos é M. Ramos, Mario Pérez-Butragueño, Abraham Tesfamariam, Francisco Reyes, Gebre Tiziano, Jacob Endirays, Seble Balcha, Tamasghen Elala, Dejene Biru, Belén Comeche and Miguel Górgolas Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Is tuberculosis patients management improved in the integrated TB control model in West China? A survey in Guizhou Province, China
ConclusionsTPM under the integrated model in West China is still low and need further improvement, and the impeding factors of TPM need to be addressed. Strengthening patient-centered and community-based TPM and developing more feasible approaches of TPM delivery should be explored in future research in this region. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - July 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Corrigendum: The Emerging Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Tuberculosis
(Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human Antimicrobial RNases Inhibit Intracellular Bacterial Growth and Induce Autophagy in Mycobacteria-Infected Macrophages
The development of novel treatment against tuberculosis is a priority global health challenge. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides offer a multifaceted mechanism suitable to fight bacterial resistance. Within the RNaseA superfamily we find a group of highly cationic proteins secreted by innate immune cells with anti-infective and immune-regulatory properties. In this work, we have tested the human canonical members of the RNase family using a spot-culture growth inhibition assay (SPOTi)-based mycobacteria-infected macrophage model for evaluating their anti-tubercular properties. Out of the seven tested recombinant human RN...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CarD contributes to diverse gene expression outcomes throughout the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Microbiology]
The ability to regulate gene expression through transcription initiation underlies the adaptability and survival of all bacteria. Recent work has revealed that the transcription machinery in many bacteria diverges from the paradigm that has been established in Escherichia coli. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding protein CarD, which... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 2, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dennis X. Zhu, Ashley L. Garner, Eric A. Galburt, Christina L. Stallings Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Strengthening tuberculosis surveillance in Canada.
PMID: 31266792 [PubMed - in process] (Source: cmaj)
Source: cmaj - July 2, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Haworth-Brockman MJ, Keynan Y Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research

Rifamycin derivatives active against pathogenic rapidly-growing mycobacteria.
This study demonstrates that modification of the rifampicin scaffold can restore rifampicin activity against the three most commonly isolated pathogenic RGM species including Mab. We also note that the structure-activity relationship for Mab is different as compared to the non-pathogenic RGM species Mycobacterium smegmatis. PMID: 31281018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters)
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters - July 2, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Combrink KD, Ramos AR, Spring S, Schmidl S, Elizondo K, Morin P, De Jesus B, Maurer FP Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Lett Source Type: research

Bis(benzoyl) phosphate inactivators of beta-lactamase C from Mtb.
Abstract The class A β-lactamase BlaC is a cell surface expressed serine hydrolase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), one of the causative agents for Tuberculosis in humans. Mtb has demonstrated increased susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics upon inactivation of BlaC; thus, making BlaC a rational enzyme target for therapeutic agents. Herein, we present the synthesis and structure-activity-relationship data for the 1st-generation library of bis(benzoyl) phosphates (1-10). Substituent effects ranged from σp = -0.27 to 0.78 for electronic and π = -0.41 to 1.98 for hydrophobic parameters...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters - July 2, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: White DS, Choy CJ, Moural TW, Martin SE, Wang J, Gargaro S, Kang C, Berkman CE Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Lett Source Type: research

[Cross-resistance between isoniazid and ethionamide and its strong association with mutation C-15T in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Peru].
The objective of this study was to determine the cross-resistance between both drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from a hospital with high incidence of tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. The frequency of mutations to isoniazid in the katG gene and the inhA promoter region was identified by the Genotype MTBDRplus v2.0 molecular test. The gold standard Agar Proportion method (APM) allowed todetect resistance to isoniazid and ethionamide. Of 107 isoniazid-resistant isolates (54 multidrug-resistant isolates identified by the Genotype MTBDRplus test, 45.8% (49/107) were also resistant to ethionamide by the APM. Mutations we...
Source: Revista Argentina de Microbiologia - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Rev Argent Microbiol Source Type: research

Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in HIV-1-infected patients with high-risk hematological disorders
Conclusion: Allogeneic HSCT is an effective therapy for high-risk hematological malignancies in patients with HIV infection, and long-term HIV suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy is feasible. However, drug interactions with antiretroviral agents, occurrence of GVHD, and frequent infectious complications account for a complex procedure in this population. Selected HIV-infected patients with hematologic malignancies should be considered for allo-HSCT when indicated, in experienced centers. (Source: AIDS)
Source: AIDS - July 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Pulmonary tuberculosis mimicking radiation pneumonitis in a patient with neck malignancy: A case report
Rationale: Primary or reactivation pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is frequent in immunocompromised patients such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chronic renal failure, poorly controlled diabetes, and hematologic malignancy. Immune system of patients with solid-organ cancer can be also altered by malignancy itself or chemotherapy. However, information on the effect of radiation on patient's immunity is scarce. Herein, we present a case of pulmonary TB occurring in a radiation field that mimics focal radiation pneumonitis in a patient who has received curative chemoradiation therapy for neck malign...
Source: Medicine - July 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess with Pott disease and tuberculous abscess of the chest wall: A case report
Rationale: Tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess is rare, but it can be fatal if not treated appropriately. It usually occurs secondary to tuberculosis of the cervical spine. Moreover, tuberculous abscess involving the chest wall is relatively rare in skeletal tuberculosis. Although the optimal treatment is controversial, most clinicians suggest a combination of sufficient antituberculous medication and complete resection to prevent recurrence and increase therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we present an unusual case of retropharyngeal abscess with cervical Pott disease and tuberculous abscess of the chest wall. Patient concer...
Source: Medicine - July 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Cryptococcal pleuritis with pleural effusion as the only clinical presentation in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis: A case report and literature review
Rationale: Cryptococcosis is a significant life-threatening fungal infection in worldwide, mainly reported in immunocompromised patients. Pleural effusion presentation of cryptococcal infection as the only clinical presentation is rarely seen in pulmonary cryptococcosis, which may lead to be misdiagnosed, and the study on this subject will provide further insights. Patient concerns: A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in our department and diagnosed as hepatic B cirrhosis. A computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a massive right pleural effusion without pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. He was started on empi...
Source: Medicine - July 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Aerosol immunization by alginate coated mycobacterium (BCG/MIP) particles provide enhanced immune response and protective efficacy than aerosol of plain mycobacterium against M.tb. H37Rv infection in mice
With the aim of preparing a more effective, safe and economical vaccine for tuberculosis, inhalable live mycobacterium formulations were evaluated. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Puja S. Nagpal, Ashwani Kesarwani, Parul Sahu and Pramod Upadhyay Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A nationwide study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Portugal 2014 –2017 using epidemiological and molecular clustering analyses
Increasing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) incidence is a major threat against TB eradication worldwide. We aim to conduct a detailed MDR-TB study in Portugal, an European country with endemic TB, co... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Olena Oliveira, Rita Gaio, Carlos Carvalho, Margarida Correia-Neves, Raquel Duarte and Teresa Rito Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Imaging of Tuberculosis in Resource-Limited Settings
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo describe the imaging findings of tuberculosis with different imaging modalities, as well as the current usage and importance of imaging tuberculosis in resource-limited settings.Recent findingsPrimary pulmonary tuberculosis can manifest as lung parenchymal disease, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, and/or miliary disease. Differentiating features of post-primary tuberculosis include cavitation, bilateral tree-in-bud nodules, and an absence of lymphadenopathy. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can involve nearly any organ system, including the heart, central nervous system, bones and abdominal organs....
Source: Current Radiology Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Auranofin activity exposes thioredoxin reductase as a viable drug target in Mycobacterium abscessus.
Abstract Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are highly drug-resistant, opportunistic pathogens that can cause pulmonary disease. Outcomes of currently recommended treatment regimens are poor, especially for M. abscessus New or repurposed drugs are direly needed. Auranofin, a gold-based antirheumatic agent, was investigated for M. tuberculosis. Here, we test auranofin against NTM, in vitro and ex vivoWe tested the susceptibility of 63 NTM isolates to auranofin using broth microdilution. Next, we assessed synergy between auranofin and antimycobacterial drugs using the checkerboard method and calculated the fractiona...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruth MM, van Rossum M, Koeken VACM, Pennings L, Svensson EM, Ruessen C, Bowles EC, Wertheim HFL, Hoefsloot W, van Ingen J Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Acquisition of cross-resistance to Bedaquiline and Clofazimine following treatment for Tuberculosis in Pakistan.
This study underlines the relevance of surveillance programs following the introduction of new drugs. PMID: 31262765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghodousi A, Rizvi AH, Baloch AQ, Ghafoor A, Khanzada FM, Qadir M, Borroni E, Trovato A, Tahseen S, Cirillo DM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Association between Tuberculosis, Statin Use, and Diabetes: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.
Abstract Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties that may affect the development of tuberculosis (TB). We assessed the association between use of statins and the risk of active TB by propensity score matching. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of statins on TB in patients according to the presence or absence of diabetes. The study was based on the National Health Insurance database and its subset database of the "medical checkup" population of South Korea. We identified 123,468 statin users and 439,546 non-statin users. After propensity score matching, 28,018 statin users and the...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kim MC, Yun SC, Lee SO, Choi SH, Kim YS, Woo JH, Kim SH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Preservation of cytotoxic granule production in response to mycobacterial antigens by T-lymphocytes from vertically HIV-infected Brazilian youth on effective combined antiretroviral therapy.
MTND Abstract BACKGROUND: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - July 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arrym MP, Alves PCM, Castelhano MV, Mazzola TN, Lemos RMBP, Zaccariotto TR, Levy CE, Guimarães F, Silva MTND Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pleural Effusions Associated with Spinal Tuberculosis
Unusual complications of spinal tuberculosis include not only bilateral pleural effusions, where both effusions occur simultaneously, as in the recent case report (1). There is also the example of a 25-year-old man with spinal tuberculosis, and in whom the right-sided pleural effusion appeared at the time when the left-sided pleural effusion was resolving in response to antituberculous chemotherapy (2). (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - July 1, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Oscar M. Jolobe Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Pleural Effusions Associated with Spinal Tuberculosis
The Reply: (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - July 1, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ravindra Kumar Garg Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Kimura disease with nephrotic syndrome in a child- A rare association.
Abstract Lymphadenopathy along with various systemic manifestations is commonly encountered in pediatric patients, tuberculosis being the commonest etiology. Occasional patients may present a diagnostic conundrum. Here, the authors report an unusual manifestation of Kimura disease (KD) presenting as nephrotic syndrome associated with mesenteric lymphadenitis in an 11-year-old male child. KD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It typically affects young adult males in the age range of 27-40 years and usually presents as painless itchy nodular masses in the head and neck region. The involvement o...
Source: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Majumder A, Sen D Tags: Indian J Pathol Microbiol Source Type: research

[Molecular Mechanisms of Non-Inherited Antibiotic Tolerance in Bacteria and Archaea].
Abstract The phenomenon of bacterial persistence, also known as non-inherited antibiotic tolerance in a part of bacterial populations, was described more than 70 years ago. This type of tolerance contributes to the chronization of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. Currently, the emergence of persistent cells in bacterial populations is associated with the functioning of some stress-induced molecular triggers, including toxin-antitoxin systems. In the presented review, genetic and metabolic peculiarities of persistent cells are considered and the mechanisms of their occurrence are discussed. The hypothes...
Source: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia - July 1, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Khlebodarova TM, Likhoshvai VA Tags: Mol Biol (Mosk) Source Type: research

The Critical Role of Infectious Disease in Compensatory Population Growth in Response to Culling.
I, Boots M Abstract Despite the ubiquity of disease in nature, the role that disease dynamics play in the compensatory growth response to harvesting has been ignored. We use a mathematical approach to show that harvesting can lead to compensatory growth due to a release from disease-induced mortality. Our findings imply that culling in systems that harbor virulent parasites can reduce disease prevalence and increase population density. Our models predict that this compensation occurs for a broad range of infectious disease characteristics unless the disease induces long-lasting immunity in hosts. Our key insight ...
Source: The American Naturalist - June 30, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Tanner E, White A, Lurz PWW, Gortázar C, Díez-Delgado I, Boots M Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Comparative performance of QuantiFERON-TB ® Gold versus skin test with tuberculosis recombinant allergen (Diaskintest®) among patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide and the primary cause of death due to any single infectious agent. In 2017, approximately 10 million people developed TB, and 1.3 million died from the disease (WHO 2018). According to a recent estimate, approximately 1.7 billion people have latent TB infection (LTBI, (RMGJ and Dodd, 2016)) which can be progress to active TB during the lifetime. As long as individuals with LTBI exist, TB elimination will not be feasible (ECDC 2018). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Irina Y. Nikitina, Natalya L. Karpina, Olga V. Kasimceva, Vladislav Y. Gergert, Atadzhan Ergeshov, Irina V. Lyadova Source Type: research

Comparative performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold versus skin test with tuberculosis recombinant allergen (Diaskintest) among patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Russia
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide and the primary cause of death due to any single infectious agent. In 2017, approximately 10 million people developed TB, and 1.3 million died from the disease (WHO, 2018). According to a recent estimate, approximately 1.7 billion people have a latent TB infection (LTBI) (Houben and Dodd, 2016), which can progress to active TB during the person ’s lifetime. As long as individuals with LTBI exist, TB elimination will not be feasible (ECDC, 2018). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Irina Y. Nikitina, Natalya L. Karpina, Olga V. Kasimceva, Vladislav Y. Gergert, Atadzhan Ergeshov, Irina V. Lyadova Source Type: research

Clinical impact of using fluoroquinolone with low antimycobacterial activity on treatment delay in tuberculosis: Hospital-based and population-based cohort study
ConclusionsWhile limited by relatively low case number, our study showed that use of gemifloxacin neither results in nor reduces delay in TB treatment. The issue of FQ use on TB treatment delay was also not observed in our study. Early survey and maintaining high clinical alertness remains the key to reducing TB treatment delay. (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - June 29, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Status of vitamin D and the associated host factors in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts: a cross sectional study
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Sudhasini Panda, Ambrish Tiwari, Kalpana Luthra, S.K. Sharma, Archana SinghAbstractInnate immunity plays an important role in pathophysiology of tuberculosis which is influenced by various host factors. One such factor is vitamin D which, along with its associated molecule, can alter the host defense against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.Tb.) via altered production of cathelicidin and nitric oxide, both having bactericidal effect. Therefore, assessment of vitamin D and its associated molecules in tuber...
Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - June 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Synergy between Th1 and Th2 responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: A review of current understanding.
Authors: Abebe F Abstract Induction of Th1 (cell-mediated) immunity and associated production of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells has been widely used as a marker of protective immunity against tuberculosis (TB). This is based on two assumptions. The first is the widely accepted view that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB is an obligate intracellular pathogen, and the second is based on the Th1/Th2 paradigm, which posits that polarization of CD4+ T cells into type1 (cell-mediated) and type 2 (humoral) is central for proper induction of protective immunity against pathogens. However, almost all ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Self-defense of macrophages against oxidative injury: Fighting for their own survival
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): László Virag, Rafael I. Jaén, Zsolt Regdon, Lisardo Boscá, Patricia PrietoAbstractMacrophages play a central role in both the development and resolution of inflammation. Macrophages need to stay alive in harmful conditions. However, activated macrophages are important sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, but are also targets of these same molecules. Since macrophages perform their tasks in a “hostile” environment, they often fall victim to death-inducing stimuli. Various forms of macrophage cel...
Source: Redox Biology - June 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cervical cancer in Tanzania: A systematic review of current challenges in six domains
Publication date: August 2019Source: Gynecologic Oncology Reports, Volume 29Author(s): Ava S. Runge, Megan E. Bernstein, Alexa N. Lucas, Krishnansu S. TewariAbstractCervical cancer is the most common cancer in Tanzania. After excluding human immunodeficiency virus, lower respiratory infections, malaria, diarrheal diseases, and tuberculosis, cervical cancer kills more women than any other form of illness in the country. Unfortunately, Tanzania has a low doctor-to-patient ratio (1:50,000) and nearly 7000 women die each year from this disease. The clinical problem is further magnified by the country's lack of resources and pr...
Source: Gynecologic Oncology Reports - June 28, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research