Tropical diseases and anaesthesia
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Anaesthesia & Intensive Care MedicineAuthor(s): Victoria Howell, Tom BashfordAbstractThe range of infectious diseases encountered while working overseas in resource limited settings varies enormously depending on where in the world one is working, although the majority of low and middle income countries lie within the tropics. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are commonly encountered when working in tropical countries and may have an impact upon anaesthesia, either as a direct result of the condition or due to interaction with the...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Seaweed (Turbinaria ornata)-assisted green synthesis of magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] nanomaterials and their anti-mycobacterial activity
Publication date: 1 January 2020Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 239Author(s): K. Govindaraju, K. Vijai Anand, S. Anbarasu, J. Theerthagiri, S. Revathy, P. Krupakar, G. Durai, M. Kannan, K.S. SubramanianAbstractFacile synthesis of Mg(OH)2 nanomaterials using seaweed Turbinaria ornata is reported herein. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis infer that crystal structures of Mg(OH)2 nanomaterials exhibit hexagonal brucite structure with thickness and lateral dimension around 7.75 nm and 16.29 nm (measured with Scherrer equation) respectively. FE-SEM images reveal that the flakes like structure were well ...
Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - August 21, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Differentiation of live and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in meat samples using PMA qPCR.
Abstract The causative agents of zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae, are members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). Wildlife such as red deer infected with bTB are often without pathological findings, thus meat thereof may be classified as safe for human consumption. The culturing of MTC is time consuming and inappropriate to be applied with fresh meat and food. Therefore, a rapid method "PMA qPCR" to differentiate living and dead cells of MTC was developed in this study. By treating with 50 μM PMA™ dye, dead M. bovis BCG (≤104 cells/ml meat suspensio...
Source: Food Microbiology - August 21, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Dorn-In S, Gareis M, Schwaiger K Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research

[ASAP] Structural Basis of Glycerophosphodiester Recognition by the < italic toggle="yes" > Mycobacterium tuberculosis < /italic > Substrate-Binding Protein UgpB
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00204 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)
Source: ACS Chemical Biology - August 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jonathan S. Fenn †, Ridvan Nepravishta‡, Collette S. Guy†, James Harrison†, Jesus Angulo‡, Alexander D. Cameron†, and Elizabeth Fullam*† Source Type: research

HIV Infection Is Associated With Downregulation of BTLA Expression on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4 T Cells in Active Tuberculosis Disease
Nearly a quarter of the global population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), with 10 million people developing active tuberculosis (TB) annually. Co-infection with HIV has long been recognized as a significant risk factor for progression to TB disease, yet the mechanisms whereby HIV impairs T cell-mediated control of Mtb infection remain poorly defined. We hypothesized that HIV infection may promote upregulation of inhibitory receptors on Mtb-specific CD4 T cells, a mechanism that has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction in chronic infections. Using cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfe...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum for Hoft et al., "The Rate of CD4 T Cell Entry into the Lungs during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Is Determined by Partial and Opposing Effects of Multiple Chemokine Receptors" [Errata]
(Source: Infection and Immunity)
Source: Infection and Immunity - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoft, S. G., Sallin, M. A., Kauffman, K. D., Sakai, S., Ganusov, V. V., Barber, D. L. Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Primary Infection and Dissemination: A Critical Role for Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) has reemerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, despite the use of the M. bovis BCG vaccine and intensive attempts to improve upon BCG or develop new vaccines. Two lacunae in our understanding of the M. tuberculosis (M. tb)-host pathogenesis have mitigated the vaccine efforts; the bacterial-host interaction that enables successful establishment of primary infection and the correlates of protection against TB. The vast majority of vaccine efforts are based on the premise that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the predominating mode of protection against TB. However, studies in animal mod...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Neutrophils express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in granulomas from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cynomolgus macaques
Mucosal Immunology, Published online: 21 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41385-019-0195-8Neutrophils express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in granulomas from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cynomolgus macaques (Source: Mucosal Immunology)
Source: Mucosal Immunology - August 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hannah P. Gideon Jiayao Phuah Beth A. Junecko Joshua T. Mattila Source Type: research

Predictors of recurrent TB in sputum smear and culture positive adults: a prospective cohort study
Conclusion: Extensive end of treatment pulmonary fibro-cavitation, high pre-treatment bacillary burden with no weight gain  and HIV infection could be reliable predictors of recurrent tuberculosis.Keywords: Grade, fibrosis, cavities, weight. (Source: African Health Sciences)
Source: African Health Sciences - August 21, 2019 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax following acupuncture treatments in Taiwan.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of lung disease including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, lung cancer and pneumonia, and a history of thoracic surgery, might have an increased post-acupuncture risk of pneumothorax. This information may possibly help physicians avoid post-acupuncture pneumothorax. PMID: 31433202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society)
Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Lin SK, Liu JM, Hsu RJ, Chuang HC, Wang YX, Lin PH Tags: Acupunct Med Source Type: research

Inactivation of mycobacteria by radicals from non-thermal plasma jet.
Abstract Mycobacterial cell walls comprise thick and diverse lipids and glycolipids that act as a permeability barrier to antibiotics or other chemical agents. The use of OH radicals from a non-thermal plasma jet (NTPJ) for the inactivation of mycobacteria in aqueous solution was adopted as a novel approach. Addition of water vapor in a nitrogen plasma jet generated OH radicals, which converted to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that inactivated non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis and pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. A stable plasma plume was obtained from a nitrogen plasma jet with 1.91 W power killing Es...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lee C, Subhadra B, Choi HG, Suh HW, Uhm HS, Kim HJ Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Multiple Colonic and Ileal Perforations due to Unsuspected Intestinal Amoebiasis – Case Report and Review
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was initia...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - August 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

The endTB observational study protocol: treatment of MDR-TB with bedaquiline or delamanid containing regimens
At a time when programs were struggling to design effective regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the marketing authorization of bedaquiline and delamanid was a critical deve... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Uzma Khan, Helena Huerga, Aamir J. Khan, Carole D. Mitnick, Catherine Hewison, Francis Varaine, Mathieu Bastard, Michael Rich, Molly F. Franke, Sidney Atwood, Palwasha Y. Khan and Kwonjune J. Seung Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research

Factors associated with isoniazid resistant tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus positive patients in Swaziland: a case-control study
Isoniazid resistant tuberculosis is the most prevalent type of resistance in Swaziland and over two-thirds of the isoniazid resistant tuberculosis patients are tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nonhlanhla Christinah Dlamini, Dar-Der Ji and Li-Yin Chien Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Impact of ultrasound on management for dyspnea presentations in a Rwandan emergency department
AbstractBackgroundThe complexity of diagnosis for critically ill dyspnea presentations in the emergency department remains a challenge. Accurate and rapid recognition of associated life-threatening conditions is paramount for timely treatment. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been shown to impact the diagnosis of dyspnea presentations in resource-rich settings, and may be of greater diagnostic benefit in resource-limited settings.MethodsWe prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of 100 patients presenting with dyspnea in the Emergency Department at University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTH-K) in Rwanda. After a t...
Source: Critical Ultrasound Journal - August 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Action of Dicumarol on Glucosamine-1-Phosphate Acetyltransferase of GlmU and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is one of most pathogenic microorganism in the world. It was reported that M. tb GlmU was a potential drug target, therefore, discovering compounds targeting GlmU acetyltransferase is necessary. The nature-driven compounds were tested for inhibiting GlmU acetyltransferase activity. It was found that dicumarol exhibited inhibitory effect on GlmU acetyltransferase with the IC50 value of 4.608 μg/ml (13.7 μM). The inhibition kinetics indicated that dicumarol displayed an uncompetitive inhibition for acetyl CoA and noncompetition-competition mixed type inhibition for GlcN-1-P, respectiv...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Characterization of the Attenuated Double Auxotroph Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD as an Alternative to H37Rv
Currently available model organisms such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have significantly contributed to our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) biology, these models have limitations such as differences in genome size, growth rates and virulence. However, attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may provide more representative, safer models to study M. tuberculosis biology. For example, the M. tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD double auxotroph, has undergone rigorous in vitro and in vivo safety testing. Like other auxotrophic strains, this has subsequently ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of cellular and soluble profiles in QuantiFERON nonconverters, converters, and reverters in the Gambia
ConclusionsOur results provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of resistance to sustainedMycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease)
Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease - August 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lydia Medawar, Hatimi Mohd Tukiman, Georgetta Mbayo, Simon Donkor, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Jayne S. Sutherland Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with and without tuberculosis
Conclusion: Clinical symptoms alone cannot act as basis for suspecting TB in HIV patients. Mycobacterial cultures should be used as diagnostic aids and preferably both the mediums have to be used. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology)
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology - August 20, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Yashovardhan Naishadham Vijay Kumar Jogishetty Venkat Baghirath Pacha Sudheer B Balla B Hari Vinay Parameshwar Naishadham Source Type: research

Analytical Comparison of Methods for Extraction of Short Cell-Free DNA from Urine
Urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a valuable noninvasive biomarker for detecting cancer mutation, diagnosing infectious disease (eg, tuberculosis), monitoring organ transplantation, and prenatal screening. Conventional silica DNA extraction does not efficiently capture urine cfDNA, which is dilute (ng/mL) and highly fragmented (30 to 100 nt). The clinical sensitivity of urine cfDNA detection increases with decreasing target length, motivating use of sample preparation methods designed for short fragments. (Source: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics - August 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Amy Oreskovic, Norman D. Brault, Nuttada Panpradist, James J. Lai, Barry R. Lutz Source Type: research

Neurological disorders in HIV in Africa: a review
Conclusion: Neurological disorders are common in HIV in Africa and the main CNS opportunistic infections result in high  mortality rates. Strategies aimed at reducing their high burden, morbidity and mortality include early HIV diagnosis and anti-retroviral therapy (ART), screening and chemoprophylaxis of main opportunistic infections, improved clinical diagnosis and management and programme strengthening.Keywords: Neurological disorders, HIV, Africa, opportunistic infections, direct HIV infection and inflammatory disorders. (Source: African Health Sciences)
Source: African Health Sciences - August 20, 2019 Category: African Health Source Type: research

Plasma metabolites Xanthine, 4-Pyridoxate, and d-glutamic acid as novel potential biomarkers for pulmonary tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that Xanthine, 4-Pyridoxate, and d-glutamic acid may serve as potential biomarkers for pulmonary TB. The present study provides experimental basis for developing potential biomarkers of pulmonary TB. PMID: 31442449 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry - August 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Huang H, Shi LY, Wei LL, Han YS, Yi WJ, Pan ZW, Jiang TT, Chen J, Tu HH, Li ZB, Hu YT, Li JC Tags: Clin Chim Acta Source Type: research

Analysis of cellular and soluble profiles in QuantiFERON nonconverters, converters, and reverters in the Gambia
ConclusionsOur results provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of resistance to sustainedMycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease)
Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease - August 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lydia Medawar, Hatimi Mohd Tukiman, Georgetta Mbayo, Simon Donkor, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Jayne S. Sutherland Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Recommendation on unbiased estimation of population attributable fraction calculated in “prevalence and risk factors of active pulmonary tuberculosis among elderly people in China: a population based cross-sectional study”
AbstractPopulation attributable fraction (PAF) refers to the proportion of all cases with a particular outcome in a population that could be prevented by eliminating a specific exposure. The authors of a recent paper evaluated the prevalence and estimated the PAFs for risk factors of TB among elderly people in China [Inf Dis Poverty. 2019;8:7]. Confounding is inevitable in observational studies and Levin ’s formula is of limited use in practice for unbiasedly estimating PAF. In a complex survey design, an unbiased estimation of the PAF can be calculated using a sample-weighted version of the Miettinen formula or a sa...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - August 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Why a deadly bacterium coats itself in antacid
Nature, Published online: 19 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02482-yAlkaline compound helps the tuberculosis bacterium to ward off an acid attack from host cells. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - August 19, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Serotonin syndrome masquerading as disease flare in lupus nephritis with end ‐stage renal disease
ConclusionSerotonin syndrome should be considered in patients on multiple serotonergic agents on the background of end ‐stage renal disease. Prompt recognition and distinction from lupus activity can significantly impact management decisions. (Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - August 19, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rodeo V. Navarroza, Leonid D. Zamora, Sandra V. Navarra Tags: APLAR GRAND ROUND CASE Source Type: research

In vitro efficacies, ADME, and pharmacokinetic properties of phenoxazine derivatives active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a leading infectious killer globally, demanding the urgent development of faster-acting drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Riminophenazines such as clofazimine are clinically efficacious against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Mtb. We determined the in vitro anti-Mtb activities; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; and in vivo mouse pharmacokinetics of a series of structurally related phenoxazines. One of these, PhX1, displayed promising drug-like properties and potent in ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanner L, Evans JC, Seldon R, Jordaan A, Warner DF, Haynes RK, Parkinson CJ, Wiesner L Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Revisiting the β-lactams for tuberculosis therapy: a compound-compound synthetic lethality approach.
In conclusion, our compound-compound synthetic lethality screening revealed novel small molecules that are capable of potentiating the action of meropenem, presumably via inhibition of the innate resistance conferred by the β-lactams accessory proteins. β-lactam compound-compound synthetic lethality may be an alternate approach for drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID: 31427291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiao S, Guo H, Weiner WS, Maddox C, Mao C, Gunosewoyo H, Pelly S, White EL, Rasmussen L, Schoenen FJ, Aubé J, Bishai WR, Lun S Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

[Tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents in Brazil: factors associated with death and treatment dropout].
Abstract The study aimed to describe clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, estimate incidence, and analyze factors associated with dropout and death during treatment of TB cases reported in indigenous children and adolescents in Brazil from 2006 to 2016. A historical case series was performed on incidence according to age bracket and major geographic region, and multinomial logistic regression was used to explain factors associated with treatment dropout and death. Of the 2,096 reported cases, 88.2% evolved to cure, 7.2% dropped out of treatment, and 4.6% evolved to death. There was a predominance of case...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - August 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Viana PVS, Codenotti SB, Bierrenbach AL, Basta PC Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research

Accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in a multicentre cohort study.
This study evaluated the performance of the novel next-generation Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) in comparison to Xpert for pleural TB diagnosis. METHODS: Pleural TB suspects were enrolled consecutively in four hospitals and pleural fluids were subjected to smear, culture and Xpert. Defrosted pleural fluid (-80°C) was examined using Xpert Ultra. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was conducted for all of the recovered isolates. RESULTS: In total, 317 individuals with suspected pleural TB were recruited; 208 of them were diagnosed with pleural TB according to the composite reference standard (CRS), which was...
Source: Chest - August 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wang G, Wang S, Yang X, Sun Q, Jiang G, Huang M, Huo F, Ma Y, Chen X, Huang H Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Genotypes and genetic characters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Myanmar using three typing methods.
Abstract Knowledge on basic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is helpful to understand the disease epidemiology and support the prediction of clinical outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to detect the genotypes and genotypic characters of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from new and retreatment rifampicin-resistant patients using three different genotyping methods. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing was used to determine the diversity of 222 clinical isolates. Spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment l...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ei PW, Lee JS, Aung WW, Yeun K, Korma W, Nyunt WW, Swe TL, Htwe MM, Win SM, Aung ST, Chang CL, Lee H Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Evidence-Responsive Health Training to HIV/TB Risks in Namibia.
Abstract Training health-care students in settings with high-prevalence HIV and tuberculosis (TB) presents a challenge to reduce the risk of infection during their clinical training while maintaining quality education. We sought to gauge the risk of exposure to HIV and TB and identify associated variables through two cross-sectional surveys of health students at the University of Namibia. In the HIV exposure survey, overall almost one-quarter of students (N = 367) reported exposure to HIV-most often needle-stick injury-with a much higher rate reported in senior years (73% in year 6). One in 10 students responding ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rennie T, Chipeio M, Udjombala B, Kraeker C, Hunter CJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Inhibition of inflammatory-molecule synthesis in THP-1 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate by brefelamide derivatives.
Abstract Plasma osteopontin (OPN) levels are elevated in tuberculosis patients and may involve granuloma formation. New inhibitors using brefelamide, an aromatic amide isolated from Dictyostelium cellular slime molds that may inhibit OPN transcription in A549 cells at 1 μM concentration, were synthesized as compounds C, D, and E. Their inhibitory activity against OPN synthesis in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 cells was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a multicolor immune-fluorescent microscope, and western blot. In the ELISA performed using full-length OPN, e...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - August 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bai G, Matsuba T, Kikuchi H, Chagan-Yasutan H, Motoda H, Ozuru R, Yamada O, Oshima Y, Hattori T Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Individualising therapy for drug-sensitive tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Hanif Esmail, Marc C Lipman, Andrew Nunn, Timothy M Walker (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - August 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A study on the cross-resistance character of isoniazid, para-aminosalicylic acid and pasiniazid against isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China
ConclusionsTaken together, our results demonstrated that PAS resistance and mutations in katG, inhA promoter or oxyR-ahpC intergenic region in INH resistant M. tuberculosis has little effect on pasiniazid susceptibility. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - August 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Bedaquiline and Rifabutin in Human Plasma
This article describes the simultaneous determination of bedaquiline fumarate (TMC-207) and rifabutin in human plasma by stable isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The methodology was developed for an investigation of potential drug-drug interactions of the two anti-tuberculosis drugs when given together to healthy human volunteers. Use of the two drugs in combination to treat disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is contemplated as the bacterium becomes resistant to many currently available drugs. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - August 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 2991: Bioactivity of Methoxylated and Methylated 1-Hydroxynaphthalene-2-Carboxanilides: Comparative Molecular Surface Analysis
aacute;n Vančo Zdeněk Trávníček Alois Čížek Andrzej Bąk Josef Jampílek A series of twenty-six methoxylated and methylated N-aryl-1-hydroxynaphthalene- 2-carboxanilides was prepared and characterized as potential anti-invasive agents. The molecular structure of N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide as a model compound was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All the analysed compounds were tested against the reference strain Staphylococcus aureus and three clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus as well as against Mycobacterium tubercu...
Source: Molecules - August 18, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hana Michnov á Šárka Pospíšilová Tom áš Goněc Iva Kapust íková Peter Koll ár Violetta Kozik Robert Musio ł Izabela Jendrzejewska J án Vančo Zden ěk Trávníček Alois Čížek Andrzej B ąk Josef Jamp ílek Tags: Article Source Type: research

microRNA-579 upregulation mediates death of human macrophages with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection could induce death of host human macrophages, promoting bacterial spread. In the current study we tested the potential role of microRNA-579 (miR-579) in the death of macrophages infected with MTB. In the primary human macrophages MTB infection induced upregulation of miR-579 but downregulation of its mRNA targets, SIRT1 and PDK1, which were accompanied by significant macrophage death and apoptosis. miR-579 inhibition, by its anti-sense sequence, restored SIRT1-PDK1 expression and significantly attenuated MTB-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human macrophages...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - August 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ma J, Chen XL, Sun Q Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

[Frequently Isolated Slow Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Pulmonary Samples and Evaluation of Drug Susceptibility Testing Results in a Referral Hospital in Turkey].
In this study, Mycobacterium avium (n= 77, 17.7%), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n= 70, 16.1%), Mycobacterium szulgai (n= 19, 4.4%), Mycobacterium kansasii (n= 10, 2.3%) ve Mycobacterium smiae (n= 9, 2.1%) were isolated as slowly growing mycobacteria from the pulmonary patients. Susceptibility testing was performed in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMH), supplemented with "oleic acid, albumin dextrose catalase" according to CLSI/ M24-A2 guideline recommendations. For the antibiotic susceptibility test, ready-to-use plaque drugs for slow-growing mycobacteria (SLOMYCO-Sensititre, TREK Diagnostic Systems Ltd...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research

[Detection and Molecular Analysis of Moxifloxacin MIC Values of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated from Clinical Specimens].
Authors: Bozok T, Kayar B, Yakıcı G, Eker E, Marzi M, Karslı F, Köksal F Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic, granulomatous and necrotizing disease caused by microorganisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex group. In 2017, 6.4 million new TB cases have been reported according to the World Health Organization 2018 Global Tuberculosis Report. TB remains among the major health problems of our time due to the increasing drug resistance problem and the difficulties in definitive diagnosis in recent years. It is stated by clinicians that intensive use of quinolone group drugs with oral form ...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research

Brief Report: High Programmatic Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) Use in Pregnancy Among HIV-Infected Women
Background: The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) to prevent tuberculosis (TB), including pregnant women. Recent trial results suggest increased adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with IPT during pregnancy. Data are limited regarding programmatic IPT use in pregnant PLHIV. Methods: We assessed previous programmatic IPT during pregnancy among HIV-infected mothers on enrollment to an infant TB prevention trial in Kenya. Pregnancy IPT use was assessed by the estimated conception date assuming 38 weeks of gestation. Correlates of initiation and co...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - August 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

The technological imperative in tuberculosis care and prevention in Vietnam
. (Source: Global Public Health)
Source: Global Public Health - August 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Paul H. Mason Chris Lyttleton Guy B. Marks Greg J. Fox Source Type: research

Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IS6110 fragment using gold nanoparticles decorated fullerene nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet as signal tags.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains the top fatal infection continuing to threat public health, and the present detection method for MTB is facing great challenges with the global TB burden. In response to this issue, a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed for detecting the IS6110 fragment within MTB. For the first time, the nanohybrid of gold nanoparticles decorated fullerene nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet (Au-nano-C60/NGS) directly served as a new signal tag to generate signal response without additional redox molecules and subsequently la...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - August 16, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bai L, Chen Y, Liu X, Zhou J, Cao J, Hou L, Guo S Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research

Correlation between the tuberculin skin test and T-SPOT.TB in patients with suspected tuberculosis infection: A pilot study.
In conclusion, the T-SPOT.TB test had a higher sensitivity than the TST, but the difference was not statistically significant. Neither the T-SPOT.TB test nor the TST was sufficiently accurate to detect active M. tuberculosis infection. PMID: 31410176 [PubMed] (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - August 16, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

An interferon-gamma release assay for the diagnosis of the Mycobacterium bovis infection in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Josephine Chileshe, Eduard O. Roos, Wynand J. Goosen, Peter Buss, Guy Hausler, Leana Rossouw, Tebogo Manemela, Paul van Helden, Robin Warren, Sven DC Parsons, Michele MillerAbstractMycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the cause of bovine tuberculosis, is endemic in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. The risk of spread of M. bovis infection currently prevents translocation of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from this population. Therefore, accurate assays are necessary for screening this threatened species. ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - August 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variability in the virulence of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates alters the capacity of human dendritic cells to signal for T cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that variability in virulence among Mtb clinical strains affects the capacity of DCs to respond to pathogenic challenge and mount an immune response against it, highlighting important parallels to studies previously done in mouse models. PMID: 31411311 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramos-Martinez AG, Valtierra-Alvarado MA, Garcia-Hernandez MH, Hernandez-Pando R, Castañeda-Delgado JE, Cougoule C, Rivas-Santiago B, Neyrolles O, Enciso-Moreno JA, Lugo-Villarino G, Serrano CJ Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

[ASAP] Mucosal Vaccination with a Self-Adjuvanted Lipopeptide Is Immunogenic and Protective against < italic toggle="yes" > Mycobacterium tuberculosis < /italic >
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00832 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - August 16, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anneliese S. Ashhurst †‡?, David M. McDonald†?, Cameron C. Hanna†, Vicki A. Stanojevic†, Warwick J. Britton*‡§, and Richard J. Payne*† Source Type: research

Latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors among people living with HIV and apparently healthy blood donors at the University of Gondar referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Immuno-compromised individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at an increased risk for tuberculosis reactivation compared with the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the ... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - August 16, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Mekdes Tilahun, Agumas Shibabaw, Amare Kiflie, Gezahegn Bewket, Ebba Abate and Baye Gelaw Tags: Research note Source Type: research

Correction to: Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis: lessons learned over 30  years: pectoral assay
The original article [1] contains an error in the title - the motif ‘pectoral assay’ should not be present and as such, the title should instead be: ‘Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis: lessons learned over 3... (Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery)
Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery - August 16, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Fikri M. Abu-Zidan and Mohamud Sheek-Hussein Tags: Correction Source Type: research