Incidence of tuberculosis among HIV infected individuals on long term antiretroviral therapy in private healthcare sector in Pune, Western India
Despite rapid scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), Tuberculosis (TB) remains the commonest opportunistic infection and cause of death among HIV infected individuals in resource limited settings like India... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ameet Dravid, Kartik Natarajan, Mahenderkumar Medisetty, Raviraj Gawali, Uma Mahajan, Milind Kulkarni, Chinmay Saraf, Charuta Ghanekar, Sachin Kore, Niranjan Rathod and Mrudula Dravid Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Changes in the NK Cell Repertoire Related to Initiation of TB Treatment and Onset of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in TB/HIV Co-infected Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil —ANRS 12274
In conclusion, HIV infection impacts the frequency of circulating NK cells and γδ T cell subsets in TB/HIV patients. Important modifications of the NK cell repertoire were observed after anti-TB treatment (week 2) but not during the cART/TB follow-up (weeks 6-24). An increase of CD161+ NK cells was related to an unfavorable outcome. Despite the low number of cases, a more preserved NK cell profile was detected in IRIS patients previous to treatment, suggesting a role for these cells in IRIS onset. Longitudinal evaluation of the NK repertoire showed the impact of TB treatment and implicated these cells in TB pat...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - August 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Minor Subpopulation of Mycobacteria Inherently Produces High Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species That Generate Antibiotic Resisters at High Frequency From Itself and Enhance Resister Generation From Its Major Kin Subpopulation
Antibiotic-exposed bacteria produce elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to which either they succumb or get mutated genome-wide to generate antibiotic resisters. We recently showed that mycobacterial cultures contained two subpopulations, short-sized cells (SCs; ~10%) and normal/long-sized cells (NCs; ~90%). The SCs were significantly more antibiotic-susceptible than the NCs. It implied that the SCs might naturally be predisposed to generate significantly higher levels of ROS than the NCs. This in turn could make the SCs more susceptible to antibiotics or generate more resisters as compared to the NCs. Invest...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phase separation and clustering of an ABC transporter in Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Biochemistry]
Phase separation drives numerous cellular processes, ranging from the formation of membrane-less organelles to the cooperative assembly of signaling proteins. Features such as multivalency and intrinsic disorder that enable condensate formation are found not only in cytosolic and nuclear proteins, but also in membrane-associated proteins. The ABC transporter Rv1747, which... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 13, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Florian Heinkel, Libin Abraham, Mary Ko, Joseph Chao, Horacio Bach, Lok Tin Hui, Haoran Li, Mang Zhu, Yeou Mei Ling, Jason C. Rogalski, Joshua Scurll, Jennifer M. Bui, Thibault Mayor, Michael R. Gold, Keng C. Chou, Yossef Av–Gay, Lawrence P. McIntos Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Design Considerations and Assays for Hemocompatibility of FDA-Approved Nanoparticles
Semin Thromb Hemost DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1688491Nanoparticles have numerous biomedical applications including, but not limited to, targeted drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, sensors, and implants for a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and tuberculosis. Although the mode of delivery of the nanoparticles depends on the application and the disease, the nanoparticles are often in immediate contact with the systemic circulation either because of intravenous administration or their ability to enter the bloodstream with relative ease or their longer survival time in circulation. Once in circulatio...
Source: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis - August 12, 2019 Category: Hematology Authors: Saha, Amit K. Zhen, Min-Yi S. Erogbogbo, Folarin Ramasubramanian, Anand K. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Identification of new MmpL3 inhibitors by untargeted and targeted mutant screens defines MmpL3 domains with differential resistance.
Abstract The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) mycolate flippase MmpL3 has been the proposed target for multiple inhibitors with diverse chemical scaffolds. This diversity in chemical scaffolds has made it difficult to predict compounds that inhibit MmpL3 without whole genome sequencing of isolated resistant mutants. Here we describe the identification of four new inhibitors that select for resistance mutations in mmpL3 Using these resistant mutants, we conducted a targeted whole-cell phenotypic screen of 163 novel Mtb growth inhibitors for differential growth inhibition of wild type Mtb as compared to a pool of tw...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Williams JT, Haiderer ER, Coulson GB, Conner KN, Ellsworth E, Chen C, Alvarez-Cabrera N, Li W, Jackson M, Dick T, Abramovitch RB Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Utility of targeted, amplicon-based deep sequencing to detect resistance to first-line tuberculosis drugs in Botswana.
Abstract Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is an alarming threat and targeted deep sequencing (DS) may be an effective method for rapid identification of drug-resistant profiles, including detection of heteroresistance. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of targeted DS vs. phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (pDST) among patients starting first-line anti-TB therapy in Botswana. Overall, we found high concordance between DS and pDST. Lower sensitivity of DS, which targets established high-confidence resistance variants, was observed for detecting isoniazid-resistance among HIV-infected patients. PMID: ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Q, Modongo C, Allender C, Engelthaler DM, Warren RM, Zetola NM, Shin SS Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Proposal to Revise the Screening Test for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Close Contacts at Elementary Schools in Korea.
Authors: Bae JM Abstract The 2018 National Guideline for Tuberculosis Control, which was published by the Korea Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (KCDC), mandates conducting an epidemiological survey among close contacts of active tuberculosis patients at public institutions such as schools. In the procedure for these surveys, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is mandated as the screening test for latent tuberculosis infection in elementary school students. However, several guidelines recommend using the interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA) for contacts aged over 5 years with a Bacillus Calmette-Gué...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health - August 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: J Prev Med Public Health Source Type: research

Late diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a child at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa: A case report.
This report describes the case of a 9-year-old male patient who was suspected of having multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, based on failure to recover clinically and radiologically after 6 months on first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pus samples were sent to an accredited academic laboratory for histopathology, microscopy, culture, line-probe assay (MTBDRplus assay) and phenotypic MGIT 960 drug susceptibility tests. Second-line MDR tuberculosis treatment was introduced. Clinical, radiological, physical processes and more laboratory tests were conducted to document whether or not there was improvement in the patie...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - August 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siwele BA, Makhado NA, Mariba MT Tags: Afr J Lab Med Source Type: research

Variation in interferon-γ production between QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT assays in TB contact investigation
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Respiratory InvestigationAuthor(s): Mizue Tsuyuzaki, Hidetoshi Igari, Nao Okada, Kiminori SuzukiAbstractBackgroundIndividuals with recent contact with active tuberculosis (TB) patients were screened for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) considering their greater relative risk for developing active TB. QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) assay offers two TB-specific antigen tubes (TB1 and TB2). TB2 is designed to elicit both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. This mechanism could lead to increased sensitivity as compared to the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-...
Source: Respiratory Investigation - August 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tuberculous meningomyelitis in magnetic resonance imaging: A Chinese case report
Publication date: 2019Source: European Journal of Radiology Open, Volume 6Author(s): Xingli Liu, Maoping Rui, Liang LyuAbstractTuberculous meningomyelitis is a relatively rare but serious type of nervous system tuberculosis. This disease is caused by invasion of the spinal cord or the spinal meninges tuberculosis. The early symptoms are not typical and lack specificity. It can cause early changes in the MRI. Analysis of the MRI manifestations combined with the clinical manifestations and cere- brospinal fluid examination can facilitate accurate diagnosis of the disease. Early treatment has a clear effect, we want to increa...
Source: European Journal of Radiology Open - August 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Incidental finding of tuberculous pleural effusion in patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: CASE report
CONCLUSIONIn developing countries even without any constitutional symptoms of Tuberculosis high index of suspicion for Tuberculosis should be made for patient with pleural effusion especially in cases of cardiac surgery as to prevent morbidity and mortality. (Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery)
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - August 10, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Proposal to Revise the Screening Test for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Close Contacts at Elementary Schools in Korea.
Authors: Bae JM Abstract The 2018 National Guideline for Tuberculosis Control, which was published by the Korea Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (KCDC), mandates conducting an epidemiological survey among close contacts of active tuberculosis patients at public institutions such as schools. In the procedure for these surveys, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is mandated as the screening test for latent tuberculosis infection in elementary school students. However, several guidelines recommend using the interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA) for contacts aged over 5 years with a Bacillus Calmette-Gué...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health - August 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: J Prev Med Public Health Source Type: research

Development of ligand-coated beads to measure macrophage antimicrobial activities.
CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The beads coated with specific ligands from Mtb worked well in both macrophage cell line and human primary macrophages, which can be exploited to further study the phagosomal function of macrophage in TB. Our bead model can be applied to different ligands from other pathogens, which could extend the understanding of the associations between macrophage antimicrobial functions and outcomes of infectious diseases, and the possible cellular mechanisms involved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31400233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of the Cell)
Source: Biology of the Cell - August 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Tram TTB, Ha VTN, Thu DDA, Dinh TD, Vijay S, Hai HT, Hanh NT, Phu NH, Thwaites GE, Thuong NTT Tags: Biol Cell Source Type: research

Bronchiectasis in India: results from the European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) and Respiratory Research Network of India Registry
Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 9Author(s): Raja Dhar, Sheetu Singh, Deepak Talwar, Murali Mohan, Surya Kant Tripathi, Rajesh Swarnakar, Sonali Trivedi, Srinivas Rajagopala, George D'Souza, Arjun Padmanabhan, Archana Baburao, Padukudru Anand Mahesh, Babaji Ghewade, Girija Nair, Aditya Jindal, Gayathri Devi H Jayadevappa, Honney Sawhney, Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah, Kaushik Saha, Suresh AnantharajSummaryBackgroundBronchiectasis is a common but neglected chronic lung disease. Most epidemiological data are limited to cohorts from Europe and the USA, with few data from low-income and...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - August 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

GSE134565 Mtb-induced BAL cell gene expression signature in LTBI [naive experiment]
In this study, we evaluated global Mtb-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and in Mtb-na ïve control subjectsWe used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression evaluating the impact of localized T cells subsets in the recall responses of individuals with LTBI (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - August 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

GSE134564 Mtb-induced BAL cell gene expression signature in LTBI [CD4 experiment]
In this study, we evaluated global Mtb-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and in Mtb-na ïve control subjectsWe used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression evaluating the impact of localized T cells subsets in the recall responses of individuals with LTBI (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - August 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

GSE134550 Mtb-induced BAL cell gene expression signature in LTBI [CD8 experiment]
In this study, we evaluated global Mtb-induced gene expression in airway immune cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and in Mtb-na ïve control subjectsWe used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression evaluating the impact of localized T cells subsets in the recall responses of individuals with LTBI (Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus)
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - August 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

Impact of Mycobacterium bovis-induced pathology on interpretation of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold assay results in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)
In this study, IP-10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations in whole blood samples from M. bovis culture-confirmed buffaloes with varying degrees of pathological changes (n = 72) and uninfected controls (n = 70) were measured in the IP-10 release assay (IPRA) and IFN-γ release assay (IGRA), respectively. Findings suggest that concentrations of both cytokines in QFT Nil tubes were higher in infected buffaloes with macroscopic pathological changes consistent with bovine tuberculosis compared to uninfected controls, and IGRA values increased with more severe pathological changes in...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - August 9, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cutaneous Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections at a National Specialized Hospital in China.
Abstract To identify the microorganism distribution clinical characteristics and management of cutaneous Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infectious diseases in the past 10 years we collected and analyzed the patient records of all cutaneous M. tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infection cases diagnosed by culture and/or PCR from 2008 to 2017 in the Hospital of Dermatology Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Among 203 cases including 89 M. tuberculosis infections and 114 nontuberculous mycobacterial infections M. tuberculosis was the most common species in all patients and M...
Source: Acta Dermato-Venereologica - August 9, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Mei Y, Zhang W, Shi Y, Jiang H, Chen Z, Chokkakula S, Long S, Pan C, Wang H Tags: Acta Derm Venereol Source Type: research

New Perspectives in Latent Tuberculosis Infection.
ute;rrez JJ PMID: 31405608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - August 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Arias-Guillén M, Escalante P, Palacios Gutiérrez JJ Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Intracerebral tuberculomas: A rare cause of seizure in an immunocompetent young male
We describe the case of a young black male who presented with new-onset seizure. Cerebral computerized tomography from an outside hospital reportedly showed findings concerning for septic emboli. Brain magnetic resonance imaging at our institution confirmed the presence of multiple, peripherally enhancing lesions in the right frontal and temporal lobes, cerebellum, and pons. Thoracentesis was performed for a concomitant pleural effusion, which contained elevated levels of adenosine deaminase and ultimately grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After ruling out other causes, we reached a diagnosis of CNS TB manifesting as cerebr...
Source: IDCases - August 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

FDG PET/CT in a Case of Bilateral Tuberculous Epididymo-orchitis
We present a case of bilateral tuberculous epididymo-orchitis showing high FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT. In addition, the patient had a prostatic FDG-avid lesion, consistent with tuberculous prostatitis. This case indicates tuberculous epididymo-orchitis, especially in tuberculosis-endemic regions, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with hypermetabolic epididymal or testicular lesions, including benign and malignant tumors, bacterial epididymo-orchitis, abscess, idiopathic granulomatous orchitis, and sarcoidosis. (Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine)
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - August 8, 2019 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research

Computed tomography-based predictive nomogram for differentiating primary progressive pulmonary tuberculosis from community-acquired pneumonia in children
To investigate the value of predictive nomogram in optimizing computed tomography (CT)-based differential diagnosis of primary progressive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in... (Source: BMC Medical Imaging)
Source: BMC Medical Imaging - August 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Bei Wang, Min Li, He Ma, Fangfang Han, Yan Wang, Shunying Zhao, Zhimin Liu, Tong Yu, Jie Tian, Di Dong and Yun Peng Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Analysis of MDR and XDR Tuberculosis from Belarus: Machine-Learning Approach
(Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics)
Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics - August 8, 2019 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 2873: Dually Acting Nonclassical 1,4-Dihydropyridines Promote the Anti-Tuberculosis (Tb) Activities of Clofazimine
e;r Andreas Hilgeroth The number of effective antituberculotic drugs is strongly limited to four first-line drugs in standard therapy. In case of resistances second-line antibiotics are used with a poor efficacy and tolerability. Therefore, novel antituberculotic drugs are urgently needed. We synthesized novel nonclassical 1,4-dihydropyridines and evaluated their antituberculotic properties depending on substituent effects. Preferred substituents could be identified. As related classical 1,4-dihydropyridines are known as inhibitors of the transmembrane efflux pump ABCB1 in cancer cells, we wondered whether a use of o...
Source: Molecules - August 8, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Fabian Lentz Norbert Reiling Gabriella Spengler Annam ária Kincses Andrea Csonka Joseph Moln ár Andreas Hilgeroth Tags: Communication Source Type: research

IL-4 subverts mycobacterial containment in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human macrophages
Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood. The role of interleukin (IL)-4, the archetypal T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine, in the immunopathogenesis of human tuberculosis remains unclear. Blood and/or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were obtained from participants with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=23) and presumed latent TB infection (LTBI) (n=22). Messenger RNA expression levels of interferon (IFN)-, IL-4 and its splice variant IL-42 were determined by real-time PCR. The effect of human recombinant (hr)IL-4 on mycobacterial survival/containment (CFU·mL–1) was evaluated in...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - August 8, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pooran, A., Davids, M., Nel, A., Shoko, A., Blackburn, J., Dheda, K. Tags: Lung biology and experimental studies, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Basic science and tuberculosis Source Type: research

High prevalence of abnormalities on chest radiography in rheumatoid arthritis
ConclusionAbnormalities were identified in 79% of chest radiographs in RA patients. Sixty-six percent of these were not reported. Clinicians need to be aware of the need to check for abnormalities.Key Points•RA patients have a high prevalence of CXR abnormalities.•Many of these are of clinical significance.•Age, being male, and seropositivity were associated with lung abnormalities. (Source: Clinical Rheumatology)
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - August 8, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Amount of Cycloserine Emanating from Terizidone Metabolism and Relationship with Hepatic Function in Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
ConclusionsCycloserine is not interchangeable with terizidone, as amounts are lower than expected. Cycloserine may be a predisposing factor to the development of hyperbilirubinaemia, as CLm/F is affected by hepatic function. (Source: Drugs in R&D)
Source: Drugs in R&D - August 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The diagnostic effect of sequential detection of ADA screening and T-SPOT assay in pleural effusion patients.
Authors: Feng M, Sun F, Wang F, Cao G Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic effect of sequential detection of Adenosine deaminase (ADA) screening and T-SPOT assay on tuberculosis (TB) pleurisy in pleural effusion patients. Materials and methods: 248 pleural effusion patients (172 TB and 76 non-TB) were retrospectively analyzed in the study. The concentrations of ADA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in pleural fluids and serum samples of the patients. T-SPOTT assays were performed in pleural fluids. The relationship between ADA, T-SPOT and the occurrence of TB pleurisy was evaluated using logisti...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - August 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of gamma radiation-induced PEGylated isoniazid
ConclusionsIn summary, the research suggests that it is possible to covalently attach the PEG onto INH by the proposed method and to obtain a slow-acting isoniazid derivative with little toxicity in vitro and higher anti-mycobacterial potency than the neat drug. (Source: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology)
Source: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology - August 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

Tuberculous meningitis: Challenges in diagnosis and management.
Authors: Méchaï F, Bouchaud O Abstract Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis. In 2017, approximately 10 million people developed TB worldwide, of whom more than 100,000 new cases of TBM are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation. GeneXpert represents the most significant advance in TBM diagnostics over the past decade, but it lacks sensitivity and cannot be used to rule out ...
Source: Revue Neurologique - August 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research

Prevalence, risk and genetic characteristics of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a tertiary care tuberculosis hospital in China
(Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research

Mutation and Transmission Profiles of Second-Line Drug Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis From Hebei Province, China
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is involved in ineffective treatment of TB, especially multidrug resistant/extensively resistant TB(MDR/XDR-TB), leading to acquired resistance and transmission of drug-resistant strains. Second-line drugs (SLD), including both fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs, were commonly proved to be the effective drugs for treatment of drug-resistant TB. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SLD-resistant strains and its specific mutations in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, and to acknowledge the transmission pattern of SLD re...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis thioesterase TesA and globally affects vancomycin susceptibility
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Letters)
Source: FEBS Letters - August 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dong Yang, Guy Vandenbussche, Didier Vertommen, Damien Evrard, Romany Abskharon, Jean ‐François Cavalier, Gilles Berger, Stéphane Canaan, Mohammad Shahneawz Khan, Sheng Zeng, Alexandre Wohlkönig, Martine Prévost, Patrice Soumillion, Vé Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Is rifampin resistance a reliable predictive marker of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: a meta-analysis of findings
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), including rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB (RR-TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), is becoming a threat to public health worldwide.1,2 An estimated 558,000 MDR/RR-TB cases emerged in 2017, of which approximately half of MDR-TB cases were reported in India, China and Russia.1 Due to limited availability of quality-assured laboratory resources in TB-endemic countries, confirmed cases of MDR-TB likely account for only a small proportion of actual cases. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhengwei Liu, Huali Dong, BeiBei Wu, Mingwu Zhang, Yelei Zhu, Yu Pang, Xiaomeng Wang Source Type: research

Biophysical and functional characterizations of recombinant RimI acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract Nα-acetylation is a universal protein modification related to a wide range of physiological processes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. RimI, an Nα-acetyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is responsible for the acetylation of the α-amino group of the N-terminal residue in the ribosomal protein S18. Despite growing evidence that protein acetylation may be correlated with the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, no structural information is yet available for mechanistically understanding the MtRimI acetylation. To enable structural studies for MtRimI, we constructed a serial of recombinant ...
Source: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica - August 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hou M, Zhuang J, Fan S, Wang H, Guo C, Yao H, Lin D, Liao X Tags: Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) Source Type: research

Positive association between MIC gene polymorphism and tuberculosis in Chinese population.
Abstract The disease progression and morbidity of tuberculosis (TB) infections are determined by virulence of the micro-organism, host genetic factors and environmental factors. The highly polymorphic MHC class I chain-related gene (MIC) could serve as a potential host genetic candidate. To investigate the association of MIC polymorphism with TB infection, 124 patients and 191 ethnically matched controls from Hunan province, Southern China, were genotyped for the MIC polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming and sequencing-based typing. The results showed that allele frequencies of MIC...
Source: Immunology Letters - August 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: En C, ChunJing C, FuChao C, Ping Y, Lin L Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research

Methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis thioesterase TesA and globally affects vancomycin susceptibility
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Letters)
Source: FEBS Letters - August 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dong Yang, Guy Vandenbussche, Didier Vertommen, Damien Evrard, Romany Abskharon, Jean ‐François Cavalier, Gilles Berger, Stéphane Canaan, Mohammad Shahneawz Khan, Sheng Zeng, Alexandre Wohlkönig, Martine Prévost, Patrice Soumillion, Vé Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

La ënnec and the Stethoscope
One hundred years ago —in 1819—Laënnec published his epoch-making work on auscultation. He was then 38 years old, and seven years later he died from pulmonary tuberculosis. It has been said that he cared more for his proficiency in horseback riding than for his fame, and that he “was but a breath of air, and he th ought himself a Hercules. He transposed the facts, and the vigor of his mind he placed in his muscles. Innocent failings, imperceptible blots, especially on the brilliancy of those great and exemplary lives so full of glory because they are useful.” (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - August 6, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Informing decision-making for universal access to quality tuberculosis diagnosis in India: an economic-epidemiological model
India and many other high-burden countries have committed to providing universal access to high-quality diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing (DST) for tuberculosis (TB), but the most cost-effective approa... (Source: BMC Medicine)
Source: BMC Medicine - August 6, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Hojoon Sohn, Parastu Kasaie, Emily Kendall, Gabriela B. Gomez, Anna Vassall, Madhukar Pai and David Dowdy Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Targeting the Mycobacterium tuberculosis transpeptidase LdtMt2 with cysteine-reactive inhibitors including ebselen
This article is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.Mariska de Munnik, Christopher T. Lohans, Pauline A. Lang, Gareth W. Langley, Tika R. Malla, Anthony Tumber, Christopher J. Schofield, J ürgen Brem Inhibitors targeting the conserved nucleophilic cysteine of the mycobacterialL,D-transpeptidases are a potential strategy for the treatment of tuberculosis. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - August 6, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mariska de Munnik Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among transgender individuals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil
Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento, as atitudes e as pr áticas em relação à tuberculose (TB), entre travestis e mulheres transexuais (trans). Trata-se de estudo transversal com amostra por conveniência (n = 124; 58 travestis e 66 trans) realizado na cidade de São Paulo em 2014, com a aplicação do Knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaire ( KAP) adaptado. Calcularam-se as frequências absolutas e relativas para o conjunto das entrevistadas e as comparações entre as distribuições percentuais dos grupos foram rea...
Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - August 6, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Developing a pathway for the diagnosis and management of ocular tuberculosis. The pan-LOndon Ocular tuberculosis Pathway—LOOP
Eye, Published online: 06 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41433-019-0543-7Developing a pathway for the diagnosis and management of ocular tuberculosis. The pan-LOndon Ocular tuberculosis Pathway—LOOP (Source: Eye)
Source: Eye - August 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Harry Petrushkin Charanjit Sethi Jessica Potter Laura Martin Georgina Russell Veronica White Sofia Ajamil-Rodanes Michael Brown Ronan Breen Marc Lipman Ian Cropley Rory McDermott Anita Roche Helen Booth James Milburn Mathina Darmalingam Richard Lee Carlos Source Type: research

An essential bifunctional enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for itaconate dissimilation and leucine catabolism [Biochemistry]
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. One-fourth of the global population is estimated to be infected with Mtb, accounting for ∼1.3 million deaths in 2017. As part of the immune response to Mtb infection, macrophages produce metabolites with the purpose of inhibiting or killing the bacterial cell.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 6, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hua Wang, Alexander A. Fedorov, Elena V. Fedorov, Debbie M. Hunt, Angela Rodgers, Holly L. Douglas, Acely Garza–Garcia, Jeffrey B. Bonanno, Steven C. Almo, Luiz Pedro Sorio de Carvalho Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Identification of benzothiazinones containing an oxime functional moiety as new anti-tuberculosis agents.
Abstract A series of benzothiazinones (BTZs) containing an oxime moiety, based on the structure of ZR-10 discovered in our lab, were designed and synthesized. Most of the compounds with alkoxyimino groups attached to the piperazine or cyclohexyl ring of PBTZ169, exhibit excellent in vitro activity against both drug-sensitive and clinically isolated multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains (MIC:
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - August 6, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wang A, Lv K, Tao Z, Gu J, Fu L, Liu M, Wan B, Franzblau SG, Ma C, Ma X, Han B, Wang A, Xu S, Lu Y Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research

Screening for latent tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease under antitumor necrosis factor: data from a Portuguese center
Conclusion In this sample of patients with IBD, the prevalence of LTBI before starting anti-TNF treatment was significant (32%), but only one patient had active TB after LTBI treatment. (Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - August 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Change in prevalence and molecular characteristics of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis over a 10-year period in China
Isoniazid (INH) represents the cornerstone for the treatment of cases infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. Several molecular mechanisms have been shown to be the major causes for INH resistance... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fengmin Huo, Jie Lu, Zhaojing Zong, Wei Jing, Jin Shi, Yifeng Ma, Lingling Dong, Liping Zhao, Yufeng Wang, Hairong Huang and Yu Pang Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Children Using Xpert Ultra on Different Respiratory Specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Induced sputum provides a better specimen than repeated nasopharyngeal aspirate for rapid diagnosis using Ultra. However, Ultra testing of combinations of specimens provides a novel strategy that can be adapted to identify most children with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID: 31381861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - August 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zar HJ, Workman LJ, Prins M, Bateman LJ, Mbhele SP, Whitman CB, Denkinger CM, Nicol MP Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Targeting the Mycobacterium tuberculosis transpeptidase LdtMt2 with cysteine-reactive inhibitors including ebselen.
We report screening of cysteine-reactive inhibitors against LdtMt2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Structural studies on LdtMt2 with potent inhibitor ebselen reveal opening of the benzisoselenazolone ring by a nucleophilic cysteine, forming a complex involving extensive hydrophobic interactions with a substrate-binding loop. PMID: 31380528 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chemical Communications)
Source: Chemical Communications - August 5, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: de Munnik M, Lohans CT, Lang PA, Langley GW, Malla TR, Tumber A, Schofield CJ, Brem J Tags: Chem Commun (Camb) Source Type: research