Treatment of Viral Encephalitis.
Abstract Viral encephalitis is difficult to treat. Herpes simplex encephalitis has been successfully treated with acyclovir, but is still a cause for significant morbidity even with that treatment. A rare form of autoimmune encephalitis related to NMDA receptor antibody after infection by herpes simplex can be treated with corticosteroid therapy. Arthropod-borne encephalitides, such as West Nile virus encephalitis and Eastern equine encephalitis, are primarily treated with supportive measures. Attempts have been made to use immunoglobulin therapy with limited effects. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy has...
Source: Herpes - November 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aksamit AJ Tags: Neurol Clin Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Virus Infection and Human Cancer.
Abstract Seven viruses including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), human immunodeficiency virus, type-1 (HIV-1), human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type-1 (HTLV-1), and human papillomavirus (HPV) have been classified as Group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The conclusions are based on the findings of epidemiological and mechanistic studies. EBV, HPV, HTLV-1, and KSHV are direct carcinogens; HBV and HCV are indirect carcinogens through chronic inflammation; and HIV-1 is an indirect carc...
Source: Herpes - November 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chen CJ, You SL, Hsu WL, Yang HI, Lee MH, Chen HC, Chen YY, Liu J, Hu HH, Lin YJ, Chu YJ, Huang YT, Chiang CJ, Chien YC Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research

Infection-Induced Porcine Ex Vivo Corneal Wound Model to Study the Efficacy of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Entry and Replication Inhibitors.
Abstract Corneal infections by viruses and bacteria can result in ocular surface defects, ulcers, or wounds. Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a human virus with global seroprevalence in the range of 60-90%. While the virus more commonly causes mucocutaneous lesions including ulcers on the face and mouth, it is also a leading cause of infection-associated blindness. In this chapter, we discuss an in-depth protocol required to evaluate corneal damage due to HSV-1 infection using porcine models of ex vivo infection. Our methods can be adapted to study similar infections caused by other viruses and bacteria. ...
Source: Herpes - August 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yadavalli T, Koganti R, Shukla D Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Severe Polyhydramnios with Consistent Fetal Full Bladder: A Novel Sign of Antenatal Bartter's Disease.
We present three fetuses of mothers with severe polyhydramnios with normal maternal blood sugar profile, routine Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes (TORCH) serology. The ultrasound showed no structural anomaly in the fetus, but consistent overdistended bladder with severe polyhydramnios was observed without any evidence of obstructive uropathy. The biochemical test on amniotic fluid was suggestive of Bartter's disease in case 1 and borderline in case 2, and next-generation sequencing confirmed a mutation of KCNJ1 associated with Bartter's disease Type II in case 1 and a mutation in SLC21A1 in case 2. Amniotic flu...
Source: Herpes - August 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thakur S, Kumar M, Malhotra S, Paliwal P, Thareja V, Sahi G Tags: J Pediatr Genet Source Type: research

Environmental pollutants modulate RNA and DNA virus-activated miRNA-155 expression and innate immune system responses: Insights into new immunomodulative mechanisms.
In conclusion, this study added evidence that mir-155 signaling represents a sensitive pathway to chemically-induced immunomodulation and indicated that PCBs can modulate highly-regulated innate immune system signaling pathways important in determining host immune response outcomes during viral infections. PMID: 32233818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - April 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Badry A, Jaspers VLB, Waugh CA Tags: J Immunotoxicol Source Type: research

Bilateral acute retinal necrosis caused by two separate viral etiologies.
Conclusions and importance: We report a rare case of bilateral ARN with independent infection of each eye by different viruses; varicella zoster in the left eye and, four months later, Epstein-Barr virus in the right eye. Immunocompromised patients are vulnerable to ARN from any of its inciting viral causes, and intraocular fluid should be obtained for diagnostic confirmation from the second eye in cases of bilateral ARN. PMID: 32154437 [PubMed] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - March 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Williams AM, Nguyen VQ, Botsford BW, Eller AW Tags: Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep Source Type: research

Proliferation index and pseudoprogression as predictors of the therapeutic efficacy of suicide gene therapy for canine melanoma.
Abstract In our veterinary clinical trials, the combination of systemic immunotherapy with local herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir suicide gene (SG) treatment induced tumor pseudoprogression as part of a strong local antitumor response. This phenomenon could be owing to tumor inflammation, increased vascular permeability and to different tumor growth rates before, during and after SG therapy. The proliferation index (PI: the fraction of viable cells in S, G2/M, and hyperdiploid phases) would reflect the in-vivo and in-vitro proportion of proliferating melanoma cells in the absence of treatment (PIB...
Source: Herpes - March 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fondello C, Agnetti L, Glikin GC, Finocchiaro LME Tags: Melanoma Res Source Type: research

oHSV2 Can Target Murine Colon Carcinoma by Altering the Immune Status of the Tumor Microenvironment and Inducing Antitumor Immunity.
Abstract Oncolytic viruses are promising immunoreagents. Numerous studies have shown that oncolytic virotherapy is effective for many tumors. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effect of oHSV2, an oncolytic type 2 herpes simplex virus, on mouse colon carcinoma. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of oHSV2 was observed in both unilateral and bilateral colon cancer models. oHSV2 effectively eliminated tumors and prolonged the survival of mice without side effects. Additionally, treatment with oHSV2 effectively prevented the growth of rechallenged tumors and distant implanted tumors. The specific killing ability...
Source: Herpes - February 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang W, Hu X, Liang J, Zhu Y, Zeng B, Feng L, Zhao C, Liu S, Liu B, Zhang K Tags: Mol Ther Oncolytics Source Type: research

Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Prevents Premalignant Lesions from Progressing to Cancer.
This study demonstrates that not only can NV1066 treat oral squamous cell carcinoma, but it can also infect and treat premalignant lesions, thus delaying cancer progression. Overall, our study shows the potential of the oncolytic virus NV1066 as a cancer prevention tool. PMID: 31909180 [PubMed] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - January 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Woo Y, Reid V, Kelly KJ, Carlson D, Yu Z, Fong Y Tags: Mol Ther Oncolytics Source Type: research

Structural characterization and antiviral activity of two fucoidans from the brown algae Sargassum henslowianum.
Abstract Purified fucoidans SHAP-1 and SHAP-2 with apparent molecular weights of 6.55 × 105 and 5.89 × 105, respectively, were isolated from Sargassum henslowianum by ion-exchange and gel-filtration column chromatography. They are both composed of fucose and galactose at a ratio of around 3:1 and 31.9% sulfate. The backbone of two fucoidans consists of α-(1→3)-linked L-Fucp residues which are mainly sulfated on the C-2 and C-4 positions. Side chains composed of terminally linked α-L-Fucp and α-D-Galp residues, and (1→2)-, (1→6)-, and (1→...
Source: Herpes - December 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sun QL, Li Y, Ni LQ, Li YX, Cui YS, Jiang SL, Xie EY, Du J, Deng F, Dong CX Tags: Carbohydr Polym Source Type: research

Pediatric Oral Diseases.
This article provides an overview of common pediatric oral lesions that general dentists may encounter in everyday practice. PMID: 31735228 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Golikeri SS, Grenfell J, Kim D, Pae C Tags: Dent Clin North Am Source Type: research

Tour de Herpes: Cycling Through the Life and Biology of HSV-1.
Abstract Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent and important human pathogen that has been studied in a wide variety of contexts. This book provides protocols currently in use in leading laboratories in many fields of HSV-1 research. This introductory chapter gives a brief overview of HSV-1 biology and life cycle, covering basic aspects of virus structure, the prevalence of and diseases caused by the virus, replication in cultured cells, viral latency, antiviral defenses, and the mechanisms that the virus uses to counteract these defenses. PMID: 31617170 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Denes CE, Everett RD, Diefenbach RJ Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Vaccines for Herpes Simplex: Recent Progress Driven by Viral and Adjuvant Immunology.
Abstract Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2 are ubiquitous. They both cause genital herpes, occasionally severe disease in the immunocompromised, and facilitate much HIV acquisition globally. Despite more than 60 years of research, there is no licensed prophylactic HSV vaccine and some doubt as to whether this can be achieved. Nevertheless, a previous HSV vaccine candidate did have partial success in preventing genital herpes and HSV acquisition and another immunotherapeutic candidate reduced viral shedding and recurrent lesions, inspiring further research. However, the entry pathway of HSV into the a...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sandgren KJ, Truong NR, Smith JB, Bertram K, Cunningham AL Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Herpes Simplex Virus Growth, Preparation, and Assay.
Abstract The human herpesvirus family members, in particular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), are abundant and extremely contagious viruses with a high seroprevalence in the human population emphasizing the importance of studying their biology. Hence, the propagation and purification of virus stocks constitute a key element in laboratory work. PMID: 31617172 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sutter SO, Marconi P, Meier AF Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Engineering HSV-1 Vectors for Gene Therapy.
Abstract Virus vectors have been employed as gene transfer vehicles for various preclinical and clinical gene therapy applications and with the approval of Glybera (Alipogene tiparvovec) as the first gene therapy product as a standard medical treatment (Yla-Herttuala, Mol Ther 20:1831-1832, 2013), gene therapy has reached the status of being a part of standard patient care. Replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors that replicate specifically in actively dividing tumor cells have been used in Phase I-III human trials in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a fatal form of brain cancer, and i...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goins WF, Huang S, Hall B, Marzulli M, Cohen JB, Glorioso JC Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Preparation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Based Amplicon Vectors.
Abstract Amplicon vectors, or amplicons, are defective, helper-dependent, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based vectors. The main interest of amplicons as gene transfer tools stems from the fact that the genomes of these vectors do not carry protein-encoding viral sequences. Consequently, they are completely safe for the host and nontoxic for the infected cells. Moreover, the complete absence of virus genes provides a genomic space authorizing a very large payload, enough to accommodate foreign DNA sequences up to almost 150-kbp, the size of the HSV-1 genome. This transgene capacity can be used to deliver comp...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fraefel C, Epstein AL Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

oHSV Genome Editing by Means of galK Recombineering.
Abstract Since the cloning of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome as BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome), the genetic engineering of the viral genome has become readily feasible. The advantage is that the modification of the animal virus genome is carried out in bacteria, with no replication or production of viral progeny, and is separated from the reconstitution or regeneration of the recombinant virus in mammalian cells. This allows an easy engineering of essential genes, as well. Many technologies have been developed for herpesvirus BAC engineering. In our hands the most powerful is galK recombineering that...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Menotti L, Leoni V, Gatta V, Petrovic B, Vannini A, Pepe S, Gianni T, Campadelli-Fiume G Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genome Editing of HSV.
Abstract The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system is a robust and versatile technology that has revolutionized our capacity for genome engineering and is applicable in a wide range of organisms, including large dsDNA viruses. Here we provide an efficient methodology that can be used both for marker-based and for marker-free CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the HSV-1 genome. In our method, Cas9, guide RNAs and a homology-directed repair template are provided to cells by cotransection of plasmids, followed by introduction of the HSV genome by infection. This method offers a great deal of flexibility, facilitating editing ...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Velusamy T, Gowripalan A, Tscharke DC Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Latent/Quiescent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Genome Detection by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH).
Abstract Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been widely used to analyze genome loci at a single cell level in order to determine within a cell population potential discrepancies in their regulation according to the nuclear positioning. Latent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genome remains as an episome in the nucleus of the infected neurons. Accordingly, depending on the location of the viral genomes in the nucleus, they could be targeted by different types of epigenetic regulations important for the establishment and stability of latency, and ultimately for the capacity of HSV-1 to reactivate. Therefore...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cohen C, Corpet A, Maroui MA, Juillard F, Lomonte P Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Oligonucleotide Enrichment of HSV-1 Genomic DNA from Clinical Specimens for Use in High-Throughput Sequencing.
Abstract To date more than 400 genomes of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and the distantly related HSV-2 have been examined using deep sequencing techniques. This powerful approach has been especially useful for revealing the global genetic diversity that exists within and between strains of each virus species. However, most early methods for high-throughput sequencing required the input of abundant viral genomic DNA to enable the successful production of sequencing libraries, and the generation of sufficient short-read sequencing data for de novo genome assembly and similar applications. Therefore, the majority o...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shipley MM, Rathbun MM, Szpara ML Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

HSV Mutant Generation and Dual Detection Methods for Gaining Insight into Latent/Lytic Cycles In Vivo.
Abstract Two important components of a useful strategy to examine viral gene function, regulation, and pathogenesis in vivo are (1) a highly efficient protocol to generate viral mutants that limits undesired mutation and retains full replication competency in vivo, and (2) an efficient system to detect and quantify viral promoter activity and gene expression in rare cells in vivo and to gain insight into the surrounding tissue environment. Our strategy and protocols for generating, characterizing, and employing HSV viral promoter/reporter mutants in vivo are provided in this two-part chapter. PMID: 31617181 [...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sawtell NM, Thompson RL Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing of HSV-1 and HSV-2 Resistance to Antivirals.
Abstract Resistance testing of antivirals to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can be done by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The determination of a resistant phenotype is based on the calculation of inhibitory concentrations for the antiviral drug, which should be tested. The main advantage of this resistance test is a clear interpretation of laboratory findings, but the method is time-consuming and a considerable experience is required by handling infectious virus. Genotypic resistance testing is based on the detection of resistance-related mutations in viral genes encoding the thymidine k...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sauerbrei A, Bohn-Wippert K Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Using Primary SCG Neuron Cultures to Study Molecular Determinants of HSV-1 Latency and Reactivation.
We describe a primary neuronal culture system suitable for molecular characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, latency, and reactivation. While several alternative models are available, including infections of live animal or explanted ganglia, these are complicated by the presence of multiple cell types, including immune cells, and difficulties in manipulating the neuronal environment. The highly pure neuron culture system described here can be readily manipulated and is ideal for molecular studies that focus exclusively on the relationship between the virus and host neuron, the fundamental unit of...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hu HL, Srinivas KP, Mohr I, Huang TT, Wilson AC Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Characterization of Extracellular HSV-1 Virions by Proteomics.
te; R Abstract The analysis of HSV-1 mature extracellular virions by proteomics requires highly enriched samples to limit false-positives and favor the detection of true components. The protocol described below involves the removal of highly contaminating serum proteins and purification of the virions by a series of differential and density centrifugation steps. In addition, L-particles, which are viral particles devoid of a genome and capsid but present in the extracellular milieu, are depleted on Ficoll 400 gradients. As previously reported, the resulting viral particles are free of most contaminants and suitabl...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lippé R Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Analysis and Sorting of Individual HSV-1 Particles by Flow Virometry.
te; R Abstract Flow cytometry has been instrumental in characterizing normal and infected cells. However, until recently, it was not possible to use such an approach to analyze small entities such as bacteria, let alone viruses, owing to the 0.5 μm resolution of most instruments. To circumvent this limitation, some laboratories decorate pathogens with antibodies or nanoparticles. Our laboratory instead exploits an alternative approach that relies on the staining of internal viral constituents with permeable SYTO dyes or the fluorescent tagging of individual viral proteinaceous components, whether capsid, t...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khadivjam B, El Bilali N, Lippé R Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Conformational Change in Herpes Simplex Virus Entry Glycoproteins Detected by Dot Blot.
Abstract Conformational changes in viral membrane proteins drive membrane fusion, a critical step in virus entry and infection. Here we describe a simple and rapid virus blotting immunoassay to define conformational changes with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to distinct sites across a viral glycoprotein. This dot blot technique has been utilized to define low pH-triggered changes in the prefusion form of the herpesviral fusogen gB. At pH of
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sari TK, Gianopulos KA, Nicola AV Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

BioID Combined with Mass Spectrometry to Study Herpesvirus Protein-Protein Interaction Networks.
Abstract Herpes viruses are important human pathogens that cause a wide range of diseases from skin lesions to malignancies. Protein interactions drive many cellular events and mediate a number of biochemical pathways leading to different physiological outcomes. Protein interactions between viral proteins and host proteins play significant roles in viral entry, replication and suppression of host-immune responses. Therefore, the study of virus-host interactions promises significant advancement in designing therapeutics to control infection and disease. Various approaches are employed in the field to study and iden...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cheerathodi MR, Meckes DG Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Preparation of Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Primary Neurons for Transmission Electron Microscopy.
Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides the resolution necessary to identify both viruses and subcellular components of cells infected with many types of viruses, including herpes simplex virus. Recognized as a powerful tool in both diagnostic and research-based virology laboratories, TEM has made possible the identification of new viruses and has contributed to the elucidation of virus life cycle and virus-host cell interaction.While there are many sample preparation techniques for TEM, conventional processing using chemical fixation and resin embedding remains a useful technique, available in vi...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miranda-Saksena M, Boadle RA, Cunningham AL Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Transmission Immunoelectron Microscopy of Herpes Simplex Virus-1-Infected Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons Sectioned in Growth Plane.
Abstract Transmission immunoelectron microscopy allows for the ultrastructural detection and localization of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) particles and viral proteins within the infected cell and their relation to the cell cytoskeleton, cellular proteins, vesicles, membranes, and organelles. For the successful application of immunoelectron microscopy, preservation of cell ultrastructure and of epitope antigenicity is essential during sample preparation. This chapter describes the use of chemical fixation followed by rapid cooling of HSV-1 infected sensory neurons in the presence of sucrose as a cryoprotectant to...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miranda-Saksena M, Boadle RA, Cunningham AL Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Multifluorescence Live Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Replication.
Abstract The possibility to label specific viral and cellular structures with live cell markers such as autofluorescent proteins has greatly contributed to our understanding of diverse steps of the virus life cycle, as it allows for monitoring virus replication in a spatial and temporal fashion. Here, we describe the multifluorescent live analysis of the multicompartment Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) by live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID: 31617191 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seyffert M, Fraefel C Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Expression, Purification, and Crystallization of HSV-1 Glycoproteins for Structure Determination.
Abstract Herpes simplex viruses utilize glycoproteins displayed on the viral envelope to perform a variety of functions in the viral infectious cycle. Structural and functional studies of these viral glycoproteins can benefit from biochemical, biophysical, and structural analysis of purified proteins. Here, we describe a general protocol for expression and purification of viral glycoproteins from insect cells based on those developed for the HSV-1 gB and HSV-2 gH/gL ectodomains as well as the protocol for crystallization of these glycoproteins. This protocol can be used for generating milligram...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: White EM, Stampfer SD, Heldwein EE Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Expression, Purification, and Crystallization of Full-Length HSV-1 gB for Structure Determination.
Abstract HSV glycoproteins play important roles in the viral life cycle, particularly viral cell entry. Here we describe the protocol for expression, purification, and crystallization of full-length HSV-1 glycoprotein B. The protocol provides a framework for incorporating transmembrane domain-stabilizing amphipols into the crystallization setup and can be adapted to isolate other complete HSV glycoproteins. PMID: 31617193 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cooper RS, Heldwein EE Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

The Use of Microfluidic Neuronal Devices to Study the Anterograde Axonal Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus-1.
Abstract Understanding how herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) interacts with different parts of the neuron is fundamental in understanding the mechanisms behind HSV-1 transport during primary and recurrent infections. In this chapter, we describe a unique neuronal culture system that is capable of compartmentalizing neuronal cell bodies from their axons to study the transport of HSV-1 along axons. The ability to separate neuronal cell bodies and axons provides a unique model to investigate the mechanisms used by HSV-1 for viral transport, assembly, and exit from different parts of the neuron. PMID: 31617194 [PubM...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Danastas K, Cunningham AL, Miranda-Saksena M Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

A Model of In Vivo HSV-1 DNA Transport Using Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells.
We present an alternative method for studying these issues using the axonal transport of Herpes simplex virus in mature retinal neurons in vivo. Using genetically identical mice and carefully controlling the delivery of virus, an investigator can obtain insight into the transport of virus to and from the neuron cell body within the cellular environment of an intact, mature animal. This allows confirmation and extension of results seen in vitro. PMID: 31617195 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: LaVail JH Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

The Murine Intravaginal HSV-2 Challenge Model for Investigation of DNA Vaccines.
Abstract DNA vaccines have been licensed in veterinary medicine and have promise for humans. This format is relatively immunogenic in mice and guinea pigs, the two principle HSV-2 animal models, permitting rapid assessment of vectors, antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems. Limitations include the relatively poor immunogenicity of naked DNA in humans and the profound differences in HSV-2 pathogenesis between host species. Herein, we detail lessons learned investigating candidate DNA vaccines in the progesterone-primed female mouse vaginal model of HSV-2 infection as a guide to investigators in the field. P...
Source: Herpes - October 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marshak JO, Dong L, Koelle DM Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Immunohistochemistry for Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells After Oncolytic Virotherapy.
Abstract Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an integral laboratory staining technique, which is used for the detection of immune cells in mouse/human tissues or tumors. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) treatment or virotherapy of solid tumors results in antitumor immune responses and infiltration of a variety of immune cells into the tumor. Here, we describe a step-by-step chromogen/substrate-based single- and dual-color IHC protocol to stain immune cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor sections after oHSV virotherapy. Tumor sections are deparaffinized with xylene, then gr...
Source: Herpes - September 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saha D, Rabkin SD Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

Vitreoretinal lymphoma, secondary to non-CNS systemic lymphoma, masquerading as an infectious retinitis.
Conclusion: It is important for clinicians to be aware of atypical presentations of vitreoretinal lymphoma. This case emphasizes the fact that secondary ocular lymphoma after systemic lymphoma can have a vitreoretinal presentation rather than the more common choroidal involvement. Furthermore, it shows that recurrences of this disease in the same patient can have very different manifestations, including an appearance indistinguishable from a viral retinitis. PMID: 31468000 [PubMed] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - August 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reddy V, Winslow R, Cao JH, Robertson ZM, Chen B, Ufret-Vincenty RL Tags: Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review and meta-analytics.
Conclusions: STI infection levels among FSWs in MENA are considerable, supporting a key role for commercial heterosexual sex networks in transmission dynamics, and highlighting the health needs of this neglected and vulnerable population. Syphilis prevalence in FSWs appears to have been declining for at least three decades. Gaps in evidence persist for multiple countries. PMID: 31360448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - July 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chemaitelly H, Weiss HA, Smolak A, Majed E, Abu-Raddad LJ Tags: J Glob Health Source Type: research

Cell therapy for spinal cord injury using induced pluripotent stem cells.
Abstract For the past few decades, spinal cord injury (SCI) has been believed to be an incurable traumatic condition, but with recent developments in stem cell biology, the field of regenerative medicine has gained hopeful momentum in the development of a treatment for this challenging pathology. Among the treatment candidates, transplantation of neural precursor cells has gained remarkable attention as a reasonable therapeutic intervention to replace the damaged central nervous system cells and promote functional recovery. Here, we highlight transplantation therapy techniques using induced pluripotent stem cells ...
Source: Herpes - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nagoshi N, Tsuji O, Nakamura M, Okano H Tags: Regen Ther Source Type: research

Treatment of Viral Infections During Pregnancy.
This article reviews the treatment of herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus during pregnancy. PMID: 31010558 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rogan SC, Beigi RH Tags: Clin Perinatol Source Type: research

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Bearing Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Co-stimulatory Signal Domain Exhibits High Functional Potency.
Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a hybrid molecule consisting of an antigen-binding domain and a signal transduction domain. The artificial T cells expressing CAR (CAR-T cells) are expected to be a useful tool for treatment of various diseases, such as cancer. The addition of a co-stimulatory signal domain (CSSD) to CAR is shown to be critical for modulating CAR-T cell activities. However, the interplay among types of CSSDs, effector functions, and characteristics of CAR-T cells is largely unknown. To elucidate the interplay, we analyzed effector functions, differentiation to memory T cell sub...
Source: Herpes - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nunoya JI, Masuda M, Ye C, Su L Tags: Mol Ther Oncolytics Source Type: research

Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus and PI3K Inhibitor BKM120 Synergize to Promote Killing of Prostate Cancer Stem-like Cells.
Abstract Novel therapies to override chemo-radiation resistance in prostate cancer (PCa) are needed. Prostate cancer sphere-forming cells (PCSCs) (also termed prostate cancer stem-like cells) likely participate in tumor progression and recurrence, and they are important therapeutic targets. We established PCSC-enriched spheres by culturing human (DU145) and murine (TRAMP-C2) PCa cells in growth factor-defined serum-free medium, and we characterized stem-like properties of clonogenicity and tumorigenicity. The efficacy of two different oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSVs) (G47Δ and MG18L) in PCSCs was tes...
Source: Herpes - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang L, Ning J, Wakimoto H, Wu S, Wu CL, Humphrey MR, Rabkin SD, Martuza RL Tags: Mol Ther Oncolytics Source Type: research

Herpes Virus Infections Other than Cytomegalovirus in the Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Abstract This review discusses the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of herpes viruses other than cytomegalovirus in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID: 31005137 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - April 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dadwal SS Tags: Infect Dis Clin North Am Source Type: research

Predictors of Perinatal HIV Transmission Among Women Without Prior Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting: The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition Study.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that lowering maternal HIV viral load is most important in preventing perinatal MTCT and support efforts to address food shortage, STI and tuberculosis prevention, while informing programs to improve ART coverage in pregnancy. PMID: 30985546 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - April 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ewing AC, Ellington SR, Wiener JB, Chasela CS, Tegha G, Nelson JAE, Jamieson DJ, van der Horst C, Kourtis AP, BAN Study Team Tags: Pediatr Infect Dis J Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Emergency Department.
Abstract Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be underrecognized leading to devastating health and economic consequences. Emergency clinicians play an important role in diagnosing and managing STDs and in improving health care outcomes for both the patient and their partners. In addition, antibiotic resistance and emerging infections continue to challenge providers in clinical practice. This review focuses on the cause, history, physical examination, diagnostic studies, and treatment strategies for bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus, granuloma inguinale, Lym...
Source: Herpes - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pfennig CL Tags: Emerg Med Clin North Am Source Type: research

The Role of T Cells in Herpes Stromal Keratitis.
Abstract The blinding inflammatory lesion stromal keratitis (SK), which occurs in some patients in response to ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, represents mainly an immune cell mediated inflammatory response to the virus infection. The principal orchestrators of the immunopathological lesions are T cells although additional events participate that include the extent of recruitment of non-lymphoid cells, the extent of neoangiogenesis, and the extent of damage to nerve function. This review focuses on evidence that the balance of the functional subsets of T cells has a major impact on lesion severity and...
Source: Herpes - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rajasagi NK, Rouse BT Tags: Front Immunol Source Type: research

Severe Facial Herpes Vegetans and Viremia in NFKB2-Deficient Common Variable Immunodeficiency.
We report a patient with early-onset CVID due to an autosomal dominant loss-of-function mutation in NFKB2 who developed a severe herpes vegetans cutaneous infection as well as concurrent herpes simplex virus viremia. The case highlights features of CVID, unique aspects of NF-κB2 deficiency including susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, the detection of neutralizing anticytokine antibodies, and the complexity of medical management of patients with a PIDD that can be aided by a known genetic diagnosis. PMID: 30941333 [PubMed] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Parsons K, Cipriano SD, Rosen LB, Browne SK, Walter JE, Stone BL, Keeshin S, Chen K Tags: Front Pediatr Source Type: research

Post-shingles granulomatous dermatosis related to anti-programmed cell death 1.
Abstract The most recent progress in the oncology field has led to a paradigm shift in the management of cancer with the tsunami of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are associated with a particular pattern of immunological adverse events. This is a case of a 54-year-old woman that demonstrated a granulomatous reaction in the same dermatomal distribution of a previously treated shingles infection during treatment with an anti-programmed death 1 agent (pembrolizumab) for a newly diagnosed stage IV Hodgkin lymphoma. The purpose of this case is to increase the awareness of oncologists dealing with a new pat...
Source: Herpes - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Assi T, Danu A, Mateus C, Robert C, Michot JM, Ibrahim T, Lazarovici J, Ghez D, Rossignol J, Dartigues P, Terroir-Cassou-Mounat M, Ribrag V Tags: Immunotherapy Source Type: research

Pulsed immune reconstitution therapy in multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Whereas drugs used for maintenance/escalation therapy do not maintain their beneficial effect after cessation of therapy, some new highly effective therapies can show prolonged treatment effects after a short treatment course. Such therapies have been named pulsed immune reconstitution therapies or pulsed immunosuppressive therapies, and typical representatives are alemtuzumab and cladribine. Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation could be considered as the strongest immune reconstitution therapy. Both alemtuzumab and cladribine induce depletion of lymphocytes, and a common mechanism of actio...
Source: Herpes - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sorensen PS, Sellebjerg F Tags: Ther Adv Neurol Disord Source Type: research

Correlation between herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibody titers determined by ELVIS cell and traditional plaque reduction assays.
Abstract Preventive viral vaccine efficacy trials require large-scale sample analysis to quantitate immune responses and their correlation with infection outcomes. Traditional plaque reduction assays measure a functionally important form of humoral immunity, neutralizing antibody titer. These assays, however, are time-consuming and laborious. We previously developed a higher throughput assay of neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (Blevins et al., PLOS ONE, 10(12), e0144738) using the enzyme-linked virus inducible system (ELVIS) cell line; this cell line produces β-galactosidase in response...
Source: Herpes - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Blevins TP, Yu Y, Belshe RB, Bellamy AR, Morrison LA Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research