An exceptional case of giant cell interstitial pneumonia with multi-organ involvement and review of the literature
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Respiratory Medicine Case ReportsAuthor(s): Yanqiu Wei, Peng Chen, Huihui Yue, Gaohong Sheng, Jiaojiao Chu, Hui-Lan ZhangAbstractGiant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is an exceedingly rare lung disease, usually due to occupational exposure to hard-metal compounds (tungsten, carbide, cobalt). Diagnosis of GIP is mainly based on the presence of multinucleated giant cell (MNGC) in alveolar spaces by histologic examination. Here, we present a case of GIP with multi-organ involvement. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with tuberculosis firstly, but conventional treatment d...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - July 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Analysis and Reporting of Tests for Tuberculosis Infection in Childhood Contacts of Infectious Source Cases
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Re: “Analysis and Reporting of Tests for Tuberculosis Infection in Childhood Contacts of Infectious Source Cases”
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - July 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Bovine tuberculosis disturbs parasite functional trait composition in African buffalo [Ecology]
Novel parasites can have wide-ranging impacts, not only on host populations, but also on the resident parasite community. Historically, impacts of novel parasites have been assessed by examining pairwise interactions between parasite species. However, parasite communities are complex networks of interacting species. Here we used multivariate taxonomic and trait-based approaches... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - July 16, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Brianna R. Beechler, Kate S. Boersma, Peter E. Buss, Courtney A. C. Coon, Erin E. Gorsich, Brian S. Henrichs, Adam M. Siepielski, Johannie M. Spaan, Robert S. Spaan, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Anna E. Jolles Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Paralytic ileus in the patient with tuberculosis of spine
. (Source: British Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: British Journal of Neurosurgery - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Viskasari P. Kalanjati Rury T. Oktariza Yahya Yahya Abdulloh Machin Source Type: research

Active pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory failure
We report the clinical course of four patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory failure who were treated successfully. Four patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) presenting with respiratory failure are reported here. Bronchogenic PTB, simulating an acute febrile illness or diffuse interstitial lung disease with short duration of symptoms, as a cause of acute respiratory failure is less recognized. If diagnosed and treated early, it has good prognosis. Three of the four patients presented here had an acute presentation with fever, dyspnoea, and hypoxemia with diffuse infiltrat...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - July 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Satish Chandra Kilaru, Sudhir Prasad, Hemanth Kilaru, Raghavender Reddy Anneela, Ashfaq Hasan, Eshwar Chandra Nandury Tags: Case Series Source Type: research

Acid Fasting: Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism at Acidic pH.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) senses and adapts to acidic host environments during the course of pathogenesis. Mutants defective in acidic pH-dependent adaptations are often attenuated during macrophage or animal infections, supporting that these pathways are essential for pathogenesis and represent important new targets for drug discovery. This review examines a confluence of findings supporting that Mtb has restricted metabolism at acidic pH that results in the slowing of bacterial growth and changes in redox homeostasis. It is proposed that induction of the PhoPR regulon and anaplerotic metabolism, ...
Source: Trends in Microbiology - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baker JJ, Dechow SJ, Abramovitch RB Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Paralytic ileus in the patient with tuberculosis of spine
. (Source: British Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: British Journal of Neurosurgery - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Viskasari P. Kalanjati Rury T. Oktariza Yahya Yahya Abdulloh Machin Source Type: research

Correlation of Computed Tomography of Colonic Wall Thickening with Colonoscopy.
Authors: Khairnar H, Ingle M, Chauhan S, Pipalia N, Sawant P, Pandey V, Shukla A Abstract Introduction: Computed Tomography of abdomen frequently shows bowel wall thickening with different grades and characteristic of thickening. The correlation of bowel wall thickening (BWT) with endoscopic findings is not well described in Indian population. Therefore we did this study to determine the correlation of BWT with endoscopic findings. Methods: Its Prospective single center study with 85 Consecutive patients with age group more than 12 years with CT scan abdomen showing bowel wall thickening were included in the st...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 15, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Blastocystis subtype 1 (allele 4); Predominant subtype among tuberculosis patients in Iran.
CONCLUSION: Blastocystis ST1 was the most prevalent subtype in TB patients and there was no difference between Blastocystis isolates from TB and non-TB human subjects. PMID: 31300114 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Taghipour A, Javanmard E, Mirjalali H, Haghighi A, Tabarsi P, Sohrabi MR, Zali MR Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

The in vitro Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau infection of human monocytes that induces Caspase-1 expression, release and dependent cell death is mostly reliant upon cell integrity
Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) is an extremely contagious disease predominantly affecting the lungs. TB is found worldwide and has a major impact on public health safety primarily due to ... (Source: Journal of Inflammation)
Source: Journal of Inflammation - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Paulo R. Z. Antas, Carlos G. G. Ponte, Matheus R. Almeida, Lawrence H. P. Albuquerque, Periela S. Sousa-Vasconcelos, Tha íze Pedro, Natália L. S. Gomes, Otacílio C. Moreira, Fernanda C. Silva, Luíz R. R. Castello-Branco and Rosa T. Pinho Tags: Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in environmental substrates from three dairy farms in Eastern Cape, South Africa
. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Athini Ntloko Martins Ajibade Adefisoye Ezekiel Green Source Type: research

Genotype diversity and distribution of < i > Mycobacterium bovis < /i > from livestock in a small, high-risk area in northeastern Sicily, Italy
In this study, we typedM.bovis isolates from livestock, and investigated their genetic diversity and distribution. A total of 204M.bovis isolates were collected from cattle (n = 164) and Sicilian black pigs (n = 40) reared in a limited area of the province of Messina, northeastern Sicily, an area that had previously been identified as having the highest incidence of bTB in livestock on the island. AllM.bovis isolates were typed by both spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR analysis. Results from both methods were then combined in order to improve the discriminatory power ofM.bovis typing. We identified 73 combined genetic pr...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cinzia Marianelli Source Type: research

Prospective evaluation of host biomarkers other than interferon gamma in QuantiFERON Plus supernatants as candidates for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in symptomatic individuals
An estimated 10.4 million people were reported to have fallen ill with tuberculosis (TB), and another 1.6 million died of the disease in 2017.1 The currently existing diagnostic tests have several widely publicised limitations2,3 including poor sensitivity (smear microscopy),4 long turnaround times and high costs (culture).5 The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), is relatively rapid and detects resistance to rifampicin, but is also expensive, with low specificity in recurrent TB. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - July 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Portia M. Manngo, Andrea Gutschmidt, Candice I. Snyders, Hygon Mutavhatsindi, Charles M. Manyelo, Nonjabulo Makhoba, Petri Ahlers, Andriette Hiemstra, Kim Stanley, Shirley McAnda, Martin Kidd, Stephanus T. Malherbe, Gerhard Walzl, Novel N. Chegou Source Type: research

Cutting Edge: Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin-Induced T Cells Shape Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection before Reducing the Bacterial Burden.
In this study, we found that murine BCG immunization promotes a dramatic shift in infected cell types. Although alveolar macrophages are the major infected cell for the first 2 weeks in unimmunized animals, BCG promotes the accelerated recruitment and infection of lung-infiltrating phagocytes. Interestingly, this shift is dependent on CD4 T cells, yet does not require intrinsic recognition of Ag presented by infected alveolar macrophages. M. tuberculosis-specific T cells are first activated in lung regions devoid of infected cells, and these events precede vaccine-induced reduction of the bacterial burden, which occurs onl...
Source: Journal of Immunology - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Delahaye JL, Gern BH, Cohen SB, Plumlee CR, Shafiani S, Gerner MY, Urdahl KB Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanism for the activation of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid by Mn(III): First detection and unequivocal identification of the critical N-centered isoniazidyl radical and its exact location.
This study represents the first detection and unequivocal identification of the initial N-centered isoniazidyl radical and its exact location. These findings should provide a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of INH activation, which may have broad biomedical and toxicological significance for future research for more efficient hydrazide anti-tuberculosis drugs. PMID: 31319159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - July 15, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Qin L, Huang CH, Xu D, Xie LN, Shao J, Mao L, Kalyanaraman B, Zhu BZ Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus in Northwest of Iran.
CONCLUSION: Majority of DM-TB patients were over 50 years of age and also more than half of them were women. So it seems that for DM women over age 50, to detect tuberculosis, screening tests such as PPD may be necessary. PMID: 31322073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets)
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - July 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ozma MA, Rashedi J, Poor BM, Vegari A, Asgharzadeh V, Kafil HS, Kazemi A, Sahebi L, Asgharzadeh M Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in environmental substrates from three dairy farms in Eastern Cape, South Africa
. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Athini Ntloko Martins Ajibade Adefisoye Ezekiel Green Source Type: research

Prophylactic antiviral treatment reduces the incidence of liver failure among patients coinfected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and hepatitis B virus.
Abstract BACKGROUND: China has a high prevalence of tuberculosis and hepatitis B virus infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HBV coinfection increases the risk of incidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity among patients on anti-tuberculosis therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out at the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from 2013 to 2017. All enrolled patients were confirmed HBsAg-positive for a duration of at least 6 months and coinfected with mycobacterium tuberculosis. RESULTS: A cohort of 90 patients was analyzed. The inciden...
Source: Virus Research - July 14, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Lian J, Hu P, Lu Y, Liu Y, Wang X, Zhang Y, Jia H, Yang Y Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolones for the treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in liver transplantation.
do JM Abstract Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is the best treatment option for end-stage organ disease. Newer immunosuppressive agents have reduced the incidence of graft rejection but have increased the risk of infection, particularly due to the reactivation of latent infections due to opportunistic agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis (TB) after SOT is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Most cases of posttransplant TB are secondary to reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Risk minimization strategi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - July 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Silva JT, San-Juan R, Fernández-Ruiz M, Aguado JM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Controversies in classification of peritoneal tuberculosis and a proposal for clinico-radiological classification.
Authors: Ahamed Z R, Shah J, Agarwala R, Kumar-M P, Mandavdhare HS, Gupta P, Singh H, Sharma A, Dutta U, Sharma V Abstract Introduction: Peritoneal tuberculosis is a common type of abdominal tuberculosis. The most commonly used classification divides peritoneal tuberculosis into wet-ascitic type, dry-plastic type and fixed fibrotic type. Areas covered: We performed a systematic literature search on the definitions of existing classification of peritoneal tuberculosis. The literature search identified confusion in the classification of peritoneal tuberculosis. The classification system also fails to classify some pa...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - July 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Bilateral Primary Optic Neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of Tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Santhosh Narayanan, Divya Prakash, Gomathy SubramaniamAbstractVision impairment is one of the devastating complications of central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB). Optic atrophy is a sequelae of various forms of CNS TB which, ultimately, is responsible for vision impairment. It is usually the secondary optic atrophy which occurs in CNS TB. In this case report, we present the story of an immunocompetent woman presenting as bilateral visual loss. She was found to have primary optic atrophy. Neuroimaging revealed features of chronic meningitis. Poly...
Source: IDCases - July 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Disseminated tuberculosis and gastric mucormycosis coinfection
We present a case of gastrointestinal (GI) mucormycosis in a diabetic patient with disseminated tuberculosis. Early diagnosis, addressing the risk factors for mucormycosis, surgical debridement, and timely antifungal treatment are the mainstay of care. (Source: IDCases)
Source: IDCases - July 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Adjuvant immunosuppression for paradoxical deterioration in tuberculous meningitis including one case responsive to cyclosporine. A tertiary referral hospital experience
We report a case series of TBM admissions to our institution including one case with paradoxical de terioration refractory to corticosteroids who responded to adjuvant cyclosporine. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: D. Ledingham, S. El-Walsh, D. Sebire, C. Cappelen-Smith, S.J. Hodgkinson, McDougall AJ, M. Maley, D.J. Cordato Source Type: research

Genetic variants in IFNG and IFNGR1 and tuberculosis susceptibility.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the type of chronic infectious disease which majorly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. TB). Emerging data suggest that interferon gamma (IFNG) and its receptor IFNGR1 may be involved in the risk of TB. METHODS: A total of 636 TB patients and 608 healthy controls were selected. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and TB was estimated by logistic analyses adjusting for age, gender and smoking status. SNPs genotyping was done by using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR). RESULTS: The IFNG rs1861494 allele C wa...
Source: Cytokine - July 13, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wu S, Wang Y, Zhang M, Wang M, He JQ Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research

DFT study on the effect of proximal residues on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase (katG) heme compound I intermediate and its bonding interaction with isoniazid
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2019, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9CP01465A, PaperYves Ira A. Reyes, Francisco C. Franco InM. tb. katG heme CpdI intermediate, an electron transfer from the π-orbital of the residue, Trp321, to the a2u-orbital of porphyrin ring, results in a radical character for Trp321, resulting in a stronger H-bonding interaction with INH. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - July 12, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yves Ira A. Reyes Source Type: research

Tuberculosis Control: WHO Perspective and Guidelines
(Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

HIV, Tuberculosis, and Otogenic Intracranial Sepsis: A Devastating Disease With a Subtle Presentation
Conclusions: Otogenic intracranial complications continue to present late and are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, despite advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities. This study represents one of the largest case-series in the literature, and the first to specifically evaluate the effects of HIV and TB infection. Patient presentation and severity of illness varied; however, a majority of patients presented with ear discharge and no focal neurological signs. An effect size for higher mortality among HIV+ patients compared with HIV− patients was noted but was not significant. Tuberculosis in...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - July 12, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: MIDDLE EAR AND MASTOID DISEASE Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary dysfunction in perinatally HIV-infected South African adolescents on antiretroviral therapy: baseline findings from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite being on ART, cardiopulmonary dysfunction occurs in an appreciable proportion of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents but no significant difference to uninfected controls. This finding requires further exploration. Factors associated with dysfunction may be amenable to public health interventions to reduce cardiopulmonary disease in this population. PMID: 31291058 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The role of IS6110 in micro- and macroevolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 2
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and EvolutionAuthor(s): Egor Shitikov, Andrei Guliaev, Julia Bespyatykh, Maja Malakhova, Sergey Kolchenko, Georgy Smirnov, Mathias Merker, Stefan Niemann, Igor Mokrousov, Elena Ilina, Vadim GovorunAbstractThe insertion sequence 6110 (IS6110) is the most studied transposable element in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species. The element plays a significant role in genome plasticity of this important human pathogen, but still many causes and consequences of its transposition have not been fully studied. Here, we analyzed insertion sites fo...
Source: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - July 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Synthesis, antitubercular evaluation, molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies of 4,6-disubstituted-2-oxo-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Journal of Molecular StructureAuthor(s): Ruchi Verma, Helena I.M. Boshoff, Kriti Arora, Indira Bairy, Mradul Tiwari, G. Varadaraj Bhat, G. Gautham ShenoyAbstractA new series of novel diphenyl ether based 2-oxo-dihydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antimycobacterial and antibacterial activities. Most of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain in comparison to triclosan. Among them, compounds 3k and 3q were found to be most active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - July 12, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Evidence for heterogeneity in China ’s progress against pulmonary tuberculosis: uneven reductions in a major center of ongoing transmission, 2005–2017
China contributed 8.9% of all incident cases of tuberculosis globally in 2017, and understanding the spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in major transmission foci in the country is cri... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ting Li, Qu Cheng, Charles Li, Everleigh Stokes, Philip Collender, Alison Ohringer, Xintong Li, Jing Li, Jonathan L. Zelner, Song Liang, Changhong Yang, Justin V. Remais and Jin ’ge He Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Spatial analysis of HIV-TB co-clustering in Uganda
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for individuals infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conversely, HIV is the most important risk factor in the progression of TB from the latent to t... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Augustus Aturinde, Mahdi Farnaghi, Petter Pilesj ö and Ali Mansourian Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis: lessons learned over 30 years: pectoral assay
Diagnosing abdominal tuberculosis remains a great challenge even for experienced clinicians. It is a great mimicker that has unusual presentations. A high index of suspicion is essential for reaching its diagn... (Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery)
Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery - July 12, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Fikri M. Abu-Zidan and Mohamud Sheek-Hussein Tags: Review Source Type: research

The association between tuberculin skin test result and active tuberculosis risk of college students in Beijing, China: a retrospective cohort study
About 10% latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) would progress to active tuberculosis (TB), if left prophylactic therapy. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method for LTBI screening in the sch... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Demin Cao, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhen Yang, Shubo Ma, Zhaogang Sun, Huijuan Duan, Baoli Zhu and Fei Zhao Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Use of nanotechnology for infectious disease diagnostics: application in drug resistant tuberculosis
The increased transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) poses a challenge to tuberculosis prevention and control in Sri Lanka. Isoniazid (INH) is a key element of the first line anti tubercul... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Roshanthi Eranga Karunaratne, Lahiru A. Wijenayaka, Sandya Sulochana Wijesundera, K. M. Nalin De Silva, Chamila Priyangani Adikaram and Jennifer Perera Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Implementation and effectiveness of evriMED with short messages service (SMS) reminders and tailored feedback compared to standard care on adherence to treatment among tuberculosis patients in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: proposal for a cluster randomized controlled trial
Adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment is challenging because of many factors. The World Health Organization has recommended the use of digital adherence monitoring technologies in its End TB Strategy. Howev... (Source: Trials)
Source: Trials - July 12, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Marion Sumari-de Boer, Francis M. Pima, Kennedy M. Ngowi, Geoffrey M. Chelangwa, Benson A. Mtesha, Linda M. Minja, Hadija H. Semvua, Stella Mpagama, Blandina T. Mmbaga, Pythia T. Nieuwkerk and Rob E. Aarnoutse Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2494: The Effect of an Innovative Financing and Payment Model for Tuberculosis Patients on Health Service Utilization in China: Evidence from Hubei Province of China
Conclusions: The China&amp;ndash;Gates TB Project has effectively improved health service utilization in YC, and poor patients benefited more from it. TB patients in remote underdeveloped counties are more likely to increase the use of outpatient services rather than inpatient services. There is a need to tilt policy towards the poor, and various measures need to be in place in order to ensure health services utilization in undeveloped areas. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - July 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Junnan Jiang Henry Lucas Qian Long Yanjiao Xin Li Xiang Shenglan Tang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Inorganic polyphosphate accumulation suppresses the dormancy response and virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Molecular Bases of Disease]
Stringent response pathways involving inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) play an essential role in bacterial stress adaptation and virulence. The intracellular levels of PolyP are modulated by the activities of polyphosphate kinase-1 (PPK1), polyphosphate kinase-2 (PPK2), and exopolyphosphatases (PPXs). The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two functional PPXs, and simultaneous deletion of ppx1 and ppx2 results in a defect in biofilm formation. We demonstrate here that these PPXs cumulatively contribute to the ability of M. tuberculosis to survive in nutrient-limiting, low-oxygen growth conditions and also in macro...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - July 12, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Prabhakar Tiwari, Tannu Priya Gosain, Mamta Singh, Gaurav D. Sankhe, Garima Arora, Saqib Kidwai, Sakshi Agarwal, Saurabh Chugh, Deepak K. Saini, Ramandeep Singh Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dual control of RegX3 transcriptional activity by SenX3 and PknB [Signal Transduction]
The mycobacterial SenX3–RegX3 two-component system consists of the SenX3 sensor histidine kinase and its cognate RegX3 response regulator. This system is a phosphorelay-based regulatory system involved in sensing environmental Pi levels and induction of genes required for Pi acquisition under Pi-limiting conditions. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the kinase domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PknB (PknB-KDMtb) inhibits the transcriptional activity of RegX3 of both M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis (RegX3Mtb and RegX3Ms, respectively). Mass spectrometry results, along with those of in vitro phos...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - July 12, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Eun-Jin Park, Yu-Mi Kwon, Jin-Won Lee, Ho-Young Kang, Jeong-Il Oh Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Treatment outcomes of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Netherlands, 2005 –2015
ConclusionsIn recent years, we identified a low incidence of DR-TB as well as the poor outcome of DR-TB treatment. The majority of cases were primary drug-resistant and foreign-born. To further improve treatment outcome, special attention should be given to the high-risk DR-TB patients. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - July 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Designing noninferiority tuberculosis treatment trials: Identifying practical advantages for drug regimens with acceptable effectiveness
by Piero L. Olliaro, Michel Vaillant In this Collection Review for the Novel Treatments for Tuberculosis Collection, Piero Olliaro and Michael Vaillant discuss the considerations when choosing a non-inferiority margin that is meaningful from statistical, ethical, clinical, and health standpoint. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - July 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Piero L. Olliaro Source Type: research

Tuberculosis infection and lung adenocarcinoma: Mendelian randomization and pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data from never-smoking Asian women.
Yatabe Y, Zhang XC, Kim YT, Cai Q, Yin Z, Kim YC, Bassig BA, Chang J, Ho JCM, Ji BT, Daigo Y, Ito H, Momozawa Y, Ashikawa K, Kamatani Y, Honda T, Hosgood HD, Sakamoto H, Kunitoh H, Tsuta K, Watanabe SI, Kubo M, Miyagi Y, Nakayama H, Matsumoto S, Tsuboi M, Goto K, Shi J, Song L, Hua X, Takahashi A, Goto A, Minamiya Y, Shimizu K, Tanaka K, Wei F, Matsuda F, Su J, Kim YH, Oh IJ, Song F, Su WC, Chen YM, Chang GC, Chen KY, Huang MS, Chien LH, Xiang YB, Park JY, Kweon SS, Chen CJ, Lee KM, Blechter B, Li H, Gao YT, Qian B, Lu D, Liu J, Jeon HS, Hsiao CF, Sung JS, Tsai YH, Jung YJ, Guo H, Hu Z, Wang WC, Chung CC, Burdett L, Yeager...
Source: Genomics - July 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wong JYY, Zhang H, Hsiung CA, Shiraishi K, Yu K, Matsuo K, Wong MP, Hong YC, Wang J, Seow WJ, Wang Z, Song M, Kim HN, Chang IS, Chatterjee N, Hu W, Wu C, Mitsudomi T, Zheng W, Kim JH, Seow A, Caporaso NE, Shin MH, Chung LP, An SJ, Wang P, Yang Y, Zheng H, Tags: Genomics Source Type: research

Can Changes in Service Delivery Models Improve Program Quality and Efficiency? A Closer Look at HIV Programs in Kenya and Uganda
Conclusions: Many facilities use innovative practices along the HIV care cascade to address bottlenecks and challenges. These have the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of service delivery and support the attainment of the 90-90-90 treatment targets. Replicating these practices would require further implementation research and a mind shift of donors, governments, and implementers from a metric of coverage to a stronger focus on efficiency and impact. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - July 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Mycobacterium bovis BCG Surface Antigens Expressed under the Granuloma-Like Conditions as Potential Inducers of the Protective Immunity.
Authors: Chen Y, Danelishvili L, Rose SJ, Bermudez LE Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a highly transmissible infection and remains of great concern as a zoonosis. The worldwide incidence of bTB is in rise, creating potential reservoir and increased infection risk for humans and animals. In attempts to identify novel surface antigens of Mycobacterium bovis as a proof-of-concept for potential inducers of protective immunity, we investigated surface proteome of M. bovis BCG strain that was cultured under the granuloma-like condition. We also demonstrated that the pathogen exposed to the biologically relevant env...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Correlation between 18F-FDG PET CT SUV and symptomatic or asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION: The symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis cases show significantly higher SUVmax than the asymptomatic cases. Based on the criteria of SUVmax greater than 2.0 to define active lesions, 100% of symptomatic cases might have active lesions while 70.4% of asymptomatic cases might have active lesions. Therefore, focused attention should be clinically paid on the asymptomatic cases of pulmonary tuberculosis to avoid miss diagnosis and delayed treatment. PMID: 31282469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology)
Source: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - July 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: J Xray Sci Technol Source Type: research

Congenital Tuberculosis With Oropharyngeal Mass Presenting as Neonatal Stridor
This case report describes a male neonate who was born via normal delivery and presented with inspiratory stridor at 6 hours of life and was subsequently diagnosed with congenital tuberculosis. (Source: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)
Source: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery - July 11, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Analysis of loss to follow-up in 4099 multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients
Loss to follow-up (LFU) of ≥2 consecutive months contributes to the poor levels of treatment success in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) reported by TB programmes. We explored the timing of when LFU occurs by month of MDR-TB treatment and identified patient-level risk factors associated with LFU. We analysed a dataset of individual MDR-TB patient data (4099 patients from 22 countries). We used Kaplan–Meier survival curves to plot time to LFU and a Cox proportional hazards model to explore the association of potential risk factors with LFU. Around one-sixth (n=702) of patients were recorded as LFU. Median ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Walker, I. F., Shi, O., Hicks, J. P., Elsey, H., Wei, X., Menzies, D., Lan, Z., Falzon, D., Migliori, G. B., Perez-Guzman, C., Vargas, M. H., Garcia-Garcia, L., Sifuentes Osornio, J., Ponce-De-Leon, A., van der Walt, M., Newell, J. N. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

The cumulative effect of inflammation and infection on structural lung disease in early cystic fibrosis
Introduction Pulmonary inflammation and infection are important clinical and prognostic markers of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, whether in young children they are transient findings or have cumulative, long-term impacts on respiratory health is largely unknown. We aimed to determine whether their repeated detection has a deleterious effect on structural lung disease. Methods All patients aged
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rosenow, T., Mok, L. C., Turkovic, L., Berry, L. J., Sly, P. D., Ranganathan, S., Tiddens, H. A. W. M., Stick, S. M. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research

Characterisation of children hospitalised with pneumonia in central Vietnam: a prospective study
Pneumonia is the most common reason for paediatric hospital admission in Vietnam. The potential value of using the World Health Organization (WHO) case management approach in Vietnam has not been documented. We performed a prospective descriptive study of all children (2–59 months) admitted with "pneumonia" (as assessed by the admitting clinician) to the Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children to characterise their disease profiles and assess risk factors for an adverse outcome. The disease profile was classified using WHO pneumonia criteria, with tachypnoea or chest indrawing as defining clinical sign...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - July 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nguyen, P. T. K., Tran, H. T., Fitzgerald, D. A., Tran, T. S., Graham, S. M., Marais, B. J. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis, Paediatric pulmonology Original Articles: Infection and paediatrics Source Type: research