Medical care for migrant children in Europe: a practical recommendation for first and follow-up appointments
Conclusion: The current document includes general recommendations on ethical standards, use of interpreters and specific recommendations for prevention or early detection of communicable and non-communicable diseases. It may serve as a tool to ensure the fundamental right that migrant children in Europe receive a comprehensive, patient-centred health care. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Increased burden of disease and role of health economics: Asia-pacific region.
The objective of this article is to provide a review of the economic burden of health to patients in Asian countries. Areas covered: All data were collected from already published research article and review papers. The databases searched were Science Direct, PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar. We found a total of 4456 articles on health economics. After reviewing the title, only 876 relevant articles were considered. Only 92 (n = 92) articles were considered on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Expert opinion: Available data give evidence that diseases are linked to the low socio-economic status of the Asian ...
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - August 15, 2019 Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research

Analysis of drug resistance mutations in pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Southern coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India
ConclusionThe frequency of mutations in MTB in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, is similar to that in retreatment cases from most settings, with close to 80% in rpoB codon 516, 526, and 531, and over 80% in codons katG 315 and/or inhA promoter. The increase in INH monoresistance underlines the need for greater enforcement of national TB control programs. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Characteristic profile of antibody responses to PPD, ESAT-6, and CFP-10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis suspected cases in Surabaya, Indonesia
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Desak Nyoman Surya Suameitria Dewi, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Soedarsono, Yuriko Ozeki, Wayan Tunas Artama, Fihiruddin, Mamiko Niki, Yoshitaka Tateishi, Manabu Ato, Sohkichi MatsumotoAbstractAccurate and rapid diagnostic tools are important aspects of managing tuberculosis (TB) cases appropriately. However, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic kits based on immune response such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) are still debated. Thus, the exploration and assessment o...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Anti-TB drug resistance in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Southeast Spain
ConclusionsResistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was observed at levels similar to those published nationwide, with rates of multi-resistance being somewhat lower. Rates of HIV-tuberculosis co-infection have decreased considerably. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Granulomatous Inflammation Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Journal of the American Society of CytopathologyAuthor(s): Dianna L. Ng, Ronald BalassanianAbstractIntroductionFine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a minimally invasive biopsy technique and is an important tool for diagnosing infectious diseases. Rapid on-site evaluation allows for triage for ancillary testing, including microbiologic cultures. We aim to determine the etiology of granulomatous inflammation diagnosed by FNAB by correlating with culture results and clinical history.Materials and methodsA 16-year retrospective review of cases diagnosed as “gran...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology - August 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

MON-PO435: Disease Related Malnutrition in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), Attending District Chest Clinics (DCC) of Colombo and Gampaha Districts
(Source: Clinical Nutrition)
Source: Clinical Nutrition - August 15, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: R. Jayatissa, N. Wijenayaka, N. de Alwis, A. Perera, A. Munasinghe, P. Karunaratna, V. Fernando Tags: Nutrition and chronic disease II Source Type: research

MON-PO450: Body Composition of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), Attending District Chest Clinics (DCC) of Colombo and Gampaha Districts
(Source: Clinical Nutrition)
Source: Clinical Nutrition - August 15, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: R. Jayatissa, N. Wijenayaka, N. de Alwis, A. Perera, P. Karunaratna, A. Munasinghe, V. Fernando Tags: Nutrition and chronic disease II Source Type: research

Potential of the dual IFN-γ/IL-2 fluorescence-immunospot assay to distinguish different stages in bovine tuberculosis
In conclusion, our FluoroSpot is a valid method to enumerate individual antigen-specific IFN-γ+ and IL-2+ T cell subsets ex vivo. The greater levels of single IL-2 producing T cells associated with the presence of pathology could be a potential biomarker for active TB in cattle. (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - August 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tropism of influenza B viruses in human respiratory tract explants and airway organoids
In this study, we provide for the first time a systematic investigation on the tropism, replication kinetics and pathogenesis of IBVs in the human respiratory tract. Physiologically relevant ex vivo explant cultures of human bronchus and lung, human airway organoids, and in vitro cultures of differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells and type-I-like alveolar epithelial cells were used to study the cellular and tissue tropism, replication competence and induced innate immune response of 16 IBV strains isolated from 1940 to 2012 in comparison with human seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs), H1N1 and H3N2. IBVs fr...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - August 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bui, C. H. T., Chan, R. W. Y., Ng, M. M. T., Cheung, M.-C., Ng, K.-c., Chan, M. P. K., Chan, L. L. Y., Fong, J. H. M., Nicholls, J. M., Peiris, J. S. M., Chan, M. C. W. Tags: Lung biology and experimental studies, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Basic science and infection Source Type: research

Inclusion of key populations in clinical trials of new antituberculosis treatments: Current barriers and recommendations for pregnant and lactating women, children, and HIV-infected persons
by Amita Gupta, Michael D. Hughes, Anthony J. Garcia-Prats, Katherine McIntire, Anneke C. Hesseling Amita Gupta and colleagues discuss priorities in clinical research aimed at improving tuberculosis prevention and treatment in pregnant women, children, and people with HIV. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 15, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Amita Gupta Source Type: research

Strengthening Quality of Tuberculosis Laboratories Toward Accreditation in Viet Nam.
CONCLUSIONS: The program led to improved quality systems. Sites should be monitored to ensure sustainability of improvements and country capacity expanded for national scaleup. PMID: 31415083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology - August 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Gumma V, Bennett DL, Nguyen Thi Phong L, Duong Ngoc C, Bond KB, Nguyen Thi Hoang Y, Erni D, Nguyen Van N, Nguyen Van H, Albert H Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research

Updated Pediatric Tuberculosis Guidelines: Authors' Reply.
gra B PMID: 31477656 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Authors' Reply. Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research

Updated Pediatric Tuberculosis Guidelines.
PMID: 31477655 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sankar J, Dhanlakshmi K Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research

Do we Need to be More Updated in Pediatric Tuberculosis?
PMID: 31477654 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kumar P, Goyal JP Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research

Live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine MTBVAC versus BCG in adults and neonates: a randomised controlled, double-blind dose-escalation trial
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Michele Tameris, Helen Mearns, Adam Penn-Nicholson, Yolande Gregg, Nicole Bilek, Simbarashe Mabwe, Hennie Geldenhuys, Justin Shenje, Angelique Kany Kany Luabeya, Ingrid Murillo, Juana Doce, Nacho Aguilo, Dessislava Marinova, Eugenia Puentes, Esteban Rodríguez, Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio, Bernard Fritzell, Jelle Thole, Carlos Martin, Thomas J ScribaSummaryBackgroundInfants are a key target population for new tuberculosis vaccines. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculo...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prospects and challenges of a new live tuberculosis vaccine
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Jacqueline M Achkar (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Insights and challenges in tuberculosis vaccine development
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Helen McShaneSummaryTuberculosis kills more people than any other pathogen and the need for a universally effective vaccine has never been greater. An effective vaccine will be a key tool in achieving the targets set by WHO in the End TB Strategy. Tuberculosis vaccine development is difficult and slow. Substantial progress has been made in research and development of tuberculosis vaccines in the past 20 years, and two clinical trial results from 2018 provide reason for optimism. However, many challenges to the successful lice...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A tuberculosis-free world: is it a delusion?
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Sachin Atre (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - August 14, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

A tuberculosis-free world: is it a delusion? – Authors' reply
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Michael J A Reid, Eric Goosby (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - August 14, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Toxicity related to standard TB therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment outcomes in the REMoxTB study according to HIV status
The phase III REMoxTB study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive (with CD4+ count> 250 cells, not on anti-retroviral therapy) and HIV-negative patients. We investigated the incidence of adverse events and cure... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Conor D. Tweed, Angela M. Crook, Rodney Dawson, Andreas H. Diacon, Timothy D. McHugh, Carl M. Mendel, Sarah K. Meredith, Lerato Mohapi, Michael E. Murphy, Andrew J. Nunn, Patrick P. J. Phillips, Kasha P. Singh, Melvin Spigelman and Stephen H. Gillespie Tags: Research article Source Type: research

CD27 expression of T-cells discriminates IGRA-negative TB patients from healthy contacts in Ghana
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Ernest Adankwah, Alptekin Güler, Ertan Mayatepek, Richard Odame Phillips, Norman Nausch, Marc JacobsenAbstractIFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) have suboptimal sensitivity for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and cannot discriminate between tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy -potentially Mtb infected-contacts (HCs). In a case-control study we determined T-cell phenotypes of IGRAs in TB patients (n=20) and HCs (n=20) from Ghana. CD27 expression of T-cells was significantly lower in TB patients as compar...
Source: Microbes and Infection - August 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2912: Evaluating Latent Tuberculosis Infection Test Performance Using Latent Class Analysis in a TB and HIV Endemic Setting
Conclusion: In an endemic setting a positive TST or IGRA was highly predictive of LTBI, while a combination of TST and IGRA had high rule-out value. These data inform the utility of LTBI-related immunodiagnostic tests in TB and HIV endemic settings. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Shahieda Adams Rodney Ehrlich Roslynn Baatjies Nandini Dendukuri Zhuoyu Wang Keertan Dheda Tags: Article Source Type: research

A Model Based on the Combination of IFN- γ, IP-10, Ferritin and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D for Discriminating Latent From Active Tuberculosis in Children
In recent years, paediatric research on tuberculosis (TB) has focused on addressing new biomarkers with the potential to be used as immunological non-sputum-based methods for the diagnosis of TB in children. The aim of this study was to characterise a set of cytokines and a series of individual factors (ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parasite infections, and nutritional status) to assess different patterns for discriminating between active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) in children. The levels of 13 cytokines in QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants were analysed in 166 children: 74 with active T...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Treatment for extreme drug-resistant tuberculosis wins US government approval
Nature, Published online: 14 August 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02464-0The three-drug regimen cures 90% of people who have the deadliest form of the disease. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - August 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Amy Maxmen Source Type: research

Analysis of drug resistance mutations in pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Southern coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India.
CONCLUSION: The frequency of mutations in MTB in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, is similar to that in retreatment cases from most settings, with close to 80% in rpoB codon 516, 526, and 531, and over 80% in codons katG 315 and/or inhA promoter. The increase in INH monoresistance underlines the need for greater enforcement of national TB control programs. PMID: 31421108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Prasad PG, Jasmine MS, Kanta KNM, Deepthi K, Allam US Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristic profile of antibody responses to PPD, ESAT-6, and CFP-10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis suspected cases in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Abstract Accurate and rapid diagnostic tools are important aspects of managing tuberculosis (TB) cases appropriately. However, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic kits based on immune response such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) are still debated. Thus, the exploration and assessment of specific biomarker-targeted antibodies are needed for the development of an accurate and rapid diagnostic tool. The present study was conducted in patients with a respiratory problem suspected to be TB at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Among 102 patients tested by G...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dewi DNSS, Mertaniasih NM, Soedarsono, Ozeki Y, Artama WT, Fihiruddin, Niki M, Tateishi Y, Ato M, Matsumoto S Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Critically Ill Patients with the HIV: 40 Years Later.
ier F Abstract The development of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) in the mid-nineties has dramatically modified the clinical presentation of critically ill HIV-infected patients. Most of cART-treated patients ageing with controlled HIV replication are nowadays admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for non-AIDS-related events, mostly bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of comorbidities, variably impacted by chronic HIV infection - e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular diseases, or solid neoplasms. Today, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis an...
Source: Chest - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Azoulay É, de Castro N, Barbier F Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Triggering of protease-activated receptors (PARs) induces alternative M2 macrophage polarization with impaired plasticity
Publication date: October 2019Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 114Author(s): Gerardo García-González, Alejandro Sánchez-González, Romel Hernández-Bello, Gloria M. González, Moisés Armides Franco-Molina, Erika Evangelina Coronado-Cerda, José Prisco Palma-NicolásAbstractProtease-activated receptors (PARs) have been described in a wide diversity of vertebrate cells, including human immune cells. Macrophages are pivotal cells in the host-pathogen interaction and their polarization in M1 or M2 cells has been described as a new central paradigm in the immune resp...
Source: Molecular Immunology - August 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A high content screening assay for identifying inhibitors against active and dormant state intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Amar Yeware, Sonia Agrawal, Dhiman SarkarAbstractThe antitubercular drug development pipeline could start with an in vitro investigation of several compounds to examine their effect on active and dormant state Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, in vitro screening of dormant state bacilli cannot provide enough information on the simultaneous effect of a compound on the host. Therefore, we developed a live cell fluorescence based screening protocol by utilizing the high content system for determining the effect of in...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tuberculin Antigen Shortage
The CDC recently warned clinicians of a potential 3- to 10- month shortage of Aplisol (tuberculin PPD), 1 of 2 tuberculin antigens approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for tuberculosis skin tests. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - August 13, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Incidence of tuberculosis among HIV infected individuals on long term antiretroviral therapy in private healthcare sector in Pune, Western India
Despite rapid scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), Tuberculosis (TB) remains the commonest opportunistic infection and cause of death among HIV infected individuals in resource limited settings like India... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ameet Dravid, Kartik Natarajan, Mahenderkumar Medisetty, Raviraj Gawali, Uma Mahajan, Milind Kulkarni, Chinmay Saraf, Charuta Ghanekar, Sachin Kore, Niranjan Rathod and Mrudula Dravid Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Changes in the NK Cell Repertoire Related to Initiation of TB Treatment and Onset of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in TB/HIV Co-infected Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil —ANRS 12274
In conclusion, HIV infection impacts the frequency of circulating NK cells and γδ T cell subsets in TB/HIV patients. Important modifications of the NK cell repertoire were observed after anti-TB treatment (week 2) but not during the cART/TB follow-up (weeks 6-24). An increase of CD161+ NK cells was related to an unfavorable outcome. Despite the low number of cases, a more preserved NK cell profile was detected in IRIS patients previous to treatment, suggesting a role for these cells in IRIS onset. Longitudinal evaluation of the NK repertoire showed the impact of TB treatment and implicated these cells in TB pat...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - August 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Minor Subpopulation of Mycobacteria Inherently Produces High Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species That Generate Antibiotic Resisters at High Frequency From Itself and Enhance Resister Generation From Its Major Kin Subpopulation
Antibiotic-exposed bacteria produce elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to which either they succumb or get mutated genome-wide to generate antibiotic resisters. We recently showed that mycobacterial cultures contained two subpopulations, short-sized cells (SCs; ~10%) and normal/long-sized cells (NCs; ~90%). The SCs were significantly more antibiotic-susceptible than the NCs. It implied that the SCs might naturally be predisposed to generate significantly higher levels of ROS than the NCs. This in turn could make the SCs more susceptible to antibiotics or generate more resisters as compared to the NCs. Invest...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phase separation and clustering of an ABC transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Biochemistry]
Phase separation drives numerous cellular processes, ranging from the formation of membrane-less organelles to the cooperative assembly of signaling proteins. Features such as multivalency and intrinsic disorder that enable condensate formation are found not only in cytosolic and nuclear proteins, but also in membrane-associated proteins. The ABC transporter Rv1747, which... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 13, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Florian Heinkel, Libin Abraham, Mary Ko, Joseph Chao, Horacio Bach, Lok Tin Hui, Haoran Li, Mang Zhu, Yeou Mei Ling, Jason C. Rogalski, Joshua Scurll, Jennifer M. Bui, Thibault Mayor, Michael R. Gold, Keng C. Chou, Yossef Av–Gay, Lawrence P. McIntos Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Design Considerations and Assays for Hemocompatibility of FDA-Approved Nanoparticles
Semin Thromb Hemost DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1688491Nanoparticles have numerous biomedical applications including, but not limited to, targeted drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, sensors, and implants for a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and tuberculosis. Although the mode of delivery of the nanoparticles depends on the application and the disease, the nanoparticles are often in immediate contact with the systemic circulation either because of intravenous administration or their ability to enter the bloodstream with relative ease or their longer survival time in circulation. Once in circulatio...
Source: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis - August 12, 2019 Category: Hematology Authors: Saha, Amit K. Zhen, Min-Yi S. Erogbogbo, Folarin Ramasubramanian, Anand K. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Identification of new MmpL3 inhibitors by untargeted and targeted mutant screens defines MmpL3 domains with differential resistance.
Abstract The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) mycolate flippase MmpL3 has been the proposed target for multiple inhibitors with diverse chemical scaffolds. This diversity in chemical scaffolds has made it difficult to predict compounds that inhibit MmpL3 without whole genome sequencing of isolated resistant mutants. Here we describe the identification of four new inhibitors that select for resistance mutations in mmpL3 Using these resistant mutants, we conducted a targeted whole-cell phenotypic screen of 163 novel Mtb growth inhibitors for differential growth inhibition of wild type Mtb as compared to a pool of tw...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Williams JT, Haiderer ER, Coulson GB, Conner KN, Ellsworth E, Chen C, Alvarez-Cabrera N, Li W, Jackson M, Dick T, Abramovitch RB Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Utility of targeted, amplicon-based deep sequencing to detect resistance to first-line tuberculosis drugs in Botswana.
Abstract Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is an alarming threat and targeted deep sequencing (DS) may be an effective method for rapid identification of drug-resistant profiles, including detection of heteroresistance. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of targeted DS vs. phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) among patients starting first-line anti-TB therapy in Botswana. Overall, we found high concordance between DS and pDST. Lower sensitivity of DS, which targets established high-confidence resistance variants, was observed for detecting isoniazid-resistance among HIV-infected patients. PMID: ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Q, Modongo C, Allender C, Engelthaler DM, Warren RM, Zetola NM, Shin SS Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Proposal to Revise the Screening Test for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Close Contacts at Elementary Schools in Korea.
Authors: Bae JM Abstract The 2018 National Guideline for Tuberculosis Control, which was published by the Korea Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (KCDC), mandates conducting an epidemiological survey among close contacts of active tuberculosis patients at public institutions such as schools. In the procedure for these surveys, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is mandated as the screening test for latent tuberculosis infection in elementary school students. However, several guidelines recommend using the interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA) for contacts aged over 5 years with a Bacillus Calmette-Gué...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health - August 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: J Prev Med Public Health Source Type: research

Late diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a child at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa: A case report.
This report describes the case of a 9-year-old male patient who was suspected of having multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, based on failure to recover clinically and radiologically after 6 months on first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pus samples were sent to an accredited academic laboratory for histopathology, microscopy, culture, line-probe assay (MTBDRplus assay) and phenotypic MGIT 960 drug susceptibility tests. Second-line MDR tuberculosis treatment was introduced. Clinical, radiological, physical processes and more laboratory tests were conducted to document whether or not there was improvement in the patie...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - August 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siwele BA, Makhado NA, Mariba MT Tags: Afr J Lab Med Source Type: research

Variation in interferon-γ production between QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT assays in TB contact investigation
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Respiratory InvestigationAuthor(s): Mizue Tsuyuzaki, Hidetoshi Igari, Nao Okada, Kiminori SuzukiAbstractBackgroundIndividuals with recent contact with active tuberculosis (TB) patients were screened for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) considering their greater relative risk for developing active TB. QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) assay offers two TB-specific antigen tubes (TB1 and TB2). TB2 is designed to elicit both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. This mechanism could lead to increased sensitivity as compared to the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-...
Source: Respiratory Investigation - August 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tuberculous meningomyelitis in magnetic resonance imaging: A Chinese case report
Publication date: 2019Source: European Journal of Radiology Open, Volume 6Author(s): Xingli Liu, Maoping Rui, Liang LyuAbstractTuberculous meningomyelitis is a relatively rare but serious type of nervous system tuberculosis. This disease is caused by invasion of the spinal cord or the spinal meninges tuberculosis. The early symptoms are not typical and lack specificity. It can cause early changes in the MRI. Analysis of the MRI manifestations combined with the clinical manifestations and cere- brospinal fluid examination can facilitate accurate diagnosis of the disease. Early treatment has a clear effect, we want to increa...
Source: European Journal of Radiology Open - August 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incidental finding of tuberculous pleural effusion in patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: CASE report
CONCLUSIONIn developing countries even without any constitutional symptoms of Tuberculosis high index of suspicion for Tuberculosis should be made for patient with pleural effusion especially in cases of cardiac surgery as to prevent morbidity and mortality. (Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - August 10, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Proposal to Revise the Screening Test for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Close Contacts at Elementary Schools in Korea.
Authors: Bae JM Abstract The 2018 National Guideline for Tuberculosis Control, which was published by the Korea Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (KCDC), mandates conducting an epidemiological survey among close contacts of active tuberculosis patients at public institutions such as schools. In the procedure for these surveys, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is mandated as the screening test for latent tuberculosis infection in elementary school students. However, several guidelines recommend using the interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA) for contacts aged over 5 years with a Bacillus Calmette-Gué...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health - August 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: J Prev Med Public Health Source Type: research

Development of ligand-coated beads to measure macrophage antimicrobial activities.
CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The beads coated with specific ligands from Mtb worked well in both macrophage cell line and human primary macrophages, which can be exploited to further study the phagosomal function of macrophage in TB. Our bead model can be applied to different ligands from other pathogens, which could extend the understanding of the associations between macrophage antimicrobial functions and outcomes of infectious diseases, and the possible cellular mechanisms involved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31400233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of the Cell)
Source: Biology of the Cell - August 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Tram TTB, Ha VTN, Thu DDA, Dinh TD, Vijay S, Hai HT, Hanh NT, Phu NH, Thwaites GE, Thuong NTT Tags: Biol Cell Source Type: research

Bronchiectasis in India: results from the European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) and Respiratory Research Network of India Registry
Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 9Author(s): Raja Dhar, Sheetu Singh, Deepak Talwar, Murali Mohan, Surya Kant Tripathi, Rajesh Swarnakar, Sonali Trivedi, Srinivas Rajagopala, George D'Souza, Arjun Padmanabhan, Archana Baburao, Padukudru Anand Mahesh, Babaji Ghewade, Girija Nair, Aditya Jindal, Gayathri Devi H Jayadevappa, Honney Sawhney, Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah, Kaushik Saha, Suresh AnantharajSummaryBackgroundBronchiectasis is a common but neglected chronic lung disease. Most epidemiological data are limited to cohorts from Europe and the USA, with few data from low-income and...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - August 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

GSE134550 Mtb-induced BAL cell gene expression signature in LTBI [CD8 experiment]
In this study, we evaluated global Mtb-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and in Mtb-na ïve control subjectsWe used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression evaluating the impact of localized T cells subsets in the recall responses of individuals with LTBI (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - August 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

GSE134564 Mtb-induced BAL cell gene expression signature in LTBI [CD4 experiment]
In this study, we evaluated global Mtb-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and in Mtb-na ïve control subjectsWe used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression evaluating the impact of localized T cells subsets in the recall responses of individuals with LTBI (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - August 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

GSE134565 Mtb-induced BAL cell gene expression signature in LTBI [naive experiment]
In this study, we evaluated global Mtb-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and in Mtb-na ïve control subjectsWe used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression evaluating the impact of localized T cells subsets in the recall responses of individuals with LTBI (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - August 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

Impact of Mycobacterium bovis-induced pathology on interpretation of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold assay results in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)
In this study, IP-10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations in whole blood samples from M. bovis culture-confirmed buffaloes with varying degrees of pathological changes (n = 72) and uninfected controls (n = 70) were measured in the IP-10 release assay (IPRA) and IFN-γ release assay (IGRA), respectively. Findings suggest that concentrations of both cytokines in QFT Nil tubes were higher in infected buffaloes with macroscopic pathological changes consistent with bovine tuberculosis compared to uninfected controls, and IGRA values increased with more severe pathological changes in...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - August 9, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research