From environmental bacteria to obligate pathogen: the study of adaptations enhancing the persistence of tuberculosis bacilli
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly contagious human pathogen that has the capacity to survive for decades within the host. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii, which is thought to have originated from the same pool of ancestors as M. tuberculosis, rarely causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and has a reduced capacity to persist and cause disease in the mouse model. To achieve our goal of identifying the genetic adaptations that lead to persistence of TB bacilli within the host, we used an in vivo experimental evolution strategy to amplify M. canettii clones which have enhanced persistence in the mouse model and are there...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Allen, A. C., Malaga, W., Astarie-Dequeker, C., Hassan, A., Berrone, C., Moreau, F., Supply, P., Brosch, R., Guilhot, C. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

In-vitro effect of bioactive fractions of Cinnamomum verum(Cv) on cytokine levels in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infected Macrophages
Conclusion: Cv can be studied further to check its antitubercular and immunomodulatory activity in TB patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vaidya, S., Maniar, J., Sharma, J. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Characteristics of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with delayed diagnosis
Conclusion: Presence of other lung disease and poor ADL can be risk factors for delayed PTB diagnosis. In patients with suspected TB, despite obtaining negative sputum smear results, additional examinations such as bronchoscopy must be performed to prevent delayed diagnosis. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yamamoto, C., Kawashima, A., Sawada, R., Futamura, S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Anti-TB efficacy of PBTZ169 in mice with different genetic susceptibility to infection
Conclusion: PBTZ169 demonstrates higher effect onto lung-to-spleen mycobacterial dissemination in TB-susceptible compare to TB-resistant mice. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nikonenko, B., Makarov, V., Bocharova, I., Korotetskaya, M., Kondratieva, E., Sterzhanova, N., Apt, A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Different antimycobacterial activity of macrophages in various lung tuberculosis legions of patients
In this study with using immunofluorescence assay, we examined the number of Mtb-infected alveolar macrophages and the quantity of ROS- and iNOS-positive cells in the ex vivo cell cultures obtained from the resected lung tissues with different TB lesions: tuberculomas and lung parts distant from macroscopic TB lesions, - in the same patients with pulmonary MDR-TB as described in (Ufimtseva, E. et al. PLOS ONE 2018; 13:e0191918). We found more alveolar macrophages with single Mtb or Mtb in colonies, including those with cording morphology, in the wall of tuberculomas than in the distant lung tissues of the same TB patients....
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ufimtseva, E., Eremeeva, N., Vakhrusheva, D., Skornyakov, S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates mitochondrial function in human macrophages
Mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism in immune cells are closely associated. However, if these interactions play a role in the human macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains largely unknown.We used human induced-pluripotent stem cell derived macrophages (iPSDM) together with high-content live-cell imaging, extracellular flux analysis and unbiased metabolomics to investigate mitochondrial dynamics, Mtb intracellular replication and mitochondrial metabolism.Mitochondrial tracking at the single-cell level revealed extensive mitochondrial morphology heterogeneity. Surprisingly, Mtb did not induce signif...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bussi, C., Silva Dos Santos, M., Bernard, E. M., Santucci, P., Macrae, J. I., Gutierrez, M. G. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Non-cytokine activation immunoprofiling to differentiate treatment status in latent tuberculosis infection
Rationale: Assessment of reactivation risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains challenging. We previously reported a non-cytokine immunoprofiling strategy based on a flow cytometric (FC) detection of co-expression of CD25 (IL-2α receptor) and CD134 (OX40 TNFa receptor superfamily) that differentiates unexposed subjects, treated LTBI, and untreated LTBI subjects. We aim to test if an immunoprofiling based on co-expression of CD25 and PD-L1 would also be able to accurately differentiate treatment status in LTBI in a validation cohort.Methods: FC detection of CD25+CD134+ and CD25+PD-L1+ co-expression on ant...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Escalante, P., Van Keulen, V., Erskine, C., Peikert, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Screening for TB infection in children using skin tests with tuberculin and recombinant allergen (CFP-10-ESAT-6)
Background: Diaskintest (DST) is Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific recombinant protein CFP10-ESAT6 for skin test (0.2 mcg/0.1 ml) using the way of tuberculin skin testing (TST).Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of two approaches to the screening for TB infection in children in Moscow given their 90%-BCG-vaccination coverage.Methods: Two groups were defined: 675,926 children aged 0-7 (group I) and 834121 children aged 8-17 (group II). TST with 2 TU PPD was performed in group I, then DST - in those having increased TST reaction compared with previous year; DST was the only test performed in group II. Computer tomography w...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Slogotskaya, L., Bogorodskaya, E., Sinitsyn, M., Nikolenko, N., Kudlay, D., Shamuratova, L., Sevostyanova, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

New in vitro model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dormancy
Conclusions: Culture of Mtb under conditions of deprivation of the above-mentioned components results in the induction of Mtb with phenotypical signs of dormant state. This method of induction of dormant phenotype of Mtb may be used as new in vitro model to study Mtb dormancy phenomenon including susceptibility testing of dormant form of Mtb to anti-TB drugs. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Batyrshina, Y., Schwartz, Y. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Tuberculosis contacts study in Spain: preliminary results
Conclusions: 1) The study of contacts was carried out in the family environment in approximately 2/3 of the cases. 2) The infection rate was lower than that reported in previous series. 3) The objectives recommended on the rate of infected patients treated and treatment completed were achieved. 4) The possibility of LTBI was related to the microbiological situation of the index case ( culture positive) and cohabiting with index case.Funding: AES / 2017 PI-HEALTH PI 17/00724, SEPAR Grant 378/2017 VariableORIC 95 %PIndex case culture positiveIntensity of contactFemaleCohabiting3.771.361.211.641.45-9.800.80-2.320.89-1.651.04-...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gullon Blanco, J. A., Alvarez Mavarez, J. D., Rodrigo Sanz, T., Villanueva Montes, M. A., Alvarez Navascues, F., Rodriguez Lopez, J., Tabernero Huguet, E., Lopez Aranaga, I., Sabria Mestres, J., Anibarro Garcia, L., Dominguez Castellano, A., Penas Truque, Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Clinical and functional features of pulmonary tuberculosis in young patients depending on the respiratory muscles strength
Measuring maximum respiratory pressure is common throughout the world to evaluate respiratory muscle function. Ineffective work of respiratory muscles can be a predictor of an infectious process in the lungs, in particular tuberculosis (TB) due to the development of inefficiency of ventilation processes.Methods: This is a prospective single center study including 84 verified TB patients from 18 to 45 years and divided for 2 groups: 1st group – 36 patients (27M/9F; 30,7±5,6yrs) with muscle disorders (MD), 2nd group - 48 control patients (26/22F; 30,7±7,17yrs) without MD.The patients after lung resection,...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kovaleva, S., Kiryukhina, L., Denisova, N., Bolotov, K., Kokorina, E., Nefedova, N., Archakova, L. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Efficacy of Russian immunologic skin test recombinant allergen Diaskintest - ten years (meta-analysis data)
Introduction: Since 2009 till nowadays many publications with an analysis of the efficacy of Diaskintest were published. Objective. To analyze the efficacy of recombinant allergen Diaskintest in TB diagnosis in comparison with the Mantoux test and IGRA in Russia based on published data (in the period 2009-2019).Materials and Methods: For the review we analyzed 121 publications from 2009 to 2019 that were published in Russian and international articles. We included data from 61 publications which met inclusion and exclusion criteria of meta-analysis design, with the inclusion of data for 3777083 patients with Diaskintest (8...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Starshinova, A., Kudliy, D., Dovgaluk, I. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Latent tuberculosis assessment before biological agent use
In recent years, various biological agents such as Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Anti-TNF-α) have been used effectively in different diseases. The major side effects of these drugs are their increased susceptibility to infections, especially tuberculosis. The aim of this study is to review the evaluations in terms of tuberculosis in patients using Anti-TNF-α.The datas of patients who used anti-TNF-α agent between January 2019 and January 2020 and consulted by our clinic were evaluated retrospectively. PA chest radiographs, tuberculin skin test (TDT) results and prophylaxis were noted from the patient ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yıldırım, H., Güler, A., Alatas, F., Erginel, S., Kayıkcı, A., Yüce, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Impairment of pulmonary function as a main risk factor for ineffective endobronchial valve placement in patients with chronic cavitary tuberculosis
The use of endobronchial valve (EBV) is intended to induce the artificial local lung collapse in patients with cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis to achieve cavity closure. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of pulmonary function on the result of EBV.Methods: Spirometry was performed in 116 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (63 men and 53 women; aged 30.5 ± 8.8; FEV1 76.2 ± 23.7% predicted) before EBV placement. In 85 cases EBV placement was successful (closure of cavities). In 31 cases EBV placement was unsuccessful. ROC-analysis was used for assessment of sensitivity and specificity of pulmo...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chushkin, M., Popova, L., Shergina, E., Lovacheva, O., Shabalina, I., Bagdasaryan, T., Chernykh, N., Krasnikova, E., Gordeeva, O., Karpina, N. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

The role of bronchoscopy in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions in end-stage renal disease patients
Conclusions: Results support the relevant role of WLBr for DS of EBTB (30,6%) and biopsies for DS pulmonary TB (91,7%) in ESRD patients. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gordeeva, O., Karpina, N., Sivokozov, I., Turovtceva, Y., Shabalina, I., Dedushkin, D. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

Interobserver agreement on EBUS and EUS-B cytological specimens in patients with sarcoidosis
Conclusion: Proposed cytological definition of granulomatous inflammation showed substantial agreement among pathologists. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mooij - Kalverda, K. A., Crombag, L., Meijer, S., Cancellieri, A., Von Der Thüsen, J., Radonic, T., Britstra, R., Trisolini, R., Annema, J. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

Thoracic endosonography (EBUS/EUS-b). A single center retrospective analysis
Conclusion: Our study confirms that thoracic endosonography is a safe, minimally invasive procedure with high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected malignancy and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chrysikos, S., Karampitsakos, T., Anyfanti, M., Papaioannou, O., Hillas, G., Dimakou, K. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

Role of radial EBUS cryobiopsy in peripheral pulmonary lesions: a case series
Conclusions: Radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions is a safe procedure with good diagnostic yield.Method: Diagnostic yield of radial EBUS guided cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary disease. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Arbat, S., Arbat, A., Bakamwar, S., Deshpande, P. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and prognosis of sarcoidosis in Western China: a retrospective study
This study retrospectively analyzed the characteristics and prognosis of sarcoidosis patients diagnosed in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2018. Finally, 101 patients with sarcoidosis (71 females and 30 males) were included. The age of patients was 46.01 ± 11.24 years. The main symptoms were cough (62.4%), dyspnea (26.7%), chest tightness (15.8%), chest pain (15.8%) and fatigue (10.9%). According to radiologic staging, patients were mainly in stage 1 (39.6%) and stage 2 (48.5%). There were 20 patients (19.8%) with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, and 52 patients (51.5%) were treated with corticosteroids or imm...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tong, X., Wang, D., Liu, S., Fan, H. Tags: Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous ILD / DPLD Source Type: research

Problems of diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis
Conclusion: Many patients with sarcoidosis have overdiagnosis of tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia before a true diagnosis. The use of antituberculous therapy in sarcoidosis patients increased the diagnostic delay. At suspicion on sarcoidosis it is expedient to consider factors influencing on duration diagnostic period. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laushkina, Z. Tags: Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous ILD / DPLD Source Type: research

Respiratory diseases in HIV-infected patients in Novokuznetsk, Russia
The aim was to examine the structure of respiratory diseases in HIV-infected adults.Materials and Methods: retrospective study of all respiratory cases in HIV infected persons (n=185) admitted to the Internal Medicine Department of Novokuznetsk City Hospital #2 in 2017-2018. In Novokuznetsk (pop. 549 thousand) about 2% of population is known to be HIV-infected.Results: HIV patients accounted for 15,6% of all hospitalized for respiratory diseases over this period (n=1187). Only 13,9% of previously diagnosed with HIV (n=165) were adherent to ART prior to hospitalization. Median CD4 count was 155 cells/μl. Two or more pulm...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Viktorova, I., Zimina, V., Dadyka, I., Galchin, A. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Clinical-epidemiological study of lipoid pneumonia in infants
Conclusion: Infants are more affected in the first semester of life. Symptoms, radiology and leukogram are similar to bacterial pneumonia. MO should not be used in infants due to risk of aspiration and LP. The diagnostic suspicion of LP becomes important in infants who used mineral oil. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Serrano Soares, P., Pereira Barbosa Dos Santos, L., Oliveira Dias, L., De Alvarenga Facina, R., Fonseca Quirico Dos Santos, T., De Azevedo Sias, S. M. Tags: Paediatric respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Investigation of bioresorbable porous implants based on polylactide and polycaprolactone
Conclusions: Thus, the in vivo experimental studies show the high biocompatibility of porous matrices based on PLA/PCL as potential materials for the pleural implants development. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tokaev, K. V., Vasilieva, I. A., Zyuzya, J. R., Grigoriev, T. E., Tokaev, T. K., Tokaev, V. K., Bikbaev, A. S., Lukanina, K. I., Zagoskin, J. D., Sevastianov, V. I. Tags: Thoracic surgery Source Type: research

Contralateral anterial mediastinal plasty with a polymer mesh implant - a new method of surgery for post-pneumonectomy mediastinal hernia in patients with widespread tuberculosis
Conclusion: the technique of contralateral anterial mediastinal plasty with a polymer mesh implant permits to resolve the hernia, improves functional indicators and prevents the progression of tuberculosis in the remaining foci. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tarasov, R., Krasnikova, E., Aliev, V., Chitorelidze, G., Bagirov, M. Tags: Thoracic surgery Source Type: research

Non tuberculous mycobacteria infections in patients with silicosis
Conclusions: It is important to keep in mind NTM infections in every patient with silicosis who presented with a pulmonary infection which does not respond to a standard antibiotic therapy. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: izhakian, s., Gorelik, O., Kramer, M. Tags: Occupational and environmental health Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and pulse oximetry measurements (SpO2) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
Measurement the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) by pulse oximetry (SpO2), using a fingertip sensor is commonly used in the management of patients with pulmonary diseases. The aim of study was to compare SaO2 results obtained from earlobe and SpO2 results obtained from fingertip in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PT).Methods: In 150 patients with PT (84 male and 66 female; aged 47.7±16.1; FEV1 74.4±28.1 % predicted) the paired samples were compared. In addition to SaO2, other parameters (pH, PaCO2, PaO2) were analyzed in the samples obtained from the earlobe. The Bland and Altman method, regression, an...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chushkin, M., Popova, L., Shergina, E., Krasnikova, E., Gordeeva, O., Karpina, N. Tags: Respiratory function technologists/scient. Source Type: research

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: five year experience
Conclusions: Our results confirme the role of increased prevalence of chronic lung disease and immunosuppressive conditions in the pathogenesis of NTM infection. According with literature, MAC account for the majority of NTM isolated in our hospital. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Conceicao, M., Cunha, A. D., Ferro, R., Guerra, S., Correia, J. B., Reis, A., Torres, A. S. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Profibrotic implication of platelet-activating factor in tuberculous pleural effusion
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is essentially involved in inflammation and fibrosis. However, the clinical implication of PAF in tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) remains unknown. The effusion PAF levels were measured among 65 patients including transudative pleural effusion (TPE, n=25) and TBPE (n=40) groups. Pleural fibrosis, defined as radiological residual pleural thickening (RPT) and shadowing, was measured at 12-month follow-up. Additionally, the expression of PAF and PAF receptor (PAFR) in pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) and the effects of PAF on mesothelial mesenchymal transition (MMT) and extracellular matrix...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chung, C.-L., Chen, M.-C., Tsai, J.-H., Hsieh, C.-Y. Tags: Mechanisms of lung injury and repair Source Type: research

Ttransradial bronchial artery embolization for massive hemoptysis secondary to tuberculosis
Objectives: Bronchial artery embolization(BAE)is considered the most effective nonsurgical emergent treatment for massive hemoptysis, which holds 50%-100% mortality rate if treated conservatively. The transradial approach(TRA) is becoming more popular than the transfemoral approach (TFA) in percutaneous coronary intervention.Purpose: To compare systematically transradial approach and the transfemoral approach in bronchial artery embolization.Methods: We had analyzed the clinical, angiographic and technical results of BAE performed between 2014 and 2017. In the present study 58 patients with massive hemoptysis that underwen...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Meng, Z., Meng, J., Bai, Y. Tags: Imaging Source Type: research

Factors associated with thromboembolic events in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
Introduction: patients with tuberculosis might be at high risk of thromboembolic events (TEE). Data regarding coexisting TEE in patients with tuberculosis are limited. The aim of this study was to determinate the factors associated with TEE in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).Methods: we conducted a retrospective study including patients with active TB admitted in our department between January 2017 and December 2019. We excluded patients who were already on therapeutic anticoagulation before their TB episode. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1): patients with TB and TEE (N=20) and group 2 (G2): patients without...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hedhli Ep Cherni, A., Marzouki, S., Mjid, M., Ouahchi, Y., Cheikhrouhou, S., Cherif, J., Toujeni, S., Merai, S. Tags: Pulmonary embolism Source Type: research

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia should be suspected in children with autoimmune disease and immune deficiency
Conclusion: LIP is a disease rarely occurs in children rather than adults and demonstrated to be in concurrence with autoimmune disease and immune deficiency.Clinical history and chest CT findings should suspect LIP in immune disorders. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Köseoglu, B., Emiralioglu, N., Ademhan, D., Özsezen, B., Sunman, B., Cinel, G., Özcan, N., Oguz, B., Orhan, D., Yalcın, E., Dogru, D., Özcelik, U., Kiper, N. Tags: Paediatric bronchology Source Type: research

Pleural tuberculosis in a Tunisian serie:On what diagnostic tools we rely?
Introduction: The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (pTB) is difficult to confirm by bacteriological diagnosis due to tools low sensitivity that makes it a problematic disease.In many cases treatments are started based on argumentative lines.Our study aim to appraise the efficiency of different diagnostic procedures.Method: a retrospective study of 76patients with pTB in our department between 2009 and 2019.They underwent different diagnostic tools: radiologic exam, pleural puncture,biopsy,bacteriologic study,PCR.Result: The mean age was 30y.o.Thirty five% of cases have family tuberculosis history. personal history of prev...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hassene, B., Besma, H., Sonia, J., Ikbel, K., Sabrine, L., Asma, A., Alaa, R., Jamel, A., Agnes, H. Tags: Paediatric bronchology Source Type: research

Chemotherapy outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis with mutations in the FN1 and TNXB genes
Introduction: Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) under identical conditions is not always effective. We’ve found out the reason of this phenomenon in the structural and functioning features of the intercellular matrix that has important substances, fibronectin and tenascin-X.Aims: Study of the effect of the rN6707530 polymorphism of the FN1 gene and the rs1150754 polymorphism of the TNXB gene on the effectiveness of chemotherapy for pulmonary TB.Methods: The research included 184 patients with pulmonary TB, which divided into 2 groups with ineffective (n=93) and effective (n=91) chemotherapy were allocated.Resu...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Samsonov, K., Mordyk, A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of new pre-XDR/XDR cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype emerging in Russia
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mlva cluster 1071-32 belongs to the early ancient sublineage of the Beijing genotype. We have recently demonstrated its association with pre-XDR/XDR, increase in prevalence in parts of Russia (Northwest, Center, Siberia) and sporadic isolation in eastern Europe (Lithuania, Albania). Here, we analyzed whole genome sequencing (WGS) data in order to gain insight into genomic background of the pathogenetic properties and dissemination pattern of this cluster.The initial WGS collection (this study, GenBank, Broad Institute, GMTV) included 3089 samples, in particular, 521 from East/Southeast Asia a...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mokrousov, I., Sinkov, V., Khromova, P., Gerasimova, A., Chernyaeva, E., Solovieva, N. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Determination of specific inflammation activity in the presence of the minimal tuberculous changes
Introduction: Immunological lab tests do not allow to reliably determine TB activity when the calcifications of the lung tissue and intrathoracic lymph nodes (Ca) are observed.Aim: To create a predictive model for determining the TB activity in children with Ca.Materials: A training set of patients (n=509), combined according to 6-12 months dynamics of the X-ray, clinical and epidemiological data, immunological tests with ESAT-6CFP-10 as well as Mtb detection, was created. We revealed a relationship between real and calculated levels of leukocytes (CLL), eosinophils (EO, %) and -globulins (-GF), with the activity of humora...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tyulkova, T., Khabibullina, N., Skornyakov, S., Chernavin, N., Chernavin, P. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Higher adverse drug reactions but better completion rate of twelve-dose weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid comparing with nine-month daily isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection among patients under maintenance dialysis
Background: Although patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis are considered a high risk group for tuberculosis, the optimal treatment regimen for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) had not been studied yet.Aim: To compare the two regimens – twelve-dose weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid (3HP) and nine-month daily isoniazid (9H) for LTBI among patients under maintenance dialysis, with emphasis on completion rate and adverse drug reactions (ADR).Method: Since September 2014, we prospectively followed ESRD patients screened and treated for LTBI in three medical centers and one regional hospital ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lin, S.-Y., Wang, P.-H., Feng, J.-Y., Shu, C.-C. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Diabetic status and the risk of tuberculosis: a nationwide population-based study
Objective: To evaluate the association between DM duration and the incidence of TB in general population.Methods: We identified 6,312,283 subjects who are free of TB until one year after the day of their health examination (2009) and were followed up until December 31, 2018 using the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of DM status for TB with adjustment for potential confounders.Results: A total of 30,917 individuals were diagnosed with TB during follow-up period. An increased risk of TB incidence was observed in DM su...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yoo, J. E. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Risk of tuberculosis in pediatric patients treated with biological agents
Conclusions: There is a risk of LTBI and TB disease under biological agent treatment in children. Care should be taken that TB can be seen during treatment even in patients who did not have LTBI in pretreatment evaluation of biological agents and patients should be controlled frequently in terms of developing LTBI and TB disease. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Asfuroglu, P., Ramasli Gursoy, T., Onay, Z. R., Sismanlar Eyuboglu, T., Sunar Yayla, E. N., Aslan, A. T., Bakkaloglu Ezgu, S. A., Soylemezoglu, H. O., Buyan, N. Tags: Paediatric respiratory infection and immun. Source Type: research

The cost of treatment of tuberculosis in children of Belarus
Conclusions: The results show that the cost of treatment of latent TB in children in 293.5 - 346.7 - 1518.2 times lower than the cost of treatment of drug-sensitive TB, in 534.2 - 630.9 - 2763.0 times lower than the cost of treatment drug-resistant TB. The results can be used to determine the cost of medical care for children with active and latent TB. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gorbach, L. Tags: Ethics and economics Source Type: research

The use of the lytic D29 mycobacteriophages for accelerated determination of the drug sensitivity of tuberculosis mycobacteria to first and second-line anti-TB drugs in clinical isolates obtained after initial cultivation
Conclusions: The method for determining drug sensitivity using lytic mycobacteriophage was accelerated up to 5 days, simple to implement and cost-effective. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vladimirsky, M., Lapenkova, M., Alyapkina, Y., Vasilyeva, I., Arustamova, G., Philippov, P. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Genomic factors associated with katG-S315T in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Vietnam
Conclusions: We demonstrated that several genomic variations of the pathogen are associated with katG-S315T in common, and these genomic factors may be related to the low fitness cost of INH-resistant strains in Vietnam. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hang, N. T. L., Hijikata, M., Maeda, S., Miyabayashi, A., Seto, S., Diem, N. T. K., Yen, N. T. T., Thuong, P. H., Huan, H. V., Hoang, N. P., Mitarai, S., Kato, S., Keicho, N. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Preliminary evaluation of serial interferon-gamma releasing assay testing in NSCLC patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors
Conclusions: This preliminary study revealed that 1.7% (1/59) patients had positive conversions of IGRA and that it correlated with the development of active tuberculosis. However, the clinical utility of IGRA screening remains undetermined in light of a case with a negative conversion, and further study is warranted. Nevertheless, physicians should pay attention to the potential development of tuberculosis during immunotherapy with ICIs. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fujita, K., Yamamoto, Y., Kanai, O., Okamura, M., Nakatani, K., Mio, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Ready steady spit: A community based screening for lung tuberculosis amongst high-risk groups in Aalborg, Denmark
Conclusion: Prevalence of pulmonary TB was high and similar to comparable, previous studies. Half of the culture positive patients were initially smear-negative, suggestive of a less infective stage. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shakar, S. A., Staerke, N. B., Christensen, M., Weinreich, U. M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Mortality and associated factors among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Portugal, 2000-2016
Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has become a major challenge for TB control worldwide and treatment outcomes are often suboptimal. Overall, the death rate reported by WHO was 15% among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 26% among patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).We aimed to evaluate treatment outcomes and to identify the factors associated with death among MDR- and XDR-TB patients.We studied all patients that started MDR/XD-TB treatment in Portugal from 2000 to 2016 (follow up December 2019). Logistic regressions were used to identify the factors associat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oliveira, O., Gaio, R., Rito, T., Correia-Neves, M., Duarte, R. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Role of N-acetylcysteine(NAC) in preventing development of anti tuberculosis therapy(ATT) induced liver injury in pulmonary tuberculosis(PTB) patients, a simple randomized single blind clinical trial
Conclusion: NAC is effective in preventing ATT induced liver injury.Method: Liver injury, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Anti tuberculosis therapy, N-acetylcysteine. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ahmed, S., Ahmed Rao, N. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

IP-10 decreases during antituberculous treatment in children with active tuberculosis
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that IP-10 declines during anti-TB chemotherapy in childhood active TB and suggest it has the potential to become a biomarker for treatment monitoring in children. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - October 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Strzelak, A., Komorowska-Piotrowska, A., Borowa, A., Krasinska, M., Feleszko, W., Kulus, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Modified fuzzy Q learning based classifier for pneumonia and tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2020Source: IRBMAuthor(s): A. Kukker, R. Sharma (Source: IRBM)
Source: IRBM - October 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Idiopathic Pericardial Ossification Causing Chronic Constrictive Pericarditis.
CONCLUSION: Idiopathic pericardial ossification can cause CCP in pediatric patients. PMID: 33103518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology)
Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology - October 27, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Fetal Pediatr Pathol Source Type: research

Mediastinal Widening in a Patient with Paraplegia: An Unusual Cause
We present a patient with spinal tuberculosis, paravertebral abscess, and plural effusion that led to mediastinal widening. In this patient, Chest X-ray was deceptive. (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ravi Uniyal Ravindra K Garg Shweta Pandey Neeraj Kumar Hardeep S Malhotra Source Type: research

Drivers and sites of diversity in the DNA adenine methylomes of 93 < i > Mycobacterium tuberculosis < /i > complex clinical isolates
This study assembles DNA adenine methylomes for 93Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates from seven lineages paired with fully-annotated, finished, de novo assembled genomes. Integrative analysis yielded four key results. First, methyltransferase allele-methylome mapping corrected methyltransferase variant effects previously obscured by reference-based variant calling. Second, heterogeneity analysis of partially active methyltransferase alleles revealed that intracellular stochastic methylation generates a mosaic of methylomes within isogenic cultures, which we formalize as ‘intercellular mosaic methylati...
Source: eLife - October 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Computational and Systems Biology Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research