A comprehensive immune repertoire study for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
ConclusionIn conclusion, we studied the patients with tuberculosis as well as healthy control individuals in order to understand the characteristics of immune repertoire. Sharing of CDR3 sequences and differential expression of genes was found among the patients with tuberculosis which could be used for the development of potential vaccine and targets treatment. (Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine)
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - June 7, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yingyun Fu, Bo Li, Yazhen Li, Minlian Wang, Yongjian Yue, Lan Xu, Shulin Li, Qijun Huang, Song Liu, Yong Dai Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: We found Xpert MTB/RIF to be sensitive and specific for diagnosing PTB and rifampicin resistance, consistent with findings reported previously. Xpert MTB/RIF was more sensitive for tuberculosis in smear-positive than smear-negative participants and HIV-negative than HIV-positive participants. Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra had higher sensitivity and lower specificity for tuberculosis and similar sensitivity and specificity for rifampicin resistance (1 study). Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra provide accurate results and can allow rapid initiation of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - June 7, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Horne DJ, Kohli M, Zifodya JS, Schiller I, Dendukuri N, Tollefson D, Schumacher SG, Ochodo EA, Pai M, Steingart KR Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

HIV/AIDS in small cities in Midwest Santa Catarina, south of Brazil: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, opportunistic infections.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection follows the national trend, but hepatitis B and C coinfection rates were higher, while tuberculosis rate was lower. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Functional and structural investigations of fibronectin-binding protein Apa from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ConclusionsThe structural and Fn-binding characteristics we reported here provide molecular insights into the multifunctional protein Mtb Apa. FnIII-4 and FnIII-5 of CBD are the only two modules contributing to Apa-Fn interaction.General significanceThis is the first study to report the structure and Fn-binding characteristics of mycobacterial Apa. Since Apa plays a central role in stimulating immune responses and host cells adhesion, these results are of great importance in understanding the pathogenesis of mycobacterium. This information shall provide a guidance for the development of anti-mycobacteria regimen.Graphical ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - June 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Utility of a clinical scoring system in prioritizing TB investigations - a systematic review.
Authors: Jensen SB, Rudolf F, Wejse C Abstract Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the ten most common causes of death worldwide and it is the leading cause of mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Clinical scoring systems have the potential to improve case finding and to prioritize patients for TB testing. Areas covered: This systematic review investigated the utility of prediction models to improve pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) case finding. Studies were searched through PubMed until 15th of August 2018 and 20 studies were eligible according to the inclusion criteria. Data on study popu...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

[Epidemiologic and etiologic patterns of uveitis in a University Hospital].
Authors: Neiter E, Conart JB, Baumann C, Rousseau H, Zuily S, Angioi-Duprez K Abstract INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of adult uveitis evaluated at the regional center of excellence specializing in systemic and autoimmune disease in the Nancy university medical center. The secondary objectives were to describe the progression over time of the various etiologies and to identify local specificities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective epidemiological study of patients diagnosed with uveitis. All patients were referred to the regional cente...
Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - June 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research

Integrated bioinformatics analysis and validation revealed potential immune-regulatory miR-892b, miR-199b-5p and miR-582–5p as diagnostic biomarkers in active tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Yunbin Zhang, Xiaolin Zhang, Zhangyan Zhao, Yuling Zheng, Zhen Xiao, Feng LiAbstractTuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent pulmonary diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MiRNAs (miRNAs) participate in TB progression by modulating the host-pathogen interaction. Bioinformatics advancements provide basis for exploring novel immunoregulatory miRNAs and their performance as diagnostic biomarkers. Gene and miRNA expression datasets, GSE29190 and GSE54992, were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Base...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Seasonality of newly notified pulmonary tuberculosis in Japan, 2007 –2015
The seasonality of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) incidence may indicate season-specific risk factors that could be controlled if they were better understood. The aims of this study were to elucidate how the inci... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - June 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toshie Manabe, Jin Takasaki and Koichiro Kudo Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Treatment of latent infection to achieve tuberculosis elimination in low-incidence countries
by Jonathon R. Campbell, David Dowdy, Kevin Schwartzman In a Perspective for the Tuberculosis Special Issue, Kevin Schwartzman and colleagues discuss the choices and implications for personal versus public health benefits when pursuing tuberculosis elimination in low-incidence countries. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - June 6, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jonathon R. Campbell Source Type: research

Association of CKD with Incident Tuberculosis.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The incidence and risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in people with predialysis CKD has rarely been studied, although CKD prevalence is increasing in certain countries where Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic. We aimed to investigate the association between predialysis CKD and active Mycobacterium tuberculosis risks in a nation with moderate Mycobacterium tuberculosis risk. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the National Health Insurance Database of Korea, screening 17,020,339 people who received ...
Source: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN - June 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Park S, Lee S, Kim Y, Lee Y, Kang MW, Cho S, Han K, Han SS, Lee H, Lee JP, Joo KW, Lim CS, Kim YS, Kim DK Tags: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol Source Type: research

T-SPOT®.TB test and clinical risk scoring for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Waralee Aksornchindarat, Napat Yodpinij, Benjawan Phetsuksiri, Sopa Srisungngam, Janisara Rudeeaneksin, Supranee Bunchoo, Wiphat Klayut, Somchai Sangkitporn, Thana KhawcharoenpornAbstractBackgroundScreening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important to identify healthcare workers (HCWs) benefiting from preventive therapy. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are sensitive and specific tests for LTBI diagnosis. However, in settings where IGRAs are not available, clinical risk assessment may be used...
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predictors of time to sputum smear conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis under treatment.
This study aims to ascertain the time to sputum conversion in patients with smear-positive P-TB under treatment, and the variables associated with time to smear conversion. We retrospectively evaluated the time to sputum smear conversion of 89 patients with smearpositive P-TB undergoing treatment at the S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna (Italy), a referral centre for the diagnosis of TB. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to document variables independently associated with time to conversion. Median time to sputum smear conversion was 24 days (IQR 12-54); the sputum smear converted within the ...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Building sustainable operational research capacity in Pakistan: starting with tuberculosis and expanding to other public health problems.
Conclusions: The SORT IT course has been an effective way to build operational research capacity at national level and this has resulted in a large number of published papers providing local evidence for decision making on TB and other disease control programmes. The experience from Pakistan should stimulate other countries to adopt the SORT-IT model. PMID: 31154986 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Global Health Action)
Source: Global Health Action - June 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research

Prevalence, Safety and Long-Term Retention Rates of Biologics in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2015
ConclusionThis population-based study revealed an increasing prevalence of biologic prescribing. Results from the study described the long-term retention rates and incidence rates of serious infections of biologic treatments for all indications, and confirmed the safety of biologic treatments. Since this study provides an overview of all biologic utilization, further studies on cost effectiveness, safety and compliance of treatment in different patient groups are still warranted. (Source: Drug Safety)
Source: Drug Safety - June 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate early protective immunity against tuberculosis
Nature, Published online: 05 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1276-2Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are recruited to the lung and involved in the immune response to infection with tuberculosis in humans and mice, as a reduction in group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the lung impaired early immune control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Amanda Ardain Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez Shibali Das Samuel W. Kazer Nicole C. Howard Alveera Singh Mushtaq Ahmed Shepherd Nhamoyebonde Javier Rangel-Moreno Paul Ogongo Lan Lu Duran Ramsuran Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez Tyler K. Ulland Matthew Darby Eug Source Type: research

Reducing tuberculosis transmission: a consensus document from the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe
Evidence-based guidance is needed on 1) how tuberculosis (TB) infectiousness evolves in response to effective treatment and 2) how the TB infection risk can be minimised to help countries to implement community-based, outpatient-based care. This document aims to 1) review the available evidence on how quickly TB infectiousness responds to effective treatment (and which factors can lower or boost infectiousness), 2) review policy options on the infectiousness of TB patients relevant to the World Health Organization European Region, 3) define limitations of the available evidence and 4) provide recommendations for further re...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - June 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Migliori, G. B., Nardell, E., Yedilbayev, A., D'Ambrosio, L., Centis, R., Tadolini, M., van den Boom, M., Ehsani, S., Sotgiu, G., Dara, M. Tags: Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Solution structure and backbone dynamics for S1 domain of ribosomal protein S1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract The pro-drug pyrazinamide is hydrolyzed to pyrazinoic acid (POA) in its use for the treatment of tuberculosis. As a molecule with bactericidal activity, POA binds to the C-terminal S1 domain of ribosomal protein S1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtRpsACTD_S1) to inhibit trans-translation. Trans-translation is a critical component of protein synthesis quality control, and is mediated by transfer-messenger RNA. Here, we have determined the solution structure of MtRpsACTD_S1(280-368), and analyzed its structural dynamics by NMR spectroscopy. The solution structure of MtRpsACTD_S1(280-368) mainly consists o...
Source: European Biophysics Journal : EBJ - June 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Huang B, Fan S, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Lin D, Liao X Tags: Eur Biophys J Source Type: research

Resistance Reversed in KatG Mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract A peptidomimetic containing a thiazolo ring-fused 2-pyridone (C10) has now been reported to inhibit hypoxia-induced tolerance to isoniazid (INH) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Flentie et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2019). The C10 compound could also potentiate the bactericidal activity in aerobically grown bacilli, prevented selection of drug-resistant strains, and reversed INH resistance in katG (catalase-peroxidase) mutants. PMID: 31176512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Machado P, Bizarro CV, Basso LA Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

T-SPOT ®.TB test and clinical risk scoring for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers.
T-SPOT®.TB test and clinical risk scoring for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2019 Jun 05;: Authors: Aksornchindarat W, Yodpinij N, Phetsuksiri B, Srisungngam S, Rudeeaneksin J, Bunchoo S, Klayut W, Sangkitporn S, Khawcharoenporn T Abstract BACKGROUND: Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important to identify healthcare workers (HCWs) benefiting from preventive therapy. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are sensitive and specific tests for LTBI diagnosis. However, in settings where IGRAs are not available...
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aksornchindarat W, Yodpinij N, Phetsuksiri B, Srisungngam S, Rudeeaneksin J, Bunchoo S, Klayut W, Sangkitporn S, Khawcharoenporn T Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research

Potential efficiency of conventional and advanced approaches used to detect Mycobacterium bovis in cattle
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Abdelazeem M. Algammal, Ali Wahdan, Mahmoud M. ElhaigAbstractThe present study was aimed to assess the prevalence and efficiency of techniques for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Gamma interferon assay (IFN-γ) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in comparison to skin tuberculin test and culture technique. A total of 2600 cross-breed dairy cattle in Menoufia and Daqahlia governorates were tested by the single intradermal tuberculin test where the disease prevalence was ...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

MTB driven B cells producing IL-35 and secreting high level of IL-10 in the patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis
Publication date: August 2019Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 112Author(s): You-Chao Dai, Wan-Dang Wang, Jun-Ai Zhang, Chen Chen, Hou-Long Luo, Huan Xu, Ying Peng, Hong Luo, Xu-Ran Yang, Xinchun Chen, Xian-Jin Wu, Guang-Hui Chen, Zheng W. Chen, Jun-Fa XuAbstractRegulatory B cells (Bregs) have critical roles as a negative regulator of immunity, mainly due to the fact that it secrets high a level of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Recently, a new subset of Bregs was identified as a key source of IL-35, which is an immunosuppressive cytokine and conventionally thought to be secreted by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Our previous stu...
Source: Molecular Immunology - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammatory bowel disease and mycobacteria: how much can we trust isoniazid prophylaxis during antitumor necrosis factor therapy?
Conclusion INH chemoprophylaxis may not prevent the reactivation of TB during anti-TNF therapy in the long-term. Patients should be carefully and periodically screened for TB reactivation during anti-TNF therapy. (Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - June 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Effects of Host, Sample, and in vitro Culture on Genomic Diversity of Pathogenic Mycobacteria
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), an obligate human pathogen and the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a major threat to global public health. Comparative genomics has been invaluable for monitoring the emergence and spread of TB and for gaining insight into adaptation of M. tb. Most genomic studies of M. tb are based on single bacterial isolates that have been cultured for several weeks in vitro. However, in its natural human host, M. tb comprises complex, in some cases massive bacterial populations that diversify over the course of infection and cannot be wholly represented by a single genome. Recently, e...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - June 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Incidence of adverse reactions caused by first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and treatment outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Morocco
ConclusionAdverse reactions caused by anti-TB drugs are frequent among patients with TB. These ADRs must be followed up by a closer monitoring during anti-TB treatment period. Treatment success outcome in our study is slightly lower than the success rate target of WHO of at least 85%. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

MmpL3 is a lipid transporter that binds trehalose monomycolate and phosphatidylethanolamine [Biochemistry]
The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is notable for the abundance of mycolic acids (MAs), essential to mycobacterial viability, and of other species-specific lipids. The mycobacterial cell envelope is extremely hydrophobic, which contributes to virulence and antibiotic resistance. However, exactly how fatty acids and lipidic elements are transported across the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 4, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Chih-Chia Su, Philip A. Klenotic, Jani Reddy Bolla, Georgiana E. Purdy, Carol V. Robinson, Edward W. Yu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Clinical and epidemiological features of paracoccidioidomycosis due to < i > Paracoccidioides lutzii < /i >
Conclusions/SignificanceCompared with the classical clinical-epidemiological profile of PCM caused byP.brasiliensis, the results of this descriptive study did not show significant clinical or epidemiological differences that could be attributed to the speciesP.lutzii. Future studies may confirm or refute the existence of clinical differences between the two fungal species. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 4, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rosane Christine Hahn Source Type: research

Recombinant production of ESAT-6 antigen in thermoinducible Escherichia coli: the role of culture scale and temperature on metabolic response, expression of chaperones, and architecture of inclusion bodies.
;n MA Abstract The heat-inducible expression system has been widely used to produce recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. However, the rise in temperature affects cell growth, activates the bacterial Heat-Shock Response (HSR), and promotes the formation of insoluble protein aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs). In this work, we evaluate the effect of the culture scale (shake flasks and bioreactors) and induction temperature (39 and 42 °C) on the kinetic behavior of thermoinducible recombinant E. coli ATCC 53606 producing rESAT-6 (6-kDa early-secretory antigenic target from Mycobacterium tubercul...
Source: Cell Stress and Chaperones - June 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Restrepo-Pineda S, Bando-Campos CG, Valdez-Cruz NA, Trujillo-Roldán MA Tags: Cell Stress Chaperones Source Type: research

Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,4,5-trisubstituted thiazoles as antituberculosis agents effective against drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Abstract The dormant and resistant form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a challenge in developing new anti-tubercular drugs. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of trisubstituted thiazoles as antituberculosis agents. The SAR study has identified a requirement of hydrophobic substituent at C2, ester functionality at C4, and various groups with hydrogen bond acceptor character at C5 of thiazole scaffold. This has led to the identification of 13h and 13p as lead compounds. These compounds inhibited the dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra strain and M. tuberculosis H37Rv selectively. Import...
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - June 4, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Karale UB, Krishna VS, Krishna EV, Choudhari AS, Shukla M, Gaikwad VR, Mahizhaveni B, Chopra S, Misra S, Sarkar D, Sriram D, Dusthackeer VNA, Rode HB Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research

Application of serial tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection to active lung tuberculosis cases in Indonesia
Rapid detection and accurate diagnosis are very important in managing active tuberculosis because they provide an advantage in preventing further disease transmission. In accordance with the recommendation of ... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - June 3, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Nastiti Intan Permata Sari, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Soedarsono and Fumito Maruyama Tags: Research note Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 1966: Association between Occupational and Radiological Factors and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Lung Infection in Workers with Prior Dust Exposure
ong This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors that promote the risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung infection in subjects with prior occupational dust exposure. All consecutive patients with a history of occupational dust exposure whose expectorated sputum, bronchial wash, or bronchial lavage was subjected to acid-fast Bacilli culture in a tertiary hospital between 2011 and 2016 were identified. The patients who were infected with NTM were identified according to the bacteriological criteria of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and The Infectious Diseases Society of Amer...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - June 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ji-Won Lee Jun-Pyo Myong Tags: Article Source Type: research

The Burden of Femoral Shaft Fractures in Tanzania
In 2016, musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries accounted for more deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) than HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined [1].Despite these data, injuries, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), receive less financial support, and care is focused on prevention rather than treatment [2,3]. Many healthcare facilities in LMICs are underprepared to manage the increasing volume of patients with serious injuries [4,5]. (Source: Injury)
Source: Injury - June 3, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Devin Conway, Patrick Albright, Edmund Eliezer, Billy Haonga, Saam Morshed, David W. Shearer Source Type: research

Correction: Whole-genome and targeted sequencing of drug-resistant < i > Mycobacterium tuberculosis < /i > on the iSeq100 and MiSeq: A performance, ease-of-use, and cost evaluation
by The PLOS Medicine Staff (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - June 3, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: The PLOS Medicine Staff Source Type: research

Utilization of CRISPR interference to validate MmpL3 as a drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract There is an urgent need for novel therapeutics to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Genetic strategies for validating novel targets are available, yet their time-consuming nature limits their utility. Here, using MmpL3 as a model target, we report on the application of mycobacterial CRISPR interference for the rapid validation of target essentiality and compound mode of action. This strategy has the potential to rapidly accelerate tuberculosis drug discovery. PMID: 31160289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: McNeil MB, Cook GM Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Organization of Tuberculosis Control in Spain: Evaluation of a Strategy Aimed at Promoting the Accreditation of Tuberculosis Units.
CONCLUSIONS: The approach of different professionals with regard to TB has been addressed. Positive aspects and areas for improvement have been detected, and better results were observed in the accredited versus non-accredited centers. A closer supervision of TBUs is necessary to improve their effectiveness. PMID: 31171411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - June 3, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brugueras S, Roldán L, Rodrigo T, García-García JM, Caylà JA, García-Pérez FJ, Orcau À, Mir Viladrich I, Penas-Truque A, Millet JP Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 1 genetic diversity in Par á, Brazil, suggests common ancestry with east-African isolates potentially linked to historical slave trade.
The objective of this study was to improve the complex taxonomy of L1 using phylogenetic SNPs, and to look for the origin of the main L1 sublineage prevalent in Para, Brazil. We developed a high-throughput SNPs-typing assay based on 12-L1-specific SNPs. This assay allowed us to experimentally retrieve SNP patterns on nine of these twelve SNPs in 277 isolates previously tentatively assigned to L1 spoligotyping-based sub lineages. Three collections were used: Pará-Brazil (71); RIVM, Netherlands (102), Madagascar (104). One-hundred more results were generated in Silico using the PolyTB database. Based on the final SNPs...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - June 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Conceição EC, Refregier G, Gomes HM, Olessa-Daragon X, Coll F, Ratovonirina NH, Rasolofo-Razanamparany V, Lopes ML, van Soolingen D, Rutaihwa L, Gagneux S, Bollela VR, Suffys P, Duarte RS, Lima KVB, Sola C Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

[Tennis racket sign: A complicated case of pulmonary tuberculosis].
lva T PMID: 31171478 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anales de Pediatria)
Source: Anales de Pediatria - June 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alves S, Póvoas D, Silva T Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research

Free enzyme dynamics of CmaA3 and CmaA2 cyclopropane mycolic acid synthases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights into residues with potential significance in cyclopropanation
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and ModellingAuthor(s): David Annaraj P, Priyadarsini Kadirvel, Ahalyaa Subramanian, Sharmila AnishettyAbstractMycolic acids are long chain alpha-alkyl beta-hydroxy fatty acids that are major constituents of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis produces three main types of mycolic acids, alpha mycolic acids and keto and methoxy mycolic acids. Cycloproponated mycolic acids make the cell wall less permeable, contribute to antibiotic resistance and host immunomodulation and protect from injury. Cyclopropanation is catal...
Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling - June 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Differential expression of Sonic Hedgehog in lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Abstract Overexpression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is associated with progression of several cancers. The expression of Shh in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported with inconsistent results. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are two major subtypes of NSCLC, which have different genetic genotypes and clinical therapeutic options. The expression of Shh in specimen of patients with NSCLC has yet to be comprehensively determined according to histological subtypes. Shh expression level was determined in 167 NSCLC patients (56 LAC patients and 111 LSCC patients) by immunohist...
Source: Neoplasma - June 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xu L, Xiong H, Shi W, Zhou F, Zhang M, Hu G, Mei J, Luo S, Chen L Tags: Neoplasma Source Type: research

Biological activity and stability analyses of knipholone anthrone, a phenyl anthraquinone derivative isolated from Kniphofia foliosa Hochst
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Ruth Feilcke, Georgette Arnouk, Boingotlo Raphane, Khumoekae Richard, Ian Tietjen, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela, Frank Erdmann, Susanne Schipper, Katja Becker, Norbert Arnold, Andrej Frolov, Norbert Reiling, Peter Imming, Serge A.T. FobofouAbstractKnipholone (1) and knipholone anthrone (2), isolated from the Ethiopian medicinal plant Kniphofia foliosa Hochst. are two phenyl anthraquinone derivatives, a compound class known for biological activity. In the present study, we describe the activity of both 1 and 2 in sev...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - June 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Empirical Framework for Point-of-Care Diagnostics Supply Chain Management for Accessibility and Sustainability of Diagnostic Services in Ghana's Primary Health Care Clinics
Achievement of universal health coverage may be a mirage if supply chain management challenges of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are not addressed to ensure accessibility and sustainability of POC diagnostic services in rural primary health care (PHC) clinics. Many patients accessing health care services in rural PHC clinics are likely to be undiagnosed and treated only based on syndromic management, due to stock-outs of POC tests. This potentially may result in complications such as wrong treatment, drug resistant to some infections, increased morbidities and mortalities, and many others. Public health activities for pri...
Source: Point of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing and Technology - June 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of minimally invasive catheter drainage and local chemotherapy for the lumbosacral tuberculosis without neural symptoms
Increasing number of studies have shown growing incidence of lumbosacral tuberculosis and its complications. However, the treatment options for this disorder are still limited. To evaluate the long-term therapeutic effect and prognosis of minimally invasive puncture catheter drainage and Isoniazid local chemotherapy for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis without neural symptoms under the guidance of computed tomography (CT). A total of 45 patients with asymptomatic lumbosacral tuberculosis were treated by minimally invasive catheter drainage under CT guidance. Forty-two cases had been followed up, which included 2...
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

3’UTR polymorphisms in NRAMP1 are associated with the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis: A MOOSE-compliant meta-analysis
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the NRAMP1 3’UTR polymorphism and the risk of PTB. This meta-analysis included 29 case–control studies to better and comprehensively assess this correlation. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. These 29 case–control studies included 4672 cases and 6177 controls. The NRAMP1 3’UTR polymorphism displayed a significant positive correlation with the risk of PTB in 3 models (for del/del vs ins/ins: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01–1.47; for Ins/del vs ins/in...
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Source Type: research

IP-10 for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
Discussion: The evidence will indicate that IP-10 test is an alternative immunological test in detecting children TB. This is a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis, so the ethical approval and patient consent are not required. Protocol registration number: CRD42019129743. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Systematic Review Source Type: research

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation mimicking lung cancer: A case report
Rationale: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is a rare developmental deformity of the lower respiratory tract. The disease occurs more in newborns. However, on rare occasions, CPAM can be found in adults. Radiologic features of CPAM include cystic or solid mass pattern. In an elderly patient, CPAM can be easily misdiagnosed as lung cancer. Patient concerns: A 66-year old woman was admitted with complaints of chronic cough, expectoration. Her past history was unremarkable with no history of tuberculosis or smoking. Physical examination was normal. Computerized tomography of the chest showed an irregular c...
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

A retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes of drug-susceptible TB in Kazakhstan, 2013–2016
This study was a retrospective cohort study. A total of 36.926 TB cases were included. The majority of patients were treated as inpatients. The socioeconomic factors, sex, age, HIV status, and other diagnostic factors (e.g., sputum smear results, extrapulmonary disease) may serve as risk factors to estimate the likely TB treatment outcome. The outpatient treatment of drug-susceptible TB seems to be a comparable option to the inpatient treatment in terms of efficacy. The socioeconomic factors are the main modifiable risk factors for treatment failure. The outpatient treatment of drug-susceptible TB is safe and effective. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Monocyte/lymphocyte ratio is related to the severity of coronary artery disease and clinical outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
Monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR), a widely used inflammation maker for prognosis of cancer, tuberculosis, and autoimmune diseases, has attracted more and more attention for its application to cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of MLR with the severity of coronary lesion and clinical outcomes in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. 963 consecutive NSTEMI patients (mean age, 60.77 ± 11.34; 758 male) undergoing coronary angiography were analyzed and followed in 3 groups according to the average MLR tertile (low MLR 0.35, n = 320) in this...
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Quantitative assessment of the activity of antituberculosis drugs and regimens.
This report is a review of the quantitative methods currently used on clinical data sets to identify drug exposure targets and optimal drug combinations for tuberculosis treatment. A high-level summary of the methods, including the strengths and weaknesses of each method and potential methodological improvements is presented. Methods incorporating data generated from multiple sources such as in vitro and clinical studies, and their potential to provide better estimates of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets, are discussed. PK/PD relationships identified are compared between different studies and data analysis m...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - June 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Enduring Challenge of Latent Tuberculosis in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Brief Review.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) kills almost 4,000 people a day and is competing with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) as the most deadly infectious disease in the world. The gold standards of detection and management of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) have not been successful in complete eradication of the disease. Current screening modalities of TB include tuberculin skin testing (TST) and/or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). However, these screening tests have been heavily studied in healthy populations but not in the elderly who are more likely to have multiple...
Source: Clin Med Res - June 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Khan A, Rebhan A, Seminara D, Szerszen A Tags: J Clin Med Res Source Type: research

Esophageal tuberculosis is rare in clinic. It is easy to be misdiagnosed as esophageal cancer because of lacking characteristic clinical manifestations and imaging feature. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - June 1, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liangru Zhu, Di Guo, Ling Cheng, Jun Liu, Xiaohua Hou Tags: Sunday abstract Source Type: research

The Occupational Burden of Nonmalignant Respiratory Diseases. An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Statement.
Conclusions: Workplace exposures contribute to the burden of disease across a range of nonmalignant lung conditions in adults (in addition to the 100% burden for the classic occupational pneumoconioses). This burden has important clinical, research, and policy implications. There is a pressing need to improve clinical recognition and public health awareness of the contribution of occupational factors across a range of nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID: 31149852 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - June 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Blanc PD, Annesi-Maesano I, Balmes JR, Cummings KJ, Fishwick D, Miedinger D, Murgia N, Naidoo RN, Reynolds CJ, Sigsgaard T, Torén K, Vinnikov D, Redlich CA Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research