Molecules, Vol. 25, Pages 138: Substituted N-(Pyrazin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamides; Synthesis, Anti-Infective Evaluation, Cytotoxicity, and In Silico Studies
k Jiří Janoušek Martin Doležal Jan Zitko We prepared a series of substituted N-(pyrazin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamides as an attempt to investigate the effect of different linkers connecting pyrazine to benzene cores on antimicrobial activity when compared to our previous compounds of amide or retro-amide linker type. Only two compounds, 4-amino-N-(pyrazin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (MIC = 6.25 μg/mL, 25 μM) and 4-amino-N-(6-chloropyrazin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (MIC = 6.25 μg/mL, 22 μM) exerted good antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. However,...
Source: Molecules - December 29, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ghada Bouz Martin Juh ás Lluis Pausas Otero Cristina Paredes de la Red Ond řej Janďourek Kl ára Konečná Pavla Paterov á Vladim ír Kubíček Ji ří Janoušek Martin Dole žal Jan Zitko Tags: Article Source Type: research

Rapid and highly sensitive quantification of the anti-tuberculosis agents isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and rifabutin in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Lingjie Wu, Zhenjie Ye, Hui Liu, Hongliang Guo, Jing Lin, Ling Zheng, Nannan Chu, Xiaolong LiuAbstractWith the increased cases of multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis and co-infection with HIV globally, it is difficult to achieve ideal clinical responses because of poor drug absorption and drug-drug interactions. Herein, a bioanalytical UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify five anti-TB agents in human plasma samples for detecting blood drug concentrations to improve therapeu...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - December 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

2′-5′-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein inhibits intracellular M. tuberculosis replication and promotes proinflammatory cytokine secretion
Publication date: February 2020Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 118Author(s): G. Leisching, A. Ali, V. Cole, B. BakerAbstractHost cytoplasmic surveillance pathways are known to elicit type I interferon (IFN) responses which are crucial to antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) protein has been extensively characterized as a part of the anti-viral mechanism, however a number of transcriptomic studies reveal its upregulation in response to infection with a wide variety of intracellular bacterial pathogens. To date, there is no evidence documenting the role (if any) of OASL during mycobact...
Source: Molecular Immunology - December 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Targeting cyclophilin-D by miR-1281 protects human macrophages from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced programmed necrosis and apoptosis.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection induces cytotoxicity to host human macrophages. The underlying signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we discovered that MTB infection induced programmed necrosis in human macrophages, causing mitochondrial cyclophilin-D (CypD)-p53-adenine nucleotide translocator type 1 association, mitochondrial depolarization and lactate dehydrogenase medium release. In human macrophages MTB infection-induced programmed necrosis and apoptosis were largely attenuated by CypD inhibition (by cyclosporin A), silencing and knockout, but intensified with ectopic CypD overexpr...
Source: Aging - December 28, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sun Q, Shen X, Wang P, Ma J, Sha W Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

Pediatric Mandible Reconstruction for Osteomyelitis During Largest Reported Mycobacterium Abscessus Outbreak
In 2016, water lines at a children's dental clinic in Orange County, California were contaminated with Mycobacterium abscessus (MA), a non-tuberculosis rapidly-growing mycobacterium, leading to the largest MA outbreak ever reported. Mandatory reporting and active case finding directed by the Public Health Department was conducted in collaboration with community Pediatric Infectious Disease physicians for patients who underwent dental pulpotomies at the contaminated Dental Clinic from January 1 to September 6, 2016. Seventy-one cases (22 confirmed and 49 probable) were identified. One case that required extensive debridemen...
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - December 27, 2019 Category: Surgery Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 210: Association of Drug Metabolic Enzyme Genetic Polymorphisms and Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients Receiving Rifapentine and Isoniazid Therapy for Latent Tuberculosis
In conclusion, CYP2C19 and CYP2E1 SNPs may provide useful information regarding ADRs in LTBI patients receiving the 3HP regimen. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - December 27, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ya-Yen Yu Shih-Ming Tsao Wen-Ta Yang Wei-Chang Huang Ching-Hsiung Lin Wei-Wen Chen Shun-Fa Yang Hui-Ling Chiou Yi-Wen Huang Tags: Article Source Type: research

The sensor kinase MtrB of Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulates hypoxic survival and establishment of infection [Microbiology]
Paired two-component systems (TCSs), having a sensor kinase (SK) and a cognate response regulator (RR), enable the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the external environment and to persist within its host. Here, we inactivated the SK gene of the TCS MtrAB, mtrB, generating the strain ΔmtrB. We show that mtrB loss reduces the bacterium's ability to survive in macrophages and increases its association with autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Notably, the ΔmtrB strain was markedly defective in establishing lung infection in mice, with no detectable lung pathology following aerosol challenge. &D...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - December 27, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Srijon Kaushik Banerjee, Suruchi Lata, Arun Kumar Sharma, Shreya Bagchi, Manish Kumar, Sanjaya Kumar Sahu, Debasree Sarkar, Pushpa Gupta, Kuladip Jana, Umesh Datta Gupta, Ramandeep Singh, Sudipto Saha, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Latent tuberculosis infection screening in persons newly-diagnosed with HIV infection in Italy: a multicentre study promoted by the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Delia Goletti, Assunta Navarra, Elisa Petruccioli, Claudia Cimaglia, Mirko Compagno, Gilda Cuzzi, Gabriella De Carli, Laura Fondaco, Fabio Franzetti, Alberto Giannetti, Andrea Gori, Giuseppe Lapadula, Miriam Lichtner, Claudio M. Mastroianni, Valentina Maz Source Type: research

Use of Xpert MTB/RIF in a Low Prevalence Setting in the Southwest of England
We read with interest the recent article by Wang G and colleges describing the higher sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra compared to Xpert MTB/RIF in the diagnosis of paucibacilliary TB.1 We have performed a local study looking at the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF in our local population. The use of rapid molecular methods in the diagnosis and prevention of transmission of tuberculosis is recommended by both NICE2 and Public Health England,3 but adoption of these recommendations around the country is variable. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - December 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ian M. Head, Rajeka Lazarus Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

QuantiFERON-TB Gold PLUS versus QuantiFERON- TB Gold In-Tube test for diagnosing tuberculosis infection.
This study aimed to evaluate the performances of QFT-PLUS versus QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) for detecting tuberculosis (TB) infection. Methods: Between October, 2016 and May, 2018, 137 participants were prospectively recruited and subjected to QFT-GIT and QFT-PLUS testing. The concordance between tests and performance based on different immune states and/or TB infection risk were evaluated. Results: The 137 participants were classified as follows: active TB (n = 14), TB contact (n = 14), screening before biologic therapy (n = 85) and other disease (n = 24). The positive results for either test were 100...
Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine - December 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kim SH, Jo KW, Shim TS Tags: Korean J Intern Med Source Type: research

Metabolic and lipidomic characterization of malignant pleural effusion in human lung cancer
The objective of this study was to characterize the metabolic signatures in MPE of lung cancer, and identify potential metabolite biomarkers for diagnosis of MPE. MPE from lung cancer (n = 46) and BPE from tuberculosis patients (n = 32) were investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based global metabolomic and lipidomic profiling. Multivariate partial least-square discriminative analysis models exhibited distinct metabolic profiles between MPE and BPE. A total of 25 ether lipids, including phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and phosphatidyl...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - December 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dose-related adverse events in South African patients prescribed clofazimine for drug-resistant tuberculosis.
CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between dose-weight interaction and adverse events. The odds of any adverse event occurring were higher when low-weight patients (<50 kg) received high-dose CFZ (≥200 mg). Gastrointestinal and skin-related adverse events were more common when high-dose CFZ was used in patients weighing <50 kg. Chest pain was reported in patients receiving high- and low-dose CFZ, irrespective of weight, and may be a symptom of cardiac toxicity. Plasma concentrations of CFZ may be affected by drug-drug interactions, so active drug safety monitoring including electrocardiograms is recommen...
Source: South African Medical Journal - December 25, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research

Association of chemotactic chemokine ligand 5  rs2107538 polymorphism with tuberculosis susceptibility: A meta-analysis.
Association of chemotactic chemokine ligand 5 rs2107538 polymorphism with tuberculosis susceptibility: A meta-analysis. Innate Immun. 2019 Dec 25;:1753425919891662 Authors: Sheng YF, Qi Q PMID: 31874580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Innate Immunity)
Source: Innate Immunity - December 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sheng YF, Qi Q Tags: Innate Immun Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 137: Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Healthcare Students and Postgraduates in a Mediterranean Italian Area: What Correlation with Work Exposure?
Conclusion: Latent TB is relatively low among medical school students in our geographic area. Nevertheless, this infectious disease must be regarded as a re-emerging biohazard for which preventive strategies are required to limit the risk of infection, especially among exposed workers. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - December 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Maria Gabriella Verso Nicola Serra Antonina Ciccarello Benedetta Romanin Paola Di Carlo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF ® on a single pooled sputum specimen to exclude pulmonary tuberculosis among hospital inpatients placed in respiratory isolation
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clarence Yeong, Anthony L. Byrne, Jin-Gun Cho, Vitali Sintchenko, Taryn Crighton, Ben J. Marais Source Type: research

An optimized genomic VCF workflow for precise identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster from cross-platform whole genome sequencing data.
In this study, we suggest that the GVCF workflow showed the best performing variant caller to avoid cross-platform pairwise SNP differences. PMID: 31881359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Disratthakit A, Toyo-Oka L, Thawong P, Paiboonsiri P, Wichukjinda N, Ajawatanawong P, Thipkrua N, Suthum K, Palittapongarnpim P, Tokunaga K, Mahasirimongkol S Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Novel benzimidazole-acrylonitrile hybrids and their derivatives: Design, synthesis and antimycobacterial activity.
Abstract This paper reports the synthesis and evaluation of some benzimidazole-acrylonitrile hybrid derivatives for their in vitro antimycobacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Among the derivatives studied, 3b was found to be the most active compound with MIC of 0.78 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This is a quite good activity compared with ethambutol (MIC = 1.56 μg/mL). Moreover, 3b showed 2.8 log fold reduction in bacterial count of dormant forms of mycobacterium which is more potent than first line drugs isoniazid, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and moxif...
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - December 24, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sirim MM, Krishna VS, Sriram D, Unsal Tan O Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 124: Tuberculosis-Related Hospitalizations in a Low-Incidence Country: A Retrospective Analysis in Two Italian Infectious Diseases Wards
In conclusion, an increase in the rate of TB diagnosis was documented in two Italian reference centers in the period 2013–2017, with 39% of EPTB diagnosed in patients from outside Europe. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - December 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Laura Campogiani Mirko Compagno Luigi Coppola Vincenzo Malagnino Gaetano Maffongelli Lavinia Maria Saraca Daniela Francisci Franco Baldelli Carla Fontana Sandro Grelli Massimo Andreoni Giovanni Sotgiu Laura Saderi Loredana Sarmati Tags: Article Source Type: research

Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampin Resistance-Associated Mutations by Use of Data from Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra Enables Large-Scale Tuberculosis Molecular Epidemiology Studies [Commentary]
Molecular epidemiology studies of tuberculosis have been empowered in recent years by the availability of whole-genome sequencing, which has allowed a new focus on the adaptive significance of drug resistance mutations. Genome sequencing technology remains expensive, however, limiting the potential for larger studies. Conversely, during this same time the GeneXpert molecular diagnostic method has been deployed globally and now serves as a cornerstone of tuberculosis diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing. In this issue, Y. Cao, H. Parmar, A. M. Simmons, D. Kale, et al. (J Clin Microbiol 57:e00907-19, 2019, https://doi.org/...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Weinrick, B. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Predominance of Th1 Immune Response in Pleural Effusion of Patients with Tuberculosis among Other Exudative Etiologies [Mycobacteriology and Aerobic Actinomycetes]
In conclusion, our findings showed a predominantly cellular immune response in PF from TB cases, rather than other causes of exudative effusion commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of PlTB. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: da Cunha Lisboa, V., Ribeiro-Alves, M., da Silva Correa, R., Ramos Lopes, I., Mafort, T. T., Santos, A. P., Porto Amadeu, T., Rufino, R., Silva Rodrigues, L. Tags: Mycobacteriology and Aerobic Actinomycetes Source Type: research

Automatic Identification of Individual rpoB Gene Mutations Responsible for Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Use of Melting Temperature Signatures Generated by the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra Assay [Mycobacteriology and Aerobic Actinomycetes]
In this study, we developed an automated algorithm to specifically identify a wide range of mutations in the rpoB RRDR by utilizing the pattern of the Tm of the 4 probes within the 9 windows generated by the Ultra assay. The algorithm builds a RRDR mutation-specific "Tm signature" reference library from a set of known mutations and then identifies the RRDR genotype of an unknown sample by measuring the Tm distances between the test sample and the reference Tm values. Validated using a set of clinical isolates, the algorithm correctly identified RRDR genotypes of 93% samples with a wide range of rpoB single and do...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cao, Y., Parmar, H., Simmons, A. M., Kale, D., Tong, K., Lieu, D., Persing, D., Kwiatkowski, R., Alland, D., Chakravorty, S. Tags: Mycobacteriology and Aerobic Actinomycetes Source Type: research

Evaluation of OMNIgene Sputum and Ethanol Reagent for Preservation of Sputum Prior to Xpert and Culture Testing in Uganda [Bacteriology]
In conclusion, Xpert equally detected tuberculosis in OM-S-treated and untreated samples up to 15 days but showed slightly lower detection in ethanol-treated samples. Among OM-S-treated samples, MGIT positivity was significantly lower than in untreated samples at both time points. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ardizzoni, E., Orikiriza, P., Ssuuna, C., Nyehangane, D., Gumsboga, M., Taremwa, I. M., Turyashemererwa, E., Mwanga-Amumpaire, J., Langendorf, C., Bonnet, M. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Design and Optimization of a Temperature-Stable Dry Powder BCG Vaccine
ConclusionWe developed a spray-dried BCG vaccine that was viable and antigenic after long-term storage. To our knowledge, this is a first study to show room temperature stability of live BCG vaccine without any loss in viability for 12  months. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - December 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tuberculous scleritis in a young Asian Indian girl —a case presentation and literature review
We report a case of a 9-year-old female child who presented with bilateral non-necrotizing anterior scleritis with unilateral posterior scleritis secondary to TB. To our knowledge, this is a rare presentation in pediatric age group, and she is the youngest of few cases of tuberculous posterior scleritis reported in literature. (Source: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection)
Source: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection - December 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of the safety and effectiveness of titanium mesh versus bone graft alone for the treatment of thoracolumbar tuberculosis
ConclusionsBoth titanium mesh and bone grafts alone are effective for the treatment of thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis based on safety. However, the results of this study do not support the superiority of titanium mesh bone grafts reported in previous studies. Because of the high risk of bias of the conclusions of a meta-analysis of non-randomized studies and the small sample sizes for some of the most important outcomes, randomized controlled trials are expected to further examine the reliability of the present findings.Graphic abstract (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 23, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Characterization of Polymorphisms Associated with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by Whole Genomic Sequencing: A Preliminary Report from Mexico
Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print. (Source: Microbial Drug Resistance)
Source: Microbial Drug Resistance - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas Esdras Fernandez Diana Viveros Carlos Francisco Madrazo-Moya Irving Cancino-Mu ñoz I ñaki Comas Vanessa Gonzalez-Covarrubias Mart ín Barbosa-Amezcua Betzaida Cuevas-Cordoba Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics and dosing of ethionamide in children with tuberculosis.
ti P Abstract Ethionamide has proven efficacy against both drug-susceptible and some drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Limited information is available on its pharmacokinetics in children, and current doses are extrapolated from weight-based adult doses. Paediatric doses based on more robust evidence is expected to improve antituberculosis treatment, especially in small children. In this analysis, ethionamide concentrations in children were pooled from 2 observational clinical studies conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. All children received ethionamide once-daily with weight-based dosing of a...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bjugård Nyberg H, Draper HR, Garcia-Prats AJ, Thee S, Bekker A, Zar HJ, Hooker AC, Schaaf HS, McIlleron H, Hesseling AC, Denti P Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

β-Lactamase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows dynamics in the active site that increase upon inhibitor binding.
β-Lactamase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows dynamics in the active site that increase upon inhibitor binding. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Dec 23;: Authors: Elings W, Gaur A, Blok AJ, Timmer M, van Ingen H, Ubbink M Abstract The Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-lactamase BlaC is a broad-spectrum β-lactamase that can convert a range of β-lactam antibiotics. Enzymes with low specificity are expected to exhibit active site flexibility. To probe the motions in BlaC, we studied the dynamic behavior in solution using NMR spectroscopy. 15N relaxation experiments show that BlaC is mos...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Elings W, Gaur A, Blok AJ, Timmer M, van Ingen H, Ubbink M Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan Activates Human Neutrophils via a TLR2/1 Mechanism Distinct from Pam3CSK4.
Abstract Neutrophils, polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, play an important role in the early innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the lung. Interactions between PMN and mycobacterial lipids impact the activation state of these migrated cells with consequences for the surrounding tissue in terms of resolution versus ongoing inflammation. We hypothesized that lipoarabinomannan from M. tuberculosis (Mtb LAM) would prime human PMN in a TLR2-dependent manner and investigated this with specific comparison with the purified synthetic TLR2 agonists, Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1. In contrast to Pam3CSK4...
Source: Journal of Immunology - December 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hook JS, Cao M, Weng K, Kinnare N, Moreland JG Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

New potential drug leads against MDR-MTB: A short review.
Abstract Multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-MTB) infections have created a critical health problem globally. The appalling rise in drug resistance to all the current therapeutics has triggered the need for identifying new antimycobacterial agents effective against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Structurally unique chemical entities with new mode of action will be required to combat this pressing issue. This review gives an overview of the structures and outlines on various aspects of in vitro pharmacological activities of new antimycobacterial agents, mechanism of action and brief...
Source: Bioorganic Chemistry - December 23, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gatadi S, Nanduri S Tags: Bioorg Chem Source Type: research

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Modulation by Tuberculosis Drugs Impairs Host Defense and Treatment Outcomes.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a public health threat of global dimension, worsened by increasing drug resistance. Host-directed therapy (HDT) is an emerging concept currently explored as an adjunct therapeutic strategy for TB. One potential host target is the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which binds TB virulence factors and controls antibacterial responses. Here, we demonstrate that in the context of therapy, the AhR binds several TB drugs, including front line drugs rifampicin (RIF) and rifabutin (RFB), resulting in altered host defense and dru...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - December 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Puyskens A, Stinn A, van der Vaart M, Kreuchwig A, Protze J, Pei G, Klemm M, Guhlich-Bornhof U, Hurwitz R, Krishnamoorthy G, Schaaf M, Krause G, Meijer AH, Kaufmann SHE, Moura-Alves P Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Emerging opportunities of exploiting mycobacterial electron transport chain pathway for drug-resistant tuberculosis drug discovery
. (Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery)
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery - December 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kuldeep K. Roy Mushtaq Ahmad Wani Source Type: research

Influence of vaccine-preventable diseases and HIV infection on demand for an infectious diseases service in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, over 22 years - Part II (1995-2016).
ra SA Abstract Patients' data during daily clinical care are extremely important for improving the allocation of healthcare resources and for assessing healthcare demands. The prospective gathering of these data over decades allowed us to describe the trends of infectious diseases in a tertiary hospital. The results concerning the period between 1965 and 1994 described the exponential increase in the incidence of HIV infection and its important effects on our institutional mortality. The present study describes the demand for the same hospital between 1995 and 2016. There were 4,691 admissions and the main causes ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ferreira LDC, Setúbal S, Keim LS, Oliveira SA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

[Desigualdades en salud seg ún régimen de afiliación y eventos notificados al Sistema de Vigilancia (Sivigila) en Colombia, 2015].
[Desigualdades en salud según régimen de afiliación y eventos notificados al Sistema de Vigilancia (Sivigila) en Colombia, 2015]. Biomedica. 2019 Dec 01;39(4):737-747 Authors: Hilarión-Gaitán L, Díaz-Jiménez D, Cotes-Cantillo K, Castañeda-Orjuela C Abstract Introducción. Las desigualdades en salud se generan por diferencias en las condiciones sociales y económicas, lo cual influye en el riesgo de enfermar y la forma de enfrentar la enfermedad. Objetivo. Evaluar las desigualdades sociales en salud en Colombia, utilizando el tipo de af...
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - December 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research

[Serie de casos: tuberculosis extremadamente resistente a drogas en Colombia, 2006-2016].
Authors: Zabaleta A, Llerena C Abstract Introducción. La tuberculosis extremadamente resistente a los medicamentos (TB-XDR) es el resultado de deficiencias en la administración del tratamiento y en la prevención de la transmisión de la enfermedad; además, es un reto para los programas nacionales de control de la tuberculosis. Objetivo. Describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos de TB-XDR diagnosticados en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio de serie de casos, de pacientes con diagnóstico de TB-XDR, de...
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - December 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research

A probable case of subligamentous tuberculous spondylitis: The concealed body of the Late Modern Period (early 16th century to early 20th century), Franciscan crypt of St. Anthony and St. Eusebius church, Lombardy, Italy
AbstractThis paper presents a probable case of subligamentous tuberculous spondylitis (STBS), a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed in the skeleton of a middle ‐aged male discovered in the ossuary of the Franciscan crypt of the St. Anthony and St. Eusebius church, which lies in north‐western Italy. The skeleton can be dated back between the 17th and 19th centuries. This rare type of tuberculosis was identified in the thoracic and lumbar spine, with no further evidences at the level of the cranial and other postcranial bones. The concomitance of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities, scalloping, react...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - December 22, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Omar Larentis, Enrica Tonina, Chiara Tesi, Chiara Rossetti, Ilaria Gorini, Rosagemma Ciliberti, Marta Licata Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop.
Abstract The main advantage of animal models of infectious diseases over in vitro studies is the gain in understanding of the complex dynamics between the immune system and the pathogen. While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. Well-designed small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses, and tuberculosis require additionally a thoroug...
Source: Current HIV Research - December 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Akkina R, Barber DL, Bility MT, Bissig KD, Burwitz BJ, Eichelberg K, Endsley JJ, Garcia JV, Hafner R, Karakousis PC, Korba BE, Koshy R, Lambros C, Menne S, Nuermberger EL, Ploss A, Podell BK, Poluektova LY, Sanders-Beer BE, Subbian S, Wahl A Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research

Infection risk in patients undergoing treatment for inflammatory arthritis: non-biologics versus biologics.
Authors: Chiu YM, Chen DY Abstract Introduction: Despite the therapeutic effectiveness of biologics targeting immune cells or cytokines in patients with inflammatory arthritis, which reflects their pathogenic roles, an increased infection risk is observed in those undergoing biological treatment. However, there are limited data regarding the comparison of infection risks in inflammatory arthritis patients treated with non-biologics (csDMARDs), biologics (bDMARDs), including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and non-TNF inhibitors, or targeted synthetic (ts)DMARDs.Areas covered: Through a review of English-lang...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - December 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Community health care workers in pursuit of TB: Discourses and dilemmas
This study examines Nigerian stakeholders’ insights to characterize the mechanisms, enabling structures and influences that lead programs to succeed or fail.Eight focus group discussions were held with Community Health Workers (CWs) from four models of community-based TB screening and referral. In-depth interviews were conducted with 2 State TB program managers, 8 Community based organizations (CBOs), and 6 state TB and Leprosy Local Government supervisors. Transcripts were coded using Framework Analysis to assess how divergent understandings of CWs’ roles, expectations, as well as design, political and structu...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - December 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Wireless Technology Quickly Confirms TB Medication Adherence
A sensor swallowed with tuberculosis (TB) medication accurately recorded patients ’ adherence to treatment 7 days a week, reported a trial in PLOS Medicine. Patients also preferred the FDA-approved wirelessly observed therapy (WOT) over directly observed therapy (DOT). (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - December 21, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The characteristics of spatial-temporal distribution and cluster of tuberculosis in Yunnan Province, China, 2005 –2018
Tuberculosis (TB) makes a big challenge to public health, especially in high TB burden counties of China and Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). The aim of this study was to identify the spatial-temporal dynamic p... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - December 21, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Jinou Chen, Yubing Qiu, Rui Yang, Ling Li, Jinglong Hou, Kunyun Lu and Lin Xu Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Tuberculosis: a focused review for the emergency medicine clinician
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease worldwide, affecting nearly one-third of the world's population. While TB has decreased in frequency in the United States, it remains an important infection to diagnose and treat. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - December 21, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Brit Long, Stephen Y. Liang, Alex Koyfman, Michael Gottlieb Source Type: research

Association of adverse drug reaction to anti-tuberculosis medication with quality of life in patients in a tertiary referral hospital
CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between quality of life and adverse drug reaction, educational level, and vulnerability. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - December 20, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence of coinfections in women living with human immunodeficiency virus in Northeast Brazil
CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant progress in the treatment for people with HIV, coinfections continued to affect this population. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - December 20, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

An 8-year study on the prevalence and drug resistance of Mycobacteria in clinical specimens (2011-2018)
In this study, 15829 different clinical specimens were collected at the NRITLD National Tuberculosis Center. A multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) was used to identify mutations related to RIF and INH resistance. The genes involved were katG315, inhA for INH and rpoB516, rpoB526 and rpoB531 for RIF. In total (7528/15829, 47.56%), mycobacterial isolates including 6937 MTBC (43.82%) and 591 NTM (3.73%) were obtained. The frequency of MTBC isolates decreased from 65.17% (2015/3092) in 2011 to 47.06% (1224/2601) in 2018. Among NTM isolates, M. simiae was the most prevalent with 55.33% (327/591). The a...
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The impact of the interleukin 12/23 inhibitor ustekinumab on the risk of infections in patients with psoriatic arthritis.
Authors: Zabotti A, Goletti D, Lubrano E, Cantini F Abstract Introduction: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is characterized by chronic inflammation mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, with clinical features resulting from dysfunctional integrated signaling pathways affecting different constituents of the immune system. Increased understanding of the processes responsible for enthesitis, synovial inflammation, joint erosion, and new bone formation during PsA has led to development of biologic therapies targeting these cytokines. There is an increased risk of opportunistic infections in patients with PsA, and this risk...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - December 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research

HIV-associated morbidity and mortality in a setting of high ART coverage: prospective surveillance results from a district hospital in Botswana.
Authors: Barak T, Neo DT, Tapela N, Mophuthegi P, Zash R, Kalenga K, Perry ME, Malane M, Makhema J, Lockman S, Shapiro R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved survival in Africa in recent years. In Botswana, where adult HIV prevalence is 21.9%, AIDS-related mortality is estimated to have declined by 58% between 2005 and 2013 following the initial wide-spread introduction of ART, and ART coverage has steadily increased reaching 84% in 2016. However, there remains little data about the burden of HIV and its impact on mortality in the hospital setting where most deaths occur. W...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - December 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

In vitro fertilization outcome in women with endometrial tuberculosis and tubal tuberculosis
. (Source: Gynecological Endocrinology)
Source: Gynecological Endocrinology - December 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wenrong Dai Linna Ma Yurong Cao Di Wu Ting Yu Jun Zhai Source Type: research

[ASAP] Aryl Trehalose Derivatives as Vaccine Adjuvants for < italic toggle="yes" > Mycobacterium tuberculosis < /italic >
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01598 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - December 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Kendal T. Ryter* †‡§, George Ettenger‡, Omer K. Rasheed‡, Cassandra Buhl?, Robert Child?, Shannon M. Miller†?, David Holley§, Alyson J. Smith†??, and Jay T. Evans*†? Source Type: research

Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Pathogenic Bacteria in Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Combined with Nosocomial Pulmonary Infection
This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 411 patients with lung cancer who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College from January 2017 to December 2018, and counted the incidence of nosocomial lung infection, pathogens, drug resistance and influencing factors. Results There were 184 cases of nosocomial pulmonary infection in 411 lung cancer patients during chemotherapy, the infection rate was 44.77%. The isolated pathogens included Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, fungi and tuberculosis, among which Gram-negative bacteria accounted for ...
Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - December 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research