A comparison of the value of two machine learning predictive models to support bovine tuberculosis disease control in England
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2021Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): M. Pilar Romero, Yu-Mei Chang, Lucy A. Brunton, Alison Prosser, Paul Upton, Eleanor Rees, Oliver Tearne, Mark Arnold, Kim Stevens, Julian A. Drewe (Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine)
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - January 16, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sweet talk: Metabolic conversations between host and microbe during infection.
Abstract In this issue, we introduce the second part of a series of reviews focusing on how immunometabolism influences host and pathogen interactions during infection. This part of the collection addresses the interface between metabolism and specific types of infection, including immunometabolism in macrophages during helminth infection, the role of metabolism in T-cell exhaustion during chronic viral infections and host immunometabolism in the defence against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These reviews, together with the four articles published in part 1 of the series in November 2020, offer new insight...
Source: Immunology - January 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Amiel E, Perona-Wright G Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Expanding the Vision for Differentiated Service Delivery: A Call for More Inclusive and Truly Patient-Centered Care for People Living With HIV
Conclusions: DSD 2.0 provides an opportunity for the HIV and Universal Health Coverage agendas—which can seem to be at odds—to achieve greater collective impact for patients and health systems by integrating strong vertical HIV, tuberculosis and family planning programs, and relatively weaker noncommunicable disease programs. Increasing coordination of care for PLHIV will increase the likelihood of achieving and sustaining UNAIDS′ goals of retention on antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression. Eventually, this shift to DSD 2.0 for PLHIV could evolve to a more person-centered vision of chronic care...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

Schistosoma mansoni Infection Is Associated With a Higher Probability of Tuberculosis Disease in HIV-Infected Adults in Kenya
Conclusions: We provide evidence that SM infection is associated with a higher probability of active TB disease, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global tuberculosis awards must do better with equity, diversity, and inclusion
Publication date: 16–22 January 2021Source: The Lancet, Volume 397, Issue 10270Author(s): Emily MacLean, Jacob Bigio, Urvashi Singh, Joel Shyam Klinton, Madhukar Pai (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - January 15, 2021 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 21, Pages 584: Non-Invasive Method to Detect Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Wild Boar by Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds Obtained from Feces with an Electronic Nose System
In this study, we analyzed the volatile organic compounds emitted by fecal samples collected from free-ranging wild boar captured in Doñana National Park, Spain, with an electronic nose system based on organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The animals were separated by the age group for performing the analysis. Adult (>24 months) and sub-adult (12–24 months) animals were anesthetized before sample collection, whereas the juvenile (<12 months) animals were manually restrained while collecting the sample. Good accuracy was obtained for the adult and sub-adult classi...
Source: Sensors - January 15, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kelvin de Jes ús Beleño-Sáenz Juan Mart ín Cáceres-Tarazona Pauline Nol Aylen Lisset Jaimes-Mogoll ón Oscar Eduardo Gualdr ón-Guerrero Cristhian Manuel Dur án-Acevedo Jose Angel Barasona Joaquin Vicente Mar ía José Torres Tesfalem Geremariam Wel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF assays for extrapulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Xpert Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF may be helpful in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity varies across different extrapulmonary specimens: while for most specimens specificity is high, the tests rarely yield a positive result for people without tuberculosis. For tuberculous meningitis, Xpert Ultra had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Xpert MTB/RIF against culture. Xpert Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF had similar sensitivity and specificity for rifampicin resistance. Future research should acknowledge the concern associated with culture as a reference standard in paucibacillary specimens and co...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - January 15, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kohli M, Schiller I, Dendukuri N, Yao M, Dheda K, Denkinger CM, Schumacher SG, Steingart KR Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Study on the relationship between CXCR3 and its ligands and tubal tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2021Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Hu Sun, Jiahui Fan, Xiaoqian Shang, Bahetibieke Tuohetaerbaike, Ying Li, Jie Lv, Yue Wang, Liang Wang, Jing Wang, Xiumin Ma (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - January 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association of tuberculosis in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: a treatment proposal based on literature review.
Authors: Iqbal P, Soliman A, De Sanctis V, Yassin MA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic Myeloid leukemia (CML) is one the first hematological malignancy linked with genetic alterations and have a targeted therapy with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. However, there are certain unanswered questions, and many unmet needs which limit its treatment. Concurrent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is one of those significant factors. Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly prevalent disease in association with diabetes mellitus, malignancy, poor socioeconomic environment, HIV, and other immunosuppressive conditions in developed and ...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - January 14, 2021 Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research

COVID-19 and active primary tuberculosis in a low-resource setting: A case report
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2021Source: Annals of Medicine and SurgeryAuthor(s): Muhammad Anis Baskara, Firdian Makrufardi, Ardiana Dinisari (Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - January 14, 2021 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Targeting Autophagy as a Strategy for Developing New Vaccines and Host-Directed Therapeutics Against Mycobacteria
Mycobacterial disease is an immense burden worldwide. This disease group includes tuberculosis, leprosy (Hansen’s disease), Buruli Ulcer, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease. The burden of NTM disease, both pulmonary and ulcerative, is drastically escalating globally, especially in developed countries such as America and Australia. Mycobacteria’s ability to inhibit or evade the host immune system has contributed significantly to its continued prevalence. Pre-clinical studies have highlighted promising candidates that enhance endogenous pathways and/or limit destructive host responses. Autophagy is a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound –guided fine-needle aspiration of tubercular lymphadenitis using combination of cytology and Gene Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis /rifampicin (MTB/RIF) genes
AbstractDiagnostic yield of an automated molecular test, Gene XpertMycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (MTB/RIF), was evaluated in this study to simultaneously detect the MTB gene and resistance to rifampicin (RIF) on cytology samples acquired via endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) –guided fine-needle aspiration (FNAC) in suspected tubercular lymphadenitis. Microscopy, cytology, Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay data on Acid-fast bacillus (AFB), and traditional culture of lymph nodes were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-one patients (median age 33.5 years, inter-quartile range [IQR ] 21–66, 18, 58% female) presented wi...
Source: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology - January 14, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Diagnostic yield of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy: A safety net community-based hospital experience in the United States
CONCLUSIONS: ENB is safe and feasible with a high diagnostic success rate even when performed by pulmonologists not formally trained in interventional pulmonology in low resource settings under moderate sedation. (Source: Annals of Thoracic Medicine)
Source: Annals of Thoracic Medicine - January 14, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sujith V Cherian Saranjit Kaur Siddharth Karanth Jonathan Z Xian Rosa M Estrada-Y-Martin Source Type: research

Improving tuberculosis surveillance by detecting international transmission using publicly available whole genome sequencing data
ConclusionWe demonstrated the added value of using WGS raw data from public repositories to contribute to TB surveillance. Comparing the German with the public dataset, we identified potential international transmission events. Thus, using this approach might support the interpretation of national surveillance results in an international context. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrea Sanchini, Christine Jandrasits, Julius Tembrockhaus, Thomas Andreas Kohl, Christian Utpatel, Florian P Maurer, Stefan Niemann, Walter Haas, Bernhard Y Renard and Stefan Kr öger Source Type: research

Implementation of the LOOP pathway—a framework for the management of ocular tuberculosis across the United Kingdom?
Eye, Published online: 14 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41433-020-01348-2Implementation of the LOOP pathway—a framework for the management of ocular tuberculosis across the United Kingdom? (Source: Eye)
Source: Eye - January 14, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Huzaifa Malick Martin Wiselka Periyasamy Kumar Bharat Kapoor Source Type: research

[Assessment of body composition during pulmonary tuberculosis].
CONCLUSION: Undernutrition is frequent in patients with active TB. It is correlated with the severity of the disease. In addition to anti-tuberculosis drugs, nutritional management of these patients is essential. PMID: 33423857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - January 13, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research

ClpXP-mediated degradation of the TAC antitoxin is neutralized by the SecB-like chaperone in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2021Source: Journal of Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Pauline TEXIER, Patricia BORDES, Jyotsna NAGPAL, Ambre Julie SALA, Moise MANSOUR, Anne-Marie CIRINESI, Xibing XU, David Andrew DOUGAN, Pierre GENEVAUX (Source: Journal of Molecular Biology)
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - January 13, 2021 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

[Research Resources] Measurement of leukocyte trafficking kinetics in macaques by serial intravascular staining
Leukocyte trafficking enables detection of pathogens, immune responses, and immune memory. Dysregulation of leukocyte trafficking is often found in disease, highlighting its important role in homeostasis and the immune response. Whereas some of the molecular mechanisms mediating leukocyte trafficking are understood, little is known about the regulation of trafficking, including trafficking kinetics and its impact on immune homeostasis. We developed a method of serial intravascular staining (SIVS) to measure trafficking kinetics in nonhuman primates using infusions of fluorescently labeled antibodies to label circulating le...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - January 13, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Potter, E. L., Gideon, H. P., Tkachev, V., Fabozzi, G., Chassiakos, A., Petrovas, C., Darrah, P. A., Lin, P. L., Foulds, K. E., Kean, L. S., Flynn, J. L., Roederer, M. Tags: Research Resources Source Type: research

Performance of the MeltPro MTB Assays in the Diagnosis of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Using Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin ‑Embedded Tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: The MeltPro MTB assays rapidly and efficiently predict Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to the main first- and second-line anti-TB drugs in FFPE tissues. PMID: 33438007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology - January 13, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Mu J, Liu Z, Zhang C, Wang C, Du W, Lin H, Li K, Song J, Che N, Liu H Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research

Challenges in the Management of Laryngo-Tracheo-Bronchial Stenosis Secondary to Tuberculosis
AbstractLaryngo-tracheo-bronchial tuberculosis may be primary or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. It causes stenosis of the airway, leading to life threatening airway obstruction. We herein describe the challenges in managing a case of laryngo-tracheo-bronchial stenosis in a 22-year-old patient who presented with stridor post antituberculous therapy secondary to a malacic airway. (Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery)
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - January 12, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Diagnostic Yield of Oral Swab Testing by TB-LAMP for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis
(Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - January 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research

Bioenergetic Inhibitors: Antibiotic Efficacy and Mechanisms of Action in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Development of novel anti-tuberculosis combination regimens that increase efficacy and reduce treatment timelines will improve patient compliance, limit side-effects, reduce costs, and enhance cure rates. Such advancements would significantly improve the global TB burden and reduce drug resistance acquisition. Bioenergetics has received considerable attention in recent years as a fertile area for anti-tuberculosis drug discovery. Targeting the electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation machinery promises not only to kill growing cells but also metabolically dormant bacilli that are inherently more drug to...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A systematic review of tuberculosis detection and prevention studies in prisons
. (Source: Global Public Health)
Source: Global Public Health - January 11, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ilsa Louisa Haeusler Arturo Torres-Ortiz Louis Grandjean Source Type: research

Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection [Ecology]
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 11, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Sarah A. Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna E. Jolles, Kaori Sakamoto Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Characterization of pncA Mutations and Prediction of PZA Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates From Chongqing, China
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is widely used to treat drug-sensitive or multidrug resistance tuberculosis. However, conventional PZA susceptibility tests of clinical isolates are rather difficult because of the requirement of acid pH. Since resistance to pyrazinamide is primary mediated by mutation of pncA, an alternative way of PZA susceptibility test is to analyze the pyrazinamidase activities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. Therefore, a database containing the full spectrum of pncA mutations along with pyrazinamidase activities will be beneficial. To characterize mutations of pncA in M. tuberculosis from Chongqing...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Inflammatory cytological alterations in the oral epithelium associated with HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: A Preliminary Study
In 2018, about 1.7 million new cases of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) were reported, totaling approximately 37.9 million infected people worldwide. Since 1980, 32 million people have died of diseases related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), mainly tuberculosis.1 Thus, HIV, which causes AIDS, remains a threat to global health.2 (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics)
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - January 11, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Gabriela Leite Baggio, Nayara Flores Macedo, J úlio Cezar Merlin, Mauren Isfer Anghebem, Juliane Cardoso Villela Santos, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira-Bullen, Luciana Reis Azevedo Alanis, Paulo Henrique Couto Souza Source Type: research

Toward patient-centered tuberculosis preventive treatment: preferences for regimens and formulations in Lima, Peru
To ensure patient-centered tuberculosis preventive treatment, it is important to consider factors that make it easier for patients to complete treatment. However, there is little published literature about pat... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - January 11, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Courtney M. Yuen, Ana K. Millones, Jerome T. Galea, Daniela Puma, Judith Jimenez, Leonid Lecca, Mercedes C. Becerra and Salmaan Keshavjee Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The transition to Xpert MTB/RIF ultra: diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda
The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the next-generation Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) cartridge, and Uganda is currently transitioning from the older generation Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) cartridge to Ul... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Andama, D. Jaganath, R. Crowder, L. Asege, M. Nakaye, D. Katumba, J. Mukwatamundu, S. Mwebe, C. F. Semitala, W. Worodria, M. Joloba, S. Mohanty, A. Somoskovi and A. Cattamanchi Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Activity of Clofazimine and TBI-166 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in different administration intervals in mouse tuberculosis models.
Abstract Clofazimine (CFZ) and TBI-166 belong to the riminophenazine class of antimicrobial agent. TBI-166 exhibited promising anti-tuberculosis activity in vitro and in animal models, is currently under phase I clinical development for the treatment of tuberculosis in China. To identify an optimal dosing regimen to support further clinical development of TBI-166, the efficacy of CFZ and TBI-166 were evaluated in two aerosol infection models utilizing BALB/c and C3HeB/FeJNju mice. TBI-166 and CFZ were dosed at 20 mg/kg daily for two weeks, followed by QD (once daily), TIW (thrice weekly) and BIW (twice weekly) for...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhu H, Fu L, Wang B, Chen X, Zhao J, Huang H, Lu Y Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Primary and acquired multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: Predictive factors for unfavorable treatment outcomes in Rio de Janeiro, 2000-2016.
Authors: Bhering M, Kritski A Abstract Objective: To identify clinical and demographic factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes in patients with primary and acquired multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Rio de Janeiro State. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using data on 2 269 MDR-TB cases in 2000-2016. Factors associated with unsuccessful, loss to follow-up, and death outcomes in patients with primary and acquired resistance were investigated with bivariate and multivariate regression. Results: Primary resistance was 14.7% among MDR-TB cases. The unfavorable outcomes proportion was...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - January 10, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

Delayed total hip arthroplasty infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex.
We present a case of THA joint infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) in a patient without a previous history of MT infection. A literature review was performed, and the treatment is discussed. PMID: 33418615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica)
Source: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica - January 10, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Acta Orthop Belg Source Type: research

Tuberculous Scleritis and Multidrug Resistance.
Conclusion: Diagnosis of tuberculous scleritis is a challenge. Therapeutic failure must alert the clinician for drug resistance which is diagnosed early, can prevent the devastating outcomes. PMID: 33416427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - January 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research

High Sensitivity C-Reaction Protein in HIV care: tuberculosis diagnosis and short-term mortality in a cohort of Kenyan HIV patients in the DREAM program
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fausto Ciccacci, Benjamin Welu, Harrison Ndoi, Irene Karea, Stefano Orlando, Davide Brambilla, Kenneth Munene, Piero Giglio, Brenda Opanga, Aiban Ronoh, Scolastica Mukwanjagi, Raymond Mwiraria, Giovanni Guidotti, Maria Cristina Marazzi Source Type: research

Genital tuberculosis role in female infertility in Portugal
ConclusionDespite being one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, genital TB does not appear to have a significant impact on the etiology of female infertility in Portugal. Nevertheless, it is a diagnosis to be considered in selected patients. (Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics)
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - January 10, 2021 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Outcome of lymph node tuberculosis management with conventional treatment with and without prednisolone.
Abstract The outcome of lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) management with conventional anti-tubercular treatment alone is unsatisfactory. We conducted a randomised open-label controlled clinical trial in the Department of Respiratory Medicine in Government Institute of Dhaka, Bangladesh from April 2017 to March 2019. Compared with controls, 54 patients of LNTB received category 1 anti-tubercular treatment with additional prednisolone after randomisation. Complete resolution in 21/54 (75%) and 7 (26.9%), symptomatic improvement in 26 (92.9%) and 22 (84.6%) and complications in 11 (39.28%) and 16 (61.53%) were observed...
Source: Tropical Doctor - January 10, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sharmin A, Hossain A, Islam N, Sarker ZH, Hossain SS, Khan MA Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Development of Curcumin, its Combinations, Formulations and Curcumin-like Compounds as Antiinfective Agents.
Abstract Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Such diseases mostly develop in tropical and sub-tropical climates and represent major health challenges. The pathogens of these diseases are able to multiply in human hosts, warranting their continual survival. Treatment is becoming extremely difficult, due to the absence of effective vaccines and the emergence of resistance by their causative pathogens to existing drugs. Several currently available drugs employ oxidative stress, resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen nitrogen species (R...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - January 10, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Kannigadu C, N'Da DD Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

Primary anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of cervical spine presenting with quadriplegia: A case report and literature review.
Conclusion: ALK-negative ALCL presenting with quadriplegia due to primary involvement of cervical spine is extremely rare, but must be diagnosed and appropriately managed. PMID: 33408907 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

Painful torticollis due to tubercular atlantoaxial rotatory fixation: A case report.
Conclusion: We present a case of tubercular atlantoaxial, rotary dislocation (AARF) in a patient who warranted C1-C2 decompression, reduction, and fusion. PMID: 33408925 [PubMed] (Source: Surgical Neurology International)
Source: Surgical Neurology International - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research

A sensitive EZMTT method provides microscale, quantitative and high-throughput evaluation of drug efficacy in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infectious diseases
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2021Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Jie Xie, Zhao Chen, Wei Liu, Dongshi Gu, Yan Yu, Xinrou Chen, Yefei Wu, Ning Xu, Li Xie, Gang Zhao, Benfang Helen Ruan (Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods)
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - January 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Trend and treatment outcomes of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant persons in Japan: retrospective analysis of Japan tuberculosis surveillance data
Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among migrant population has become a critical issue for many low tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Evidence regarding effectiveness of LTBI programs are li... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lisa Kawatsu, Kazuhiro Uchimura and Akihiro Ohkado Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Gap to End-TB targets in eastern China: a joinpoint analysis from population-based notification data in Zhejiang Province, China, 2005-2018
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which can transmission through aerosol or droplets. M.tb typically affects the lung, but can also affect other sites (extrapulmonary TB, EPTB) (WHO, 2020). Pulmonary TB (PTB) cases play a key role in the transmission of M.tb. Bacteriologically confirmed PTB patients, namely PTB cases with sputum smear-positive or culture-positive or molecular test positive, are more capable of transmitting M.tb (Behr et al., 1999; Grzybowski et al., 1975; Hernandez-Garduno et al., 2004; Tostmann et al., 2008). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wenlong Zhu, Yesheng Wang, Tao Li, Wei Chen, Weibing Wang Source Type: research

Wrist tuberculosis-experience from eighteen cases: a retrospective study
In this study, the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 18 ca... (Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research)
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research - January 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Longfei Zou, Xing Guo, Hao Xue, Denghua Huang, Hui Lv and Meiyun Tan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Integrated TB and HIV care for Mozambican children: temporal trends, site-level determinants of performance, and recommendations for improved TB preventive treatment
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and TB-HIV co-infection are health problems with evidence-based diagnostic and treatment algorithms that can reduce morbidity and mortality. Imp... (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - January 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: W. Chris Buck, Hanh Nguyen, Mariana Siapka, Lopa Basu, Jessica Greenberg Cowan, Maria In ês De Deus, Megan Gleason, Ferreira Ferreira, Carla Xavier, Benedita Jose, Criménia Muthemba, Beatriz Simione and Peter Kerndt Tags: Research Source Type: research

Integrated TB and HIV care for Mozambican children: temporal trends, site-level determinants of performance, and recommendations for improved TB preventive treatment.
This study aimed to assess performance in the pediatric HIV and TB care cascades in Mozambique. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine PEPFAR site-level HIV and TB data from 2012 to 2016 was performed. Patients 0-14 years of age were included. Descriptive statistics were used to report trends in TB and HIV indicators. Linear regression was done to assess associations of site-level variables with performance in the pediatric TB and HIV care cascades using 2016 data. RESULTS: Routine HIV testing and cotrimoxazole initiation for co-infected children in the TB program were nearly optimal at 99% and 96% in ...
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - January 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Buck WC, Nguyen H, Siapka M, Basu L, Greenberg Cowan J, De Deus MI, Gleason M, Ferreira F, Xavier C, Jose B, Muthemba C, Simione B, Kerndt P Tags: AIDS Res Ther Source Type: research

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, Nocardia brasiliensis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection in a myasthenia gravis patient: A case report
Conclusion: In conclusion, physicians should be aware of the predisposition of MG patients to co-infections, especially patients with metabolic disorders, to avoid inadequate treatment and poor patient outcomes. Due to the limitations of culture conditions, NGS should be considered as a new technique for identifying pathogens. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - January 8, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Predicted Structural Variability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE18 Protein With Immunological Implications Among Clinical Strains
In this study, we investigated the structural predictions of 29 variant PPE18 proteins previously reported. We found evidence that PPE18 is at least a two-domain protein, with a highly conserved first domain and a largely variable second domain that has different coevolutionary clusters. Further, we investigated putative epitope sites in the clinical variants of PPE18 using prediction software. We found a negative relationship between T-cell epitope number and residue variability, while B-cell epitope likelihood was positively correlated with residue variability. Moreover, we found far more residues in the second domain pr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Algorithms Evaluate Immune Response to Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
ConclusionWe exploited the use of machine learning algorithms as a key tool to evaluate large immunological datasets. This identified several antigen–cytokine pairs with the potential to improve immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Prevalence and associated factors
by Norfazilah Ahmad, Mazni Baharom, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Rohaya Ramli Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is more infectious compared to smear-negative PTB and have great significance for epidemiology and infection control. The prevalence of smear-positive PTB rarely affects males and females equally. Hence, we aimed to identify the sex-related differences i n the prevalence of smear-positive PTB and its associated factors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Tuberculosis Information System (TBIS) from 1 January, 2015, to 31 December, 2019. The study popu...
Source: PLoS One - January 8, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Norfazilah Ahmad Source Type: research

Trends in paediatric tuberculosis diagnoses in two South African hospitals early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Lebina L, Dube M, Hlongwane K, Brahmbatt H, Lala SG, Reubenson G, Martinson N PMID: 33403952 [PubMed - in process] (Source: South African Medical Journal)
Source: South African Medical Journal - January 7, 2021 Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research

Opportunities from a new disease for an old threat: Extending COVID-19 efforts to address tuberculosis in South Africa.
Authors: Loveday M, Cox H, Evans D, Furin J, Ndjeka N, Osman M, Naidoo For The National Tb Think Tank 'Optimising Tb Treatment Outcomes' Task Team K Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic and phased nationwide lockdown have impacted negatively on individuals with tuberculosis (TB) and routine TB services. Through a literature review and the perspective of members of a national TB Think Tank task team, we describe the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on TB patients and services as well as the potential long-term setback to TB control in South Africa (SA). Strategies to mitigate risk and impact are explored, together with...
Source: South African Medical Journal - January 7, 2021 Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research