A Case of Bacteriologically Determined De NovoTuberculosis during Tumor Necrosis Factor- α Inhibitor Therapy.
A Case of Bacteriologically Determined De NovoTuberculosis during Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitor Therapy. Intern Med. 2019 Aug 21;: Authors: Takahashi G, Kobayashi H, Saito Y, Ohsawa S, Suzuki K, Ishihara S, Hisada T Abstract A 58-year-old man with Crohn's disease received adalimumab for 13 months after screening results for tuberculosis were found to be negative. He was diagnosed with de novo mediastinal lymph-node tuberculosis, which was proved to be bacteriologically identical to that of an individual with smear positive lung tuberculosis by a variable number of tandem repeat analyses. Afte...
Source: Internal Medicine - August 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Tuberculosis fatality rates in the city of Campinas - São Paulo, Brazil, from 2001 to 2009
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The mortality rate among tuberculosis patients (TB fatality) has been attributed to irregular chemotherapy, delay in diagnosis, multidrug resistance, and HIV coinfection. Objective: To analyze TB fatality rates by sex, clinical presentation and HIV coinfection in Campinas, S ão Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Cohorts of residents in the city of Campinas who either died during treatment for tuberculosis or had the disease confirmed after death were divided into three intervals: 2001-2003, 2004-2006, and 2007-2009. Data were obtained from the database of the Tuberculosis Surve illance System of the Uni...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - August 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of a New Automated Chemiluminescent Immunoanalyzer-Based Interferon-Gamma Releasing Assay AdvanSure I3 in Comparison With the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Assay.
CONCLUSIONS: CLIA-IGRA is a reliable assay for LTBI diagnosis, with performance similar to that of QFT-GIT. PMID: 31432637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Laboratory Medicine)
Source: Annals of Laboratory Medicine - August 23, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Ann Lab Med Source Type: research

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: Progress towards shorter and safer regimens
Kavitha Saravu, Madhukar PaiLung India 2019 36(5):373-375 (Source: Lung India)
Source: Lung India - August 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kavitha Saravu Madhukar Pai Source Type: research

Treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with modified DOTS-plus strategy: A 2 years & #39; experience
Conclusions: MDR-TB can be cured successfully with modified DOTS-Plus strategy and requires much effort from both the patients and health-care workers. It can be an alternative model for treating MDR-TB patients in private sector. (Source: Lung India)
Source: Lung India - August 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Abhijeet Singh Rajendra Prasad Ram Awadh Singh Kushwaha Rahul Srivastava Belur Hosmane Giridhar Viswesvaran Balasubramanian Amita Jain Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 3059: Smoked Tobacco, Air Pollution, and Tuberculosis in Lao PDR: Findings from a National Sample
. Singh In 2017, more than half of the global burden of incident tuberculosis (TB) came from the Western Pacific region. In Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), the high rates of tobacco use and use of polluting biomass fuels for cooking (e.g., wood, charcoal, crop waste, dung) represent significant risk factors for TB. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between self-reported (1) smoking and TB; and (2) exposure to air pollution (from both cooking fires and environmental tobacco smoke) and TB among adults in Lao PDR. We analyzed data from the 2012 National Adult Tobacco Survey (...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - August 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Anne Berit Petersen Natassia Muffley Khamphithoun Somsamouth Pramil N. Singh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Binding energies of the drugs capreomycin and streptomycin in complex with tuberculosis bacterial ribosome subunits
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2019, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9CP03631H, PaperJessica F. Vianna, Katyanna S. Bezerra, Jonas I. N. Oliveira, Eudenilson L. Albuquerque, Umberto L. Fulco We calculated the interaction binding energies of the drugs capreomycin and streptomycin in complex with the tuberculosis bacterial ribosome subunits. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - August 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jessica F. Vianna Source Type: research

Plasma metabolites Xanthine, 4-Pyridoxate, and d-glutamic acid as novel potential biomarkers for pulmonary tuberculosis
ConclusionThe results suggested that Xanthine, 4-Pyridoxate, and d-glutamic acid may serve as potential biomarkers for pulmonary TB. The present study provides experimental basis for developing potential biomarkers of pulmonary TB. (Source: Clinica Chimica Acta)
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - August 22, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tRNA-Ligases Using siRNA-Based Gene Silencing Method: A Computational Approach
Journal of Computational Biology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Computational Biology)
Source: Journal of Computational Biology - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Partha Sarathi Mohanty Sandeep Sharma Farah Naaz Dilip Kumar Archana Raikwar Shripad A. Patil Source Type: research

Ultrasound-based elastography: "hard" to implement in the pleural effusion work-up?
Thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has been incorporated as a routine bedside tool for the diagnosis of pleural diseases and the performance of safe pleural procedures [1]. It is generally accepted that TUS can provide valuable information on the possible malignant nature of a pleural effusion. Ultrasound appearances suggestive of malignancy include parietal or visceral pleural thickening of more than 1 cm, diaphragmatic thickness greater than 7 mm, pleural or diaphragmatic nodules and liver metastases, but the sonographic fluid characteristics themselves are nonspecific [2, 3]. These imaging criteria, also applicable to ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - August 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Porcel, J. M. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Plasma Type I IFN Protein Concentrations in Human Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and a lack of understanding of basic disease pathogenesis is hampering development of new vaccines and treatments. Multiple studies have previously established a role for type I interferon (IFN) in TB disease. Type I IFNs are critical immune mediators for host responses to viral infection, yet their specific influence in bacterial infection remains unclear. As IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune function, clarifying the role of type I interferon in TB remains an important question. The quantificati...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of new components of the RipC-FtsEX cell separation pathway of < i > Corynebacterineae < /i >
by Hoong Chuin Lim, Joel W. Sher, Frances P. Rodriguez-Rivera, Coralie Fumeaux, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Thomas G. Bernhardt Several important human pathogens are represented in the Corynebacterineae suborder, includingMycobacterium tuberculosis andCorynebacterium diphtheriae. These bacteria are surrounded by a multilayered cell envelope composed of a cytoplasmic membrane, a peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall, a second polysaccharide layer called the arabinogalactan (AG), and finally an outer membrane-like layer made of mycolic acids. Several anti-tuberculosis drugs target the biogenesis of this complex envelope, but their efficacy...
Source: PLoS Genetics - August 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hoong Chuin Lim Source Type: research

Genes, Vol. 10, Pages 636: DNA Testing Reveals the Putative Identity of JB55, a 19th Century Vampire Buried in Griswold, Connecticut
McMahon Charla Marshall In 1990 in Griswold, Connecticut, archaeologists excavated a burial found in a &amp;ldquo;skull and crossbones&amp;rdquo; orientation. The lid of the 19th century coffin had brass tacks that spelled &amp;ldquo;JB55&amp;rdquo;, the initials of the person lying there and age at death. JB55 had evidence of chronic pulmonary infection, perhaps tuberculosis. It is possible that JB55 was deemed a vampire due to his disease, and therefore had to be &amp;ldquo;killed&amp;rdquo; by mutilating his corpse. In an attempt to reveal the identity of JB55, DNA testing was performed. An...
Source: Genes - August 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jennifer Daniels-Higginbotham Erin M. Gorden Stephanie K. Farmer Brian Spatola Franklin Damann Nicholas Bellantoni Katie S. Gagnon Maria de la Puente Catarina Xavier Susan Walsh Walther Parson Timothy P. McMahon Charla Marshall Tags: Article Source Type: research

Acupuncture for chronic hepatitis B.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of acupuncture for chronic hepatitis B remain unknown. The included trials lacked data on all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events, hepatitis-B related mortality, and hepatitis-B related morbidity. The vast number of excluded trials lacked clear descriptions of their design and conduct. Whether acupuncture influences adverse events considered not to be serious is uncertain. It remains unclear if acupuncture affects HBeAg, and if it is associated with reduction in detectable HBV DNA. Based on available data from only one or two small trials on adverse even...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - August 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kong Z, Liang N, Yang GL, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Yang Y, Liu YX, Wang QG, Zhang F, Zhang HY, Nikolova D, Jakobsen JC, Gluud C, Liu JP Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Analytical Comparison of Methods for Extraction of Short Cell-Free DNA from Urine
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: The Journal of Molecular DiagnosticsAuthor(s): Amy Oreskovic, Norman D. Brault, Nuttada Panpradist, James J. Lai, Barry R. LutzUrine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a valuable noninvasive biomarker for detecting cancer mutation, diagnosing infectious disease (eg, tuberculosis), monitoring organ transplantation, and prenatal screening. Conventional silica DNA extraction does not efficiently capture urine cfDNA, which is dilute (ng/mL) and highly fragmented (30 to 100 nt). The clinical sensitivity of urine cfDNA detection increases with decreasing target length, motivating us...
Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - August 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Addressing the threat from within: Investigation of respiratory symptoms in a health care worker with untreated latent tuberculosis infection
We describe a pediatric intensive care unit nurse with latent TB infection who developed hemoptysis and a lung infiltrate concerning for active TB. Her evaluation and contact investigation were facilitated by our institution's command center. Although TB was ultimately ruled out, this case tested our team-based care in response to a suspected high-consequence pathogen. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence of Malaria and TB Coinfection at a National Tuberculosis Treatment Centre in Uganda.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria/TB coinfection among bacteriologically confirmed adult TB patients at a national TB treatment centre in Uganda. Using a cross-sectional study design we enrolled 363 bacteriologically confirmed adult TB patients, and data on demographics and medical history was collected. Blood samples were tested for malaria blood smear, rapid malaria diagnostic test (RDT), complete blood count, haematological film analysis, HIV serology, and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. Malaria was defined as either a positive blood smear or RDT. The study participants were mostly male (...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

A case of cutaneous tuberculosis presenting with generalized xanthogranulomas
This study explores a possible association with tuberculosis. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - August 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

All in the family: A rare report of concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis and leprosy
We report a rare case of concomitant pulmonary TB and leprosy identified in the United States. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - August 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

High incidence of latent tuberculosis infection in indigent patients receiving biologics in New York City
Introduction: Despite the known association between the use of biologic medications and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) the rate of LTBI among indigent Hispanic psoriatic patients living in the U.S. has not been studied. Little is known about the overall impact LTBI may pose on their treatment of psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - August 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) presenting as alopecia areata following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
We present a case of a 48-year-old male who developed patchy hair loss on the scalp and limbs clinically consistent with alopecia areata, two months following re-commencement of HAART. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - August 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Tropical diseases and anaesthesia
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Anaesthesia & Intensive Care MedicineAuthor(s): Victoria Howell, Tom BashfordAbstractThe range of infectious diseases encountered while working overseas in resource limited settings varies enormously depending on where in the world one is working, although the majority of low and middle income countries lie within the tropics. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are commonly encountered when working in tropical countries and may have an impact upon anaesthesia, either as a direct result of the condition or due to interaction with the...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Seaweed (Turbinaria ornata)-assisted green synthesis of magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] nanomaterials and their anti-mycobacterial activity
Publication date: 1 January 2020Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 239Author(s): K. Govindaraju, K. Vijai Anand, S. Anbarasu, J. Theerthagiri, S. Revathy, P. Krupakar, G. Durai, M. Kannan, K.S. SubramanianAbstractFacile synthesis of Mg(OH)2 nanomaterials using seaweed Turbinaria ornata is reported herein. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis infer that crystal structures of Mg(OH)2 nanomaterials exhibit hexagonal brucite structure with thickness and lateral dimension around 7.75 nm and 16.29 nm (measured with Scherrer equation) respectively. FE-SEM images reveal that the flakes like structure were well ...
Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - August 21, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Differentiation of live and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in meat samples using PMA qPCR.
Abstract The causative agents of zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae, are members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). Wildlife such as red deer infected with bTB are often without pathological findings, thus meat thereof may be classified as safe for human consumption. The culturing of MTC is time consuming and inappropriate to be applied with fresh meat and food. Therefore, a rapid method "PMA qPCR" to differentiate living and dead cells of MTC was developed in this study. By treating with 50 μM PMA™ dye, dead M. bovis BCG (≤104 cells/ml meat suspensio...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 21, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Dorn-In S, Gareis M, Schwaiger K Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

[ASAP] Structural Basis of Glycerophosphodiester Recognition by the < italic toggle="yes" > Mycobacterium tuberculosis < /italic > Substrate-Binding Protein UgpB
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00204 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)
Source: ACS Chemical Biology - August 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jonathan S. Fenn †, Ridvan Nepravishta‡, Collette S. Guy†, James Harrison†, Jesus Angulo‡, Alexander D. Cameron†, and Elizabeth Fullam*† Source Type: research

HIV Infection Is Associated With Downregulation of BTLA Expression on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4 T Cells in Active Tuberculosis Disease
Nearly a quarter of the global population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), with 10 million people developing active tuberculosis (TB) annually. Co-infection with HIV has long been recognized as a significant risk factor for progression to TB disease, yet the mechanisms whereby HIV impairs T cell-mediated control of Mtb infection remain poorly defined. We hypothesized that HIV infection may promote upregulation of inhibitory receptors on Mtb-specific CD4 T cells, a mechanism that has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction in chronic infections. Using cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfe...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum for Hoft et al., "The Rate of CD4 T Cell Entry into the Lungs during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Is Determined by Partial and Opposing Effects of Multiple Chemokine Receptors" [Errata]
(Source: Infection and Immunity)
Source: Infection and Immunity - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoft, S. G., Sallin, M. A., Kauffman, K. D., Sakai, S., Ganusov, V. V., Barber, D. L. Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Primary Infection and Dissemination: A Critical Role for Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) has reemerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, despite the use of the M. bovis BCG vaccine and intensive attempts to improve upon BCG or develop new vaccines. Two lacunae in our understanding of the M. tuberculosis (M. tb)-host pathogenesis have mitigated the vaccine efforts; the bacterial-host interaction that enables successful establishment of primary infection and the correlates of protection against TB. The vast majority of vaccine efforts are based on the premise that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the predominating mode of protection against TB. However, studies in animal mod...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Neutrophils express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in granulomas from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cynomolgus macaques
Mucosal Immunology, Published online: 21 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41385-019-0195-8Neutrophils express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in granulomas from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cynomolgus macaques (Source: Mucosal Immunology)
Source: Mucosal Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hannah P. Gideon Jiayao Phuah Beth A. Junecko Joshua T. Mattila Source Type: research

Predictors of recurrent TB in sputum smear and culture positive adults: a prospective cohort study
Conclusion: Extensive end of treatment pulmonary fibro-cavitation, high pre-treatment bacillary burden with no weight gain  and HIV infection could be reliable predictors of recurrent tuberculosis.Keywords: Grade, fibrosis, cavities, weight. (Source: African Health Sciences)
Source: African Health Sciences - August 21, 2019 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax following acupuncture treatments in Taiwan.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of lung disease including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, lung cancer and pneumonia, and a history of thoracic surgery, might have an increased post-acupuncture risk of pneumothorax. This information may possibly help physicians avoid post-acupuncture pneumothorax. PMID: 31433202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society)
Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lin SK, Liu JM, Hsu RJ, Chuang HC, Wang YX, Lin PH Tags: Acupunct Med Source Type: research

Multiple Colonic and Ileal Perforations due to Unsuspected Intestinal Amoebiasis – Case Report and Review
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was initia...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - August 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The endTB observational study protocol: treatment of MDR-TB with bedaquiline or delamanid containing regimens
At a time when programs were struggling to design effective regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the marketing authorization of bedaquiline and delamanid was a critical deve... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Uzma Khan, Helena Huerga, Aamir J. Khan, Carole D. Mitnick, Catherine Hewison, Francis Varaine, Mathieu Bastard, Michael Rich, Molly F. Franke, Sidney Atwood, Palwasha Y. Khan and Kwonjune J. Seung Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research

Factors associated with isoniazid resistant tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus positive patients in Swaziland: a case-control study
Isoniazid resistant tuberculosis is the most prevalent type of resistance in Swaziland and over two-thirds of the isoniazid resistant tuberculosis patients are tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nonhlanhla Christinah Dlamini, Dar-Der Ji and Li-Yin Chien Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Impact of ultrasound on management for dyspnea presentations in a Rwandan emergency department
AbstractBackgroundThe complexity of diagnosis for critically ill dyspnea presentations in the emergency department remains a challenge. Accurate and rapid recognition of associated life-threatening conditions is paramount for timely treatment. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been shown to impact the diagnosis of dyspnea presentations in resource-rich settings, and may be of greater diagnostic benefit in resource-limited settings.MethodsWe prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of 100 patients presenting with dyspnea in the Emergency Department at University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTH-K) in Rwanda. After a t...
Source: Critical Ultrasound Journal - August 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Action of Dicumarol on Glucosamine-1-Phosphate Acetyltransferase of GlmU and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is one of most pathogenic microorganism in the world. It was reported that M. tb GlmU was a potential drug target, therefore, discovering compounds targeting GlmU acetyltransferase is necessary. The nature-driven compounds were tested for inhibiting GlmU acetyltransferase activity. It was found that dicumarol exhibited inhibitory effect on GlmU acetyltransferase with the IC50 value of 4.608 μg/ml (13.7 μM). The inhibition kinetics indicated that dicumarol displayed an uncompetitive inhibition for acetyl CoA and noncompetition-competition mixed type inhibition for GlcN-1-P, respectiv...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Characterization of the Attenuated Double Auxotroph Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD as an Alternative to H37Rv
Currently available model organisms such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have significantly contributed to our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) biology, these models have limitations such as differences in genome size, growth rates and virulence. However, attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may provide more representative, safer models to study M. tuberculosis biology. For example, the M. tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD double auxotroph, has undergone rigorous in vitro and in vivo safety testing. Like other auxotrophic strains, this has subsequently ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of cellular and soluble profiles in QuantiFERON nonconverters, converters, and reverters in the Gambia
ConclusionsOur results provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of resistance to sustainedMycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease)
Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease - August 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lydia Medawar, Hatimi Mohd Tukiman, Georgetta Mbayo, Simon Donkor, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Jayne S. Sutherland Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with and without tuberculosis
Conclusion: Clinical symptoms alone cannot act as basis for suspecting TB in HIV patients. Mycobacterial cultures should be used as diagnostic aids and preferably both the mediums have to be used. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology)
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology - August 20, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Yashovardhan Naishadham Vijay Kumar Jogishetty Venkat Baghirath Pacha Sudheer B Balla B Hari Vinay Parameshwar Naishadham Source Type: research

Analytical Comparison of Methods for Extraction of Short Cell-Free DNA from Urine
Urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a valuable noninvasive biomarker for detecting cancer mutation, diagnosing infectious disease (eg, tuberculosis), monitoring organ transplantation, and prenatal screening. Conventional silica DNA extraction does not efficiently capture urine cfDNA, which is dilute (ng/mL) and highly fragmented (30 to 100 nt). The clinical sensitivity of urine cfDNA detection increases with decreasing target length, motivating use of sample preparation methods designed for short fragments. (Source: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - August 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Amy Oreskovic, Norman D. Brault, Nuttada Panpradist, James J. Lai, Barry R. Lutz Source Type: research

Neurological disorders in HIV in Africa: a review
Conclusion: Neurological disorders are common in HIV in Africa and the main CNS opportunistic infections result in high  mortality rates. Strategies aimed at reducing their high burden, morbidity and mortality include early HIV diagnosis and anti-retroviral therapy (ART), screening and chemoprophylaxis of main opportunistic infections, improved clinical diagnosis and management and programme strengthening.Keywords: Neurological disorders, HIV, Africa, opportunistic infections, direct HIV infection and inflammatory disorders. (Source: African Health Sciences)
Source: African Health Sciences - August 20, 2019 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Recommendation on unbiased estimation of population attributable fraction calculated in “prevalence and risk factors of active pulmonary tuberculosis among elderly people in China: a population based cross-sectional study”
AbstractPopulation attributable fraction (PAF) refers to the proportion of all cases with a particular outcome in a population that could be prevented by eliminating a specific exposure. The authors of a recent paper evaluated the prevalence and estimated the PAFs for risk factors of TB among elderly people in China [Inf Dis Poverty. 2019;8:7]. Confounding is inevitable in observational studies and Levin ’s formula is of limited use in practice for unbiasedly estimating PAF. In a complex survey design, an unbiased estimation of the PAF can be calculated using a sample-weighted version of the Miettinen formula or a sa...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - August 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Why a deadly bacterium coats itself in antacid
Nature, Published online: 19 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02482-yAlkaline compound helps the tuberculosis bacterium to ward off an acid attack from host cells. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - August 19, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Serotonin syndrome masquerading as disease flare in lupus nephritis with end ‐stage renal disease
ConclusionSerotonin syndrome should be considered in patients on multiple serotonergic agents on the background of end ‐stage renal disease. Prompt recognition and distinction from lupus activity can significantly impact management decisions. (Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - August 19, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rodeo V. Navarroza, Leonid D. Zamora, Sandra V. Navarra Tags: APLAR GRAND ROUND CASE Source Type: research

In vitro efficacies, ADME, and pharmacokinetic properties of phenoxazine derivatives active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a leading infectious killer globally, demanding the urgent development of faster-acting drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Riminophenazines such as clofazimine are clinically efficacious against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Mtb. We determined the in vitro anti-Mtb activities; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; and in vivo mouse pharmacokinetics of a series of structurally related phenoxazines. One of these, PhX1, displayed promising drug-like properties and potent in ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanner L, Evans JC, Seldon R, Jordaan A, Warner DF, Haynes RK, Parkinson CJ, Wiesner L Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Revisiting the β-lactams for tuberculosis therapy: a compound-compound synthetic lethality approach.
In conclusion, our compound-compound synthetic lethality screening revealed novel small molecules that are capable of potentiating the action of meropenem, presumably via inhibition of the innate resistance conferred by the β-lactams accessory proteins. β-lactam compound-compound synthetic lethality may be an alternate approach for drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID: 31427291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiao S, Guo H, Weiner WS, Maddox C, Mao C, Gunosewoyo H, Pelly S, White EL, Rasmussen L, Schoenen FJ, Aubé J, Bishai WR, Lun S Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

[Tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents in Brazil: factors associated with death and treatment dropout].
Abstract The study aimed to describe clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, estimate incidence, and analyze factors associated with dropout and death during treatment of TB cases reported in indigenous children and adolescents in Brazil from 2006 to 2016. A historical case series was performed on incidence according to age bracket and major geographic region, and multinomial logistic regression was used to explain factors associated with treatment dropout and death. Of the 2,096 reported cases, 88.2% evolved to cure, 7.2% dropped out of treatment, and 4.6% evolved to death. There was a predominance of case...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - August 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Viana PVS, Codenotti SB, Bierrenbach AL, Basta PC Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research

Accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in a multicentre cohort study.
This study evaluated the performance of the novel next-generation Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) in comparison to Xpert for pleural TB diagnosis. METHODS: Pleural TB suspects were enrolled consecutively in four hospitals and pleural fluids were subjected to smear, culture and Xpert. Defrosted pleural fluid (-80°C) was examined using Xpert Ultra. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was conducted for all of the recovered isolates. RESULTS: In total, 317 individuals with suspected pleural TB were recruited; 208 of them were diagnosed with pleural TB according to the composite reference standard (CRS), which was...
Source: Chest - August 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wang G, Wang S, Yang X, Sun Q, Jiang G, Huang M, Huo F, Ma Y, Chen X, Huang H Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Individualising therapy for drug-sensitive tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Hanif Esmail, Marc C Lipman, Andrew Nunn, Timothy M Walker (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - August 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A study on the cross-resistance character of isoniazid, para-aminosalicylic acid and pasiniazid against isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China
ConclusionsTaken together, our results demonstrated that PAS resistance and mutations in katG, inhA promoter or oxyR-ahpC intergenic region in INH resistant M. tuberculosis has little effect on pasiniazid susceptibility. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - August 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research