Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis presenting with galactorrhea, headache, and nausea in a woman: a case report and review of the literature
ConclusionsIdiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis, a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland, is a diagnosis of exclusion for which both medical and surgical management are reported in the literature. We present a case of idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis who was symptom free with no complications of hypopituitarism following its transsphenoidal resection after 9  months of follow-up. (Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - November 16, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Raman spectroscopy reveals distinct differences between two closely related bacterial strains, Mycobacterium indicus pranii and Mycobacterium intracellulare.
Abstract A common technique used to differentiate bacterial species and to determine evolutionary relationships is sequencing their 16S ribosomal RNA genes. However, this method fails when organisms exhibit high similarity in these sequences. Two such strains that have identical 16S rRNA sequences are Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) and Mycobacterium intracellulare. MIP is of significance as it is used as an adjuvant for protection against tuberculosis and leprosy; in addition, it shows potent anti-cancer activity. On the other hand, M. intracellulare is an opportunistic pathogen and causes severe respiratory i...
Source: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry - November 16, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Verma T, Podder S, Mehta M, Singh S, Singh A, Umapathy S, Nandi D Tags: Anal Bioanal Chem Source Type: research

Essential trace elemental levels (Zinc, Iron and copper) in the biological samples of smoker referent and pulmonary Tuberculosis patients
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Palwasha Nizamani, Hassan Imran Afridi, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Farah Naz Talpur, Jameel Ahmed BaigAbstractTuberculosis is one of the major causes of illnesses and deaths throughout world particularly in Asia. Smoking is linked with tuberculosis recurrence and its mortality and may influence bacteriological conversion, clinical symptoms and treatment outcome. The aim of current study was to estimate association among essential trace elements {zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu)} in human biological samples particularly blood, serum, scalp ha...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Wildlife-cattle interactions emerge as drivers of bovine tuberculosis in traditionally farmed cattle
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Petronillah R. Sichewo, Eric M.C. Etter, Anita L. MichelAbstractBovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is recognized to be associated with several risk factors that include herd size, cattle movement, ownership of other domestic animals, confinement of cattle in enclosures at night, water sources, communal grazing area and proximity to wildlife, especially bTB maintenance hosts. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate the risk factors associated with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection and transmission in traditiona...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

High content analysis of granuloma histology and neutrophilic inflammation in adult zebrafish infected with Mycobacterium marinum
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: MicronAuthor(s): Tina Cheng, Julia Y. Kam, Matt D. Johansen, Stefan H. OehlersAbstractInfection of zebrafish with natural pathogen Mycobacterium marinum is a useful surrogate for studying the human granulomatous inflammatory response to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The adaptive immune system of the adult stage zebrafish offers an advance on the commonly used embryo infection model as adult zebrafish form granulomas with striking similarities to human-M. tuberculosis granulomas. Here, we present workflows to perform high content analyses of granulomas in...
Source: Micron - November 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Association between Takayasu arteritis and latent or active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the association ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) infection in patients with TA. The research was conducted using the PUBMED/Medline and LILACS databases including studies published until June 2019 and using the descriptors “takayasu arteritis”, “tuberculosis”, “mycobacterium tuberculosis”, “purified protein derivate” (PPD), “mantoux test”, “quantiferon tb gold”, and “interferon gamma release assay” (IGRA). A total of 113 publications were found, but only 38...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - November 15, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

A piperidinol-containing molecule is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting the mycolic acid flippase activity of MmpL3 [Microbiology]
In conclusion, our findings have uncovered bactericidal activity of a new chemical scaffold. Its anti-tubercular activity is mediated by direct inhibition of the flippase activity of MmpL3 rather than by inhibition of the inner membrane proton motive force, significantly advancing our understanding of MmpL3-targeted inhibition in mycobacteria. (Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - November 15, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Christian Dupont, Yushu Chen, Zhuȷun Xu, Francoise Roquet–Baneres, Mickael Blaise, Anne–Kathrin Witt, Faustine Dubar, Christophe Biot, Yann Guerardel, Florian P. Maurer, Shu–Sin Chng, Laurent Kremer Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection and Intractable Pulmonary Hemorrhage
A 10-year-old previously healthy boy, hailing from an Indian village had a history of hematuria, proteinuria, and generalized swelling for 3  months. This was diagnosed as crescentic glomerulonephritis on renal biopsy, and the patient was started on steroids. He presented with hypotensive shock and respiratory distress after a massive episode of hemoptysis following recurrent episodes of hemoptysis of small amounts for a month prior to this episode. Evaluation for causes of recurrent hemoptysis such as tuberculosis and pulmonary vasculitis were inconclusive. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - November 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jhuma Sankar, Samriti Gupta, Raghavendra Lingaiah Tags: Insights and Images Source Type: research

Evaluation of 3 Months of Once-Weekly Rifapentine and Isoniazid for Latent Tuberculosis Infection.
Conclusion and Relevance: This study observed high 3HP treatment completion rates, low incidence of significant ADRs, and low discontinuation rates resulting from ADRs. PMID: 31729245 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy)
Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy - November 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Walker RE, Bass S, Srinivas P, Miranda C, Johnson L, Pallotta AM Tags: Ann Pharmacother Source Type: research

Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. An Official ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline.
Conclusions: New recommendations are made for the choice and number of drugs in a regimen, the duration of intensive and continuation phases, and the role of injectable drugs for MDR-TB. On the basis of these recommendations, an effective all-oral regimen for MDR-TB can be assembled. Recommendations are also provided on the role of surgery in treatment of MDR-TB and for treatment of contacts exposed to MDR-TB and treatment of isoniazid-resistant TB. PMID: 31729908 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nahid P, Mase SR, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Bothamley GH, Brozek JL, Cattamanchi A, Cegielski JP, Chen L, Daley CL, Dalton TL, Duarte R, Fregonese F, Horsburgh CR, Ahmad Khan F, Kheir F, Lan Z, Lardizabal A, Lauzardo M, Mangan JM, Marks SM, McKenna L, Menzie Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Treatment of Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis Causing Tubulopathy - Gitelman-like Syndrome.
Abstract Treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) includes aminoglycosides and ethionamide. A 16-year-old girl presented with sudden onset of paralysis, dyselectrolytemia mimicking Gitelman syndrome, and ethionamide-induced hypothyroidism. Monitoring electrolytes during MDR-TB treatment is recommended to prevent life-threatening complications. PMID: 31729333 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Pediatrics - November 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ravi C, Dabadghao P Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research

The gut microbiome in tuberculosis susceptibility and treatment response: guilty or not guilty?
Abstract Although tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it remains the foremost cause of death from a single pathogen. Globally, approximately 1.6 million people died of TB in 2017. Many predisposing factors related to host immunity, genetics and the environment have been linked to TB. However, recent evidence suggests a relationship between dysbiosis in the gut microbiome and TB disease development. The underlying mechanism(s) whereby dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may impact the different stages in TB disease progression, are, however, not fully explained. In the wake of recently emerging literature, the...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 15, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Eribo OA, du Plessis N, Ozturk M, Guler R, Walzl G, Chegou NN Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Noncountable Tuberculosis Case Reporting, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, United States, 2010-2014.
CONCLUSIONS: Complete data on noncountable TB cases help support estimates of programmatic burden. Ongoing training and a streamlined reporting system to NTSS can facilitate noncountable case reporting. PMID: 31722186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Public Health Reports)
Source: Public Health Reports - November 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research

Sputum culture and drug sensitivity testing outcome among X-pert MTB/Rif positive, rifampicin resistant sputa: A retrospective study – Not all rifampicin resistance is MDR
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Lebogang Kenaope, Hannetjie Ferreira, Faheem Seedat, Kennedy Otwombe, Neil A. Martinson, Ebrahim VariavaAbstractSettingTshepong Hospital multidrug resistant (MDR) unit between April 2011 and February 2014.ObjectiveRifampicin resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) on X-pert MTB/Rif is assumed a surrogate for MDR TB. Following a RR result, a second specimen is taken for confirmatory culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST). We compare the initial diagnostic X-pert MTB/RIF result to the confirmatory DST in a high HIV...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - November 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Specific Binding Peptides from Rv3632: A Strategy for Blocking Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry to Target Cells?
This article updates our laboratory's systematic search for antigens using bioinformatics tools to clarify the Mtb H37Rv Rv3632 protein's topology and location. This article reports a C-terminal region consisting of peptides 39255 and 39256 (81Thr-Arg114) having high specific binding regarding two infection-related cell lines (A549 and U937); they inhibited mycobacterial entry to U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Rv3632 forms part of the mycobacterial cell envelope, formed by six linear synthetic peptides. Circular dichroism enabled determining the protein's secondary structure. It was also found that peptide...
Source: Biomed Res - November 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Sánchez-Barinas CD, Ocampo M, Tabares L, Bermúdez M, Patarroyo MA, Patarroyo ME Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Infectivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes and Outcome of Contact Investigation in Classroom in Guangxi, China.
Conclusion: There was not enough evidence from our data to support that Beijing strains were more infective than non-Beijing strains in TB transmission in school setting. PMID: 31111051 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - November 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Pan D, Palittapongarnpim P, Chaiprasert A, Lin M, Lin D, Long X, Huang L, Qin H, McNeil E, Lan R, Qiu X, Chongsuvivatwong V Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

First genetic characterisation of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Algeria
ConclusionsResistant MTB isolates in Algeria harbour resistance genotypes similar to other countries, but some rare patterns may result from selection and transmission processes inherent to the country. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - November 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Uncommon case of Mycobacterium bovis brain abscess complicated by suppurative fistula, and review of the literature.
CONCLUSIONS: As far as we know, this is the first case reported of a suppurative fistula after the resection of a cerebral abscess caused by M. bovis, therefore, there is no report in the literature about the treatment of this complication. PMID: 31713228 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista de Neurologia)
Source: Revista de Neurologia - November 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Panero I, San-Juan R, Eiriz C, García-Pérez D, Paredes I, González C, Recio R, Carretero O, Lagares A, Gómez PA Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research

Granulomatous inflammation diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy
Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology, Volume 8, Issue 6Author(s): Dianna L. Ng, Ronald BalassanianIntroductionFine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a minimally invasive biopsy technique and an important tool for diagnosing infectious diseases. Rapid onsite evaluation allows for triage for ancillary testing, including microbiologic cultures. We aimed to determine the etiology of granulomatous inflammation diagnosed by FNAB by correlating with culture results and clinical history.Materials and methodsA 16-year retrospective review of cases diagnosed as &ldqu...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology - November 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Tuberculosis outbreaks among students in mainland China: a systematic review and meta-analysis
In recent years, tuberculosis outbreaks in schools have occurred more frequently in China than in other parts of the world, and have posed a public health threat to students and their families. This systematic... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - November 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hongdan Bao, Kui Liu, Zikang Wu, Xiaomeng Wang, Chengliang Chai, Tieniu He, Wei Wang, Fei Wang, Ying Peng, Bin Chen and Jianmin Jiang Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Delay in treatment seeking and associated factors among suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients in public health facilities of Adama town, eastern Ethiopia
In low-income countries, delays in treatment seeking among tuberculosis patients contribute to easy transmission and high prevalence of tuberculosis. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - November 14, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tirusew Maru Wondawek and Musa Mohammed Ali Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Serum human epididymis protein 4 concentrations are associated with severity of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Laisheng Li, Yingsheng Yao, Jianbo Liang, Xiaoxia Zhan, Fen Wang, Caifeng Yue, Ben-Quan Wu, Shengfeng Hu, Min Liu, Jianxin Wan, Jinmei LuoAbstractBackgroundHuman epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has been recognized as a biomarker which elevated in various diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of serum HE4 in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).MethodsSerum HE4 concentrations were determined in 127 PTB, 88 chronic bronchitis (CHB), and 105 healthy control subjects by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Receiver operating...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - November 14, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Rapid Diagnosis Of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Impacts Expenditures Prior To Appropriate Treatment: A Performance And Diagnostic Cost Analysis
(Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - November 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research

Eosinophil Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in TB: What We Know so Far
Knowledge on the cellular immune responses to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has improved drastically in recent years. Though eosinophils and hypereosinophilia are linked with the disease process of tuberculosis, there is paucity of information to prove the actual role played by these polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the existing literature on what is known so far about eosinophils and tuberculosis. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - November 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evolution, Trends, and Potential Explanations of the Increase in the Incidence of Tuberculosis: the Case of Uruguay
AbstractPurpose of reviewA descriptive analysis of the trend of tuberculosis incidence in Uruguay between 1995 and 2018.Recent findingsIn 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) proposed The END TB Strategy; the Latin American countries that implemented these strategies at the first level of care have had successful outcomes in terms of the reduction in the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of the disease.SummaryUruguay is a striking case in the regional environment regarding tuberculosis epidemiology. The trend of tuberculosis had a turning point in 2006, which defines two clearly different periods. The first period cover...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - November 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identification of novel scaffolds targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis
AbstractDrug resistance inMycobacterium tuberculosis is relentlessly progressing while only a handful of novel drug candidates are developed. Here we describe a GFP-based high-throughput screening of 386,496 diverse compounds to identify putative tuberculosis drug candidates. In an exploratory analysis of the model organismM. bovis BCG andM. smegmatis and the subsequent screening of the main library, we identified 6354 compounds with anti-mycobacterial activity. These hit compounds were predominantly selective for mycobacteria while dozens had activity in the low μM range. We tested toxicity against the human monocyte/m...
Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Prevalence Of Positive Quantiferon-Tb Gold In-Tube Test In Uveitis And Its Clinical Implications In A Country Non-Endemic For Tuberculosis
To report on the prevalence and clinical implications of positive QuantiFERON-Gold (QFT-G) test results in the diagnostic work-up of a large cohort of consecutive patients with uveitis in the Netherlands. (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology - November 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Fahriye Groen-Hakan, Jan A.M. van Laar, Marleen Bakker, P.M. van Hagen, Hannah Hardjosantoso, Aniki Rothova Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Mycobacterial Trehalose 6,6 ’-Dimycolate Induced M1-Type Inflammation
Murine models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection demonstrate progression of M1-like (pro-inflammatory) and M2-like (anti-inflammatory) macrophage morphology following primary granuloma formation. The Mtb cell wall cording factor, trehalose 6,6 ’-dimycolate (TDM), is a physiologically-relevant and useful molecule for modeling early macrophage-mediated events during establishment of the tuberculosis-induced granuloma pathogenesis. Here we show that TDM is a major driver of the early M1-like macrophage response as seen during initiation of the granulomas of primary pathology. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)
Source: American Journal of Pathology - November 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Thao K.T. Nguyen, John d ’Aigle, Luis Chinea, Zainab Niaz, Robert L. Hunter, Shen-An Hwang, Jeffrey K. Actor Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Safety of baricitinib in East Asian patients with moderate ‐to‐severe active rheumatoid arthritis: An integrated analysis from clinical trials
ConclusionIntegrated data show that baricitinib is well ‐tolerated in EA patients with moderate‐to‐severely active RA in the context of demonstrated efficacy, which is generally consistent with safety results of the overall study population. (Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - November 14, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Ying ‐Chou Chen, Dae Hyun Yoo, Chang Keun Lee, Ko‐Jen Li, Ji‐Eon Won, Wen‐Shuo Wu, Jinglin Zhong, Claudia Nicolay, Chad Daniel Walls, Yoshiya Tanaka Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Mycobacterial Trehalose 6,6'-Dimycolate Induced M1-Type Inflammation.
Abstract Murine models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection demonstrate progression of M1-like (pro-inflammatory) and M2-like (anti-inflammatory) macrophage morphology following primary granuloma formation. The Mtb cell wall cording factor, trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), is a physiologically-relevant and useful molecule for modeling early macrophage-mediated events during establishment of the tuberculosis-induced granuloma pathogenesis. Here we show that TDM is a major driver of the early M1-like macrophage response as seen during initiation of the granulomas of primary pathology. Pro-inflammatory cytok...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - November 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Nguyen TKT, d'Aigle J, Chinea L, Niaz Z, Hunter RL, Hwang SA, Actor JK Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research

A phase I trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate tuberculosis vaccination regimen, ChAdOx1 85A prime - MVA85A boost in healthy UK adults.
CONCLUSION: A ChAdOx1 85A prime - MVA85A boost is well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy UK adults. PMID: 31735500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - November 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wilkie M, Satti I, Minhinnick A, Harris S, Riste M, Ramon RL, Sheehan S, Thomas ZM, Wright D, Stockdale L, Hamidi A, O'Shea MK, Dwivedi K, Behrens HM, Davenne T, Morton J, Vermaak S, Lawrie A, Moss P, McShane H Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa from Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhanced the protective innate immunity of macrophages partially via HIF1 α.
This study provided clues for developing therapies against tuberculosis by targeting ESAT6. PMID: 31735338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications)
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - November 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li F, Luo J, Xu H, Wang Y, Jiang W, Chang K, Deng S, Chen M Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Mycobacterial Trehalose 6,6 ′-Dimycolate–Induced M1-Type Inflammation
Murine models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection demonstrate progression of M1-like (proinflammatory) and M2-like (anti-inflammatory) macrophage morphology following primary granuloma formation. The Mtb cell wall cording factor, trehalose 6,6 ′-dimycolate (TDM), is a physiologically relevant and useful molecule for modeling early macrophage-mediated events during establishment of the tuberculosis-induced granuloma pathogenesis. Here, it is shown that TDM is a major driver of the early M1-like macrophage response as seen during initiati on of the granulomas of primary pathology. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)
Source: American Journal of Pathology - November 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Thao K.T. Nguyen, John d'Aigle, Luis Chinea, Zainab Niaz, Robert L. Hunter, Shen-An Hwang, Jeffrey K. Actor Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Two for the price of one: attacking the energetic-metabolic hub of mycobacteria to produce new chemotherapeutic agents
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Kiel Hards, Cara Adolph, Liam K. Harold, Matthew B. McNeil, Chen-Yi Cheung, Adrian Jinich, Kyu Y. Rhee, Gregory M. CookAbstractCellular bioenergetics is an area showing promise for the development of new antimicrobials, antimalarials and cancer therapy. Enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism and energy generation are essential mediators of bacterial physiology, persistence and pathogenicity, lending themselves natural interest for drug discovery. In particular, succinate and malate are two major focal po...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - November 13, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Nonlinear adaptive control of tuberculosis with consideration of the risk of endogenous reactivation and exogenous reinfection
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Mohammad Hassan Nematollahi, Ramin Vatankhah, Mojtaba SharifiAbstractTuberculosis is one of deadly diseases in many countries that attacks to the human body and causes damage to the lung, causing bloody coughing and if left untreated, it will kill half of the affected people. Tuberculosis bacteria can stay latent and reactivate after passing appropriate conditions. For this reason, control of this disease and treatment of infected people has a significant importance, and observing health issues can prevent the spread of it. ...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - November 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of disubstituted benzyltriazoles
AbstractThe increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the pathogen of human tuberculosis (TB), serves as a strong incentive for the discovery and development of new agents for the treatment of this plight. In search for such drugs, we investigated a series of benzyltriazole derivatives. We herein report the design, synthesis and biological activity of disubstituted benzyltriazoles against the human virulent H37Rv strain ofMtb as well as the toxicity on human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. The derivative21 featuring trifluoromethyl substituent inpara position on the phenyl r...
Source: Medicinal Chemistry Research - November 13, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Are pretomanid-containing regimens for tuberculosis a victory or a victory narrative?
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Lindsay McKenna, Jennifer Furin (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bedaquiline, moxifloxacin, pretomanid, and pyrazinamide during the first 8 weeks of treatment of patients with drug-susceptible or drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: a multicentre, open-label, partially randomised, phase 2b trial
This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02193776, and all patients have completed follow-up.FindingsBetween Oct 24, 2014, and Dec 15, 2015, we enrolled 180 patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (59 were randomly assigned to BloadPaZ, 60 to B200PaZ, and 61 to HRZE) and 60 patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. 57 patients in the BloadPaZ group, 56 in the B200PaZ group, and 59 in the HRZE group were included in the primary analysis. B200PaZ produced the highest daily percentage change in TTP (5·17% [95% Bayesian credibility interval 4·61–5·77]), followed by BloadPaZ (4&...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Burden and spectrum of paediatric respiratory diseases at a referral hospital in North-Central Nigeria - A five year review
ConclusionPneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are major contributors to morbidity and mortality due to respiratory diseases for which interventions towards improving childhood health indices should be prioritized. (Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Physicochemical characterization of Suvarna Bhasma, its toxicity profiling in rat and behavioural assessment in zebrafish model
ConclusionsSuvarna Bhasma contained spherical gold nanoparticles. It was nontoxic in rat model at the does tested. Suvarna Bhasma has anxiolytic effects in zebrafish behavioural model.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - November 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tuberculosis
CLINICS IN CHEST MEDICINE (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Charles L. Daley, David M. Lewinsohn Source Type: research

Tuberculosis
Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2017, there were 10 million cases and 1.6 million deaths. The impact of TB is particularly harsh on vulnerable populations, such as children and those with human immunodeficiency virus, and its importance to global health is highlighted by the inclusion of the goal of ending TB in the Sustainable Development Goals, and by the first United Nations high-level meeting on TB that we held in September 2018. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David M. Lewinsohn, Charles L. Daley Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Management of Children with Tuberculosis
Children carry a significant tuberculosis disease burden in settings with poor epidemic control and high levels of transmission. Even in high-resource settings, the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children can be challenging, but an accurate diagnosis can be achieved by adopting a systematic approach. This review outlines the general principles of tuberculosis prevention in children, including epidemic control, infection control, contact tracing and preventive therapy, and vaccination; diagnosing pediatric tuberculosis, including specimen collection and microbiological confirmation, highlighting key differences from adults; a...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ameneh Khatami, Philip N. Britton, Ben J. Marais Source Type: research

Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
This article provides an overview of the latest published strategies for clinical and programmatic management of drug-resistant TB. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sundari R. Mase, Terence Chorba Source Type: research

New Drugs for the Treatment of Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) has now surpassed HIV as the leading infectious cause of death, and treatment success rates are declining. Multidrug-resistant TB, extensively drug-resistant TB, and even totally drug-resistant TB threaten to further destabilize disease control efforts. The second wave in TB drug development, which includes the diarylquinoline, bedaquiline, and the nitroimidazoles delamanid and pretomanid, may offer options for simpler, shorter, and potentially all-oral regimens to treat drug-resistant TB. The “third wave” of TB drug development includes numerous promising compounds, including less toxic versi...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Elisa H. Ignatius, Kelly E. Dooley Source Type: research

Preventing Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis —A Refocused Approach
Traditional tuberculosis (TB) infection control focuses on the known patient with TB, usually on appropriate treatment. A refocused, intensified TB infection control approach is presented. Combined with active case finding and rapid molecular diagnostics, an approach called FAST is described as a convenient way to call attention to the untreated patient. Natural ventilation is the mainstay of air disinfection in much of the world. Germicidal ultraviolet technology is the most sustainable approach to air disinfection under resource-limited conditions. Testing and treatment of latent TB infection works to prevent reactivatio...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Edward A. Nardell Source Type: research

The Future of Vaccines for Tuberculosis
Exciting clinical results from 2 clinical TB vaccine trials were published in 2018. These, plus promising preclinical candidates form a healthy pipeline of potential vaccines against the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. The only licensed vaccine, the BCG, continues to be an important tool in protecting against severe forms of TB in children, but has not stopped the diseases causing 1.3 million deaths per year. This review provides an overview of the current TB vaccine pipeline, highlighting recent findings, describes work relating to epidemiologic impact of vaccines, and discusses the future of TB vac...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lisa Stockdale, Helen Fletcher Source Type: research

Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection —An Update
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of TB control and elimination. LTBI treatment regimens include once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine for 3 months, daily rifampin for 4 months, daily isoniazid plus rifampin for 3 –4 months, and daily isoniazid for 6–9 months. Isoniazid monotherapy is efficacious in preventing TB disease, but the rifampin- and rifapentine-containing regimens are shorter and have similar efficacy, adequate safety, and higher treatment completion rates. Novel vaccine strategies, host immuni ty-directed therapies and ultrashort antimicrobial regimens for ...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moises A. Huaman, Timothy R. Sterling Source Type: research

Diagnostic Tests for Latent Tuberculosis Infection
Diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is important globally for TB prevention. LTBI diagnosis requires a positive test for infection and negative evaluation for active disease. Current tests measure an immunologic response and include the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), T-SPOT.TB and QuantiFERON. The IGRAs are preferred in bacille Calmette-Gu érin–vaccinated populations. The TST is still used when cost or logistical advantages over the IGRAs exist. Both TST and IGRAs have low positive predictive values. Tests that differentiate the TB spectrum and better p...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michelle K. Haas, Robert W. Belknap Source Type: research

Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis
This article focuses on preferred regimens of drug-susceptible tuberculosis under current guidelines by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America and World Health Organization. In addition, topics including patient centered care, poor treatment outcomes, and adverse effects are also discussed. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Beth Shoshana Zha, Payam Nahid Source Type: research