One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 11, September 2019. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - September 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Identification of an Increased Alveolar Macrophage Subpopulation in Old Mice That Displays Unique Inflammatory Characteristics and Is Permissive to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.
Abstract The elderly population is more susceptible to pulmonary infections, including tuberculosis. In this article, we characterize the impact of aging on the phenotype of mouse alveolar macrophages (AMs) and their response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Uninfected AMs were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage of young (3 mo) and old (18 mo) C57BL/6 mice. AMs from old mice expressed higher mRNA levels of CCL2, IFN-β, IL-10, IL-12p40, TNF-α, and MIF than young mice, and old mice contained higher levels of CCL2, IL-1β, IFN-β, and MIF in their alveolar lining fluid. We identified two distinct A...
Source: Journal of Immunology - September 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lafuse WP, Rajaram MVS, Wu Q, Moliva JI, Torrelles JB, Turner J, Schlesinger LS Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

Factors associated with tuberculosis in a population of diabetics: A case-control study
Resumo Este estudo analisou os fatores associados à tuberculose em diabéticos atendidos nas unidades de saúde de Vitória/ES, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle, sendo 45 casos de diabéticos atendidos nas 30 unidades do município e notificados no SINAN com diagnóstico de tuberculose no período de 2007 a 2013 e 90 de controles diabé ticos. Utilizaram-se dados do SINAN, do Sistema de Informação em Saúde de Vitória e do Laboratório Central Municipal, e uma entrevista estruturada. Foram realizadas análises bivariada...
Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - September 10, 2019 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Role of Aspirin in Tuberculous Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Conclusion: Aspirin reduces the risk of new infarctions in patients with tuberculous meningitis but does not affect mortality (moderate-to-low level of evidence). (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - September 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Imran Rizvi Ravindra K Garg Hardeep S Malhotra Neeraj Kumar Ravi Uniyal Source Type: research

Actinomyeces Cerebral Abscess Masquerading as Tuberculosis: Delayed Presentation following Head Trauma and Scalp Infection
Manish Kumar, Ankur Bajaj, Manjul Tripathi, Bishan D Radotra, Manoj K Tewari, Chirag K AhujaNeurology India 2019 67(4):1123-1126 (Source: Neurology India)
Source: Neurology India - September 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Manish Kumar Ankur Bajaj Manjul Tripathi Bishan D Radotra Manoj K Tewari Chirag K Ahuja Source Type: research

Experimental Evidence for Limited in vivo Virulence of Mycobacterium africanum
In this study, we used the mouse model of infection to follow the dynamics of M. africanum infection in terms of bacterial burdens and tissue pathology, as well as the immune response triggered. Our findings support a lower virulence of M. africanum as compared to M. tuberculosis, including in mice lacking IFN-γ, a major protective cytokine in tuberculosis. Furthermore, the lung immune response triggered by M. africanum infection in wild-type animals was characterized by a discrete influx of leukocytes and a modest transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory mediators. Our findings contribute to elucidate the pathog...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genome-Wide miRNA Analysis Identifies Potential Biomarkers in Distinguishing Tuberculous and Viral Meningitis
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common and severe form of central nervous system tuberculosis. Due to the non-specific clinical presentation and lack of efficient diagnosis methods, it is difficult to discriminate TBM from other frequent types of meningitis, especially viral meningitis (VM). In order to identify the potential biomarkers for discriminating TBM and VM and to reveal the different pathophysiological processes between TBM and VM, a genome-wide miRNA screening of PBMCs from TBM, VM, and healthy controls (HCs) using microarray assay was performed (12 samples). Twenty-eight differentially expressed miRNAs...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Unilateral acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy in a patient with a strongly positive purified protein derivative test
ABSTRACT A 27-year-old man presented with a complaint of decreased visual acuity in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/60 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Right eye fundoscopy revealed mild vitritis, multifocal yellowish lesions, and macular serous retinal detachment. Left eye evaluation was normal. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy was diagnosed in the right eye. Complementary exams revealed a strong reaction to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative test, thus treatment for tuberculosis was initiated. Baseline fluorescein angiography of the right eye ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Estimating the impact of a novel drug regimen for treatment of tuberculosis: a modeling analysis of projected patient outcomes and epidemiological considerations
Regimens that could treat both rifampin-resistant (RR) and rifampin-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) while shortening the treatment duration have reached late-stage clinical trials. Decisions about whether and ho... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - September 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emily A. Kendall, Shelly Malhotra, Sarah Cook-Scalise, Claudia M. Denkinger and David W. Dowdy Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Discrete cutaneous lesions in a critically ill patient treated only for AIDS and miliary tuberculosis: a case report of disseminated histoplasmosis
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, with disseminated histoplasmosis (HD) being one of its clinical forms. As a consequence of the HIV-AIDS pandemic, HD has become prevalent not only in regions that are recognized as endemic but also in areas not considered endemic, such as Europe and Asia. Its clinical manifestations are varied and mimic several infectious diseases, mainly tuberculosis. In endemic areas, it is the first manifestation of AIDS in 50 to 70% of patients. The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is difficult and HD can lead to death if not diagnosed early and if p...
Source: Dermatology Online Journal - September 9, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Completion rate of latent tuberculosis infection treatment in patients aged 65 years and older
There are insufficient data on the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in elderly patients. We investigated the completion rate of treatment in elderly LTBI patients. (Source: Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Respiratory Medicine - September 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chang Suk Noh, Hwan Il Kim, Hayoung Choi, Youlim Kim, Cheol-Hong Kim, Jeong-Hee Choi, In Gyu Hyun, Moon Seong Baek Source Type: research

A rare D94F change in gyrA gene of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis possibly contributing to an unfavorable treatment outcome.
Abstract We read the study by Seifert et al on Mycobacterium tuberculosis single nucleotide polymorphisms to predict treatment outcome published in May 2019 with interest1…. PMID: 31501146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - September 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yadav R, Saini A, Agarwal P, Kapoor P, Aggarwal AN, Sethi S Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to biofilm growth is genetically linked to drug tolerance.
Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) spontaneously grows at the air-medium interface forming pellicle biofilms, which harbor more drug tolerant persisters than planktonic cultures. The underlying basis for increased persisters in Mtb biofilms is unknown. Using a Tn-seq approach, we show here that multiple genes that are necessary for fitness of Mtb cells within biofilms, but not in planktonic cultures, are also implicated in tolerance of bacilli to a diverse set of stressors and antibiotics. Thus, development of Mtb biofilms appears to be associated with an enrichment of population, in which challenging growt...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - September 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Richards JP, Cai W, Zill NA, Zhang W, Ojha AK Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Un-phased: Lipid Droplets Modulate the Bioavailability of Antibiotics.
Abstract In a paper recently published in Science (Greenwood et al., 2019), Greenwood and colleagues now describe a fascinating example of how partitioning of a small lipophilic molecule into a phase-separated cellular constituent, the lipid droplet (LD), contributes to its antibacterial action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID: 31505174 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Developmental Cell)
Source: Developmental Cell - September 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Walther TC, Farese RV Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research

Carbohydrate-based nanocarriers and their application to target macrophages and deliver antimicrobial agents.
Abstract Many deadly infections are produced by microorganisms capable of sustained survival in macrophages. This reduces exposure to chemotherapy, prevents immune detection, and is akin to criminals hiding in police stations. Therefore, the use of glyco-nanoparticles (GNPs) as carriers of therapeutic agents is a burgeoning field. Such an approach can enhance the penetration of drugs into macrophages with specific carbohydrate targeting molecules on the nanocarrier to interact with macrophage lectins. Carbohydrates are natural biological molecules and the key constituents in a large variety of biological events su...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - September 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mosaiab T, Farr D, Kiefel MJ, Houston TA Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research

Tuberculosis of the Wrist Mimicking Rheumatoid Arthritis – A Rare Case
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: International Journal of Surgery Case ReportsAuthor(s): Wildan Latief, Elfikri AsrilAbstractIntroductionMycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection in approximately one-third of the world's population. Arthritis due to Mycobacteriurn tuberculosis usually presents as a chronic, slowly progressive, monoarticular infection that predominantly involves the weight-bearing joints and the spine. The hand and wrist are rare sites for tuberculosis (TB) and comprises of
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - September 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A male adult skeleton from the Han Dynasty in Shaanxi, China (202 BC–220 AD) with bone changes that possibly represent spinal tuberculosis
Publication date: December 2019Source: International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 27Author(s): Mocen Li, Charlotte A. Roberts, Liang Chen, Dongyue ZhaoAbstractBioarchaeological data for tuberculosis (TB) have been published very sporadically in China or the rest of East Asia. To explore the history of TB in this area, 85 skeletons excavated from the Liuwei Cemetery in Shaanxi, China (202 BC–220 AD) were macroscopically examined to record TB related bone changes. These skeletons represented inhabitants of Maolingyi, an urban area that had a high population density during the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 CE). Sev...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - September 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Structure function insights into elusive Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv1916.
This study reports recombinant production of Rv1916 in heterologous host E. coli BL21 (DE3) for structure function studies. The studies categorically demonstrate that akin to Mtb ICL1, recombinant Rv1916 also possess dual ICL and methylisocitrate lyase (MICL) activities in vitro. Based on in silico analysis, a putative function linked to secondary metabolite synthesis is assigned to unique mycobacterial domain IV. PMID: 31505209 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules)
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - September 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Antil M, Sharma J, Brissonnet Y, Choudhary M, Gouin S, Gupta V Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR-Associated Cas1 Involves Persistence and Tolerance to Anti-Tubercular Drugs.
This study provides a further understanding of Cas1 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) drug-resistance evolution and a new sight for the tuberculosis treatment. PMID: 31061828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - September 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Wei J, Lu N, Li Z, Wu X, Jiang T, Xu L, Yang C, Guo S Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Prevalence and factors associated with multidrug/rifampicin resistant tuberculosis among suspected drug resistant tuberculosis patients in Botswana
To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with the prevalence of multidrug/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis among suspected drug resistant tuberculosis patients in Botswana. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - September 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Blackson Pitolo Tembo and Ntambwe Gustav Malangu Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Predisposing factors and cost Implications of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients attending federal medical centre Makurdi, Nigeria
The predisposing factors and the cost implications of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients attending Federal Medical Centre, Benue State, Makurdi, was investigated. Information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the patients was obtained using a structured questionnaire. The female had a higher (56.5%) number of TB patients than the male (43.5%). Most of the TB patients ... (Source: African Journal of Microbiology Research)
Source: African Journal of Microbiology Research - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Paradoxical reactions in ocular tuberculosis
AbstractParadoxical reactions following initiation of anti-tubercular therapy have been documented most often in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A combination of factors such as delayed hypersensitivity, decreased suppressor mechanisms, and an increased response to mycobacterial antigens mediated by the host ’s immune system have been implicated in the development of these reactions. Similar worsening in patients with ocular tuberculosis while on treatment has been described. It is therefore important for the clinician to be aware of this occurrence, as prompt recognition and timely institution of cor ticosteroids and i...
Source: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection - September 6, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Development of new TB regimens: Harmonizing trial design, product registration requirements, and public health guidance
by Christian Lienhardt, Andrew A. Vernon, Marco Cavaleri, Sumati Nambiar, Payam Nahid Christian Lienhardt and colleagues discuss the importance of communication and coordination between regulators, researchers, and policy makers to ensure tuberculosis trials provide high-quality evidence for policy decisions. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 6, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Christian Lienhardt Source Type: research

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Children After Natural Disasters, Bohol, Philippines
K. O. Murray et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - September 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

[Clinical Features and Prognosis Factors of Spinal Tuberculosis in Northern Tunisia: A Case Series of 60 Patients].
Authors: Saidane O, Sellami M, Cheikhrouhou S, Mahmoud I, Ben Tekaya A, Tekaya R, Abdelmoula L Abstract Spondylodiscitis is a common but potentially serious form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Very few descriptions are known from Tunisia. We have conducted a retrospective study including 60 cases of spinal tuberculosis, performed over a period of 20 years (1996-2016). The diagnosis was retained on bacteriological, radiological and anatomopathologic evidence. Sixty cases including 31 women and 29 men of spinal tuberculosis were involved. The mean age was 54.4 ± 21.3 years. The delay from onset to diagno...
Source: Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique - September 5, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Source Type: research

Reduced moxifloxacin exposure in patients with tuberculosis and diabetes
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with tuberculosis (TB) is increasing and may negatively impact TB outcomes in patients with active disease [1]. Gastrointestinal problems, including gastroparesis, may result in delayed drug absorption or malabsorption in patients with DM, which may cause suboptimal drug exposure and poor outcome [2]. Studies on the pharmacokinetics of the first-line anti-TB drugs in patients with DM yielded conflicting results on low drug exposure [3–7]. Moxifloxacin is a potent bactericidal drug against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is key for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tu...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dekkers, B. G. J., Bolhuis, M. S., ter Beek, L., de Lange, W. C. M., van der Werf, T. S., Alffenaar, J.-W. C., Akkerman, O. W. Tags: Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Active versus passive case finding for tuberculosis in marginalised and vulnerable populations in India: comparison of treatment outcomes.
Conclusion: We did not find significant differences in the treatment outcomes. Due to the wide CIs, studies with larger sample sizes are urgently required. Studies are required to understand how to translate the benefits of ACF to improved treatment outcomes. PMID: 31475635 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Global Health Action)
Source: Global Health Action - September 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research

Pulmonary Infection Associated with Mycobacterium canariasense in Suspected Tuberculosis Patient, Iran
F. Sakhaee et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - September 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Targeting innate immunity for tuberculosis vaccination
Vaccine development against tuberculosis (TB) is based on the induction of adaptive immune responses endowed with long-term memory against mycobacterial antigens. Memory B and T cells initiate a rapid and robust immune response upon encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thus achieving long-lasting protection against infection. Recent studies have shown, however, that innate immune cell populations such as myeloid cells and NK cells also undergo functional adaptation after infection or vaccination, a de facto innate immune memory that is also termed trained immunity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown tha...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shabaana A. Khader, Maziar Divangahi, Willem Hanekom, Philip C. Hill, Markus Maeurer, Karen W. Makar, Katrin D. Mayer-Barber, Musa M. Mhlanga, Elisa Nemes, Larry S. Schlesinger, Reinout van Crevel, Ramakrishna Vankalayapati, Ramnik J. Xavier, Mihai G. Net Source Type: research

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission: 2019 update: epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant and incurable tuberculosis
Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Volume 7, Issue 9Author(s): Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Robin M Warren, Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Aliasgar Esmail, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Jason Limberis, Grant TheronSummaryThe Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission on drug-resistant tuberculosis was published in 2017, which comprehensively reviewed and provided recommendations on various aspects of the disease. Several key new developm...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - September 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reactivation of tuberculosis in cancer patients following administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors: current evidence and clinical practice recommendations
AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors (ICBs) have revolutionized cancer treatment producing remarkable and durable responses for a range of malignancies. However, the additional modulation of immune response by ICBs may rarely cause immune-related infectious complications, including re-activation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBC) with detrimental effects on those patients ’ outcome. Here, we present two “real-world” melanoma cases that were treated in our department with blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 and developed activeMycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) during immunotherapy. In view of these cases, we review...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - September 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Of Cestodes and Men: Surgical Treatment of a Spinal Hydatid Cyst
Conclusions For lytic manifestations of the vertebral column, hydatid cysts should be considered a differential diagnosis in addition to malignant metastasis, tuberculosis, and osteomyelitis. Thorough surgical resection and strict follow-up are necessary. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery - September 4, 2019 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Saul, Dominik Seitz, Mark-Tilmann Weiser, Lukas Oberth ür, Swantje Roch, Jonathan Bremmer, Felix Perske, Christina Viezens, Lennart Sehmisch, Stephan Lehmann, Wolfgang Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Novel furan coupled quinoline diamide hybrid scaffolds as potent antitubercular agents: Design, synthesis and molecular modelling.
CONCLUSION: The synthesized FQD derivatives exhibited moderate to good inhibition activity especially compounds 5f, 5b and 8a exhibited very good inhibition activity due to the presence of three different scaffolds, such as INH, phenyl ketobutyric acid and fluoroquinolines. Hybridized molecules might have multiple mode of action / inhibit more than one tubercular target and could pave way for novel drug discovery in the field of tuberculosis. PMID: 31483232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - September 4, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rajpurohit A, Devappa SN, Pathak L, Ayyanar S, Rishinaradamangalam CR, Shoorapani P Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research

Digital Health Support in Treatment for Tuberculosis
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 10, Page 986-987, September 2019. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - September 4, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Erez Yoeli Jon Rathauser Syon P. Bhanot Maureen K. Kimenye Eunice Mailu Enos Masini Philip Owiti David Rand Source Type: research

Comparison of Fluorine(18)-fluorodeoxyglucose and Gallium(68)-citrate PET/CT in patients with tuberculosis.
Abstract 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate PET/CT have both been shown to be useful in the management of tuberculosis (TB). We compared the abnormal PET findings of 18F-FDG- and 68Ga-citrate-PET/CT in patients with TB. METHODS:  Patients with TB on anti-TB therapy were included. Patients had a set of PET scans consisting of both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate. Abnormal lesions were identified, and the two sets of scans were compared. The scan findings were correlated to the clinical data as provided by the attending physician. RESULTS:  46 PET/CT scans were performed in 18 patients, 11 (61 %) were fema...
Source: Nuklearmedizin - September 4, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Ankrah AO, Lawal IO, Boshomane TMG, Klein HC, Ebenhan T, Dierckx RAJO, Vorster M, Glaudemans AWJM, Sathekge MM Tags: Nuklearmedizin Source Type: research

Uncovering Structural and Molecular Dynamics of ESAT-6: β2M Interaction: Asp53 of Human β2-Microglobulin Is Critical for the ESAT-6:β2M Complexation.
In this study, using computational and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate the presence of strong noncovalent hydrophobic interactions between ESAT-6 and β2M in addition to the vital hydrogen bonding between the aspartate residue (Asp53) of β2M and methionine (Met93) of ESAT-6. Docking-based high-throughput virtual screening followed by 16-point screening on microscale thermophoresis resulted in the identification of two potent inhibitors (SM09 and SM15) that mask the critical Met93 residue of ESAT-6 that is required for ESAT-6:β2M interaction and could rescue cell surface expression of β2...
Source: Journal of Immunology - September 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jha V, Rameshwaram NR, Janardhan S, Raman R, Sastry GN, Sharma V, Subba Rao J, Kumar D, Mukhopadhyay S Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

GSE32619 Host resistance to pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by IL-1alpha.
Contributors : Richard P Beyer ; Nelson C DiPaolo ; Shahin Shafiani ; Tracey Day ; Thalia Papayannoupoulou ; Yoichiro Iwakura ; Richard A Flavell ; Theodor K Bamler ; David W Russell ; Sarah J Dunstan ; Thomas R Hawn ; Amber Burt ; Brian Browning ; Gail P Jarvik ; David Sherman ; Kevin Urdah ; Dmitry M ShayakhmetovSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusBackground: M.tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent and deadly human pathogens. The molecular mechanisms determining the outcomes of an infection with M.tuberculosis, that range from resistance to an active progressive disease, remain incomplet...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - September 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Mus musculus Source Type: research

Timing of treatment interruption among latently infected tuberculosis cases treated with a nine-month course of daily isoniazid: findings from a time to event analysis
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk groups is an effective strategy for TB control and elimination in low incidence settings. A nine-month course of daily isoniazid (INH) has been th... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - September 3, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Marie Nancy S éraphin, HsiaoChu Hsu, Helena J. Chapman, Joanne L. de Andrade Bezerra, Lori Johnston, Yang Yang and Michael Lauzardo Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analyses of (E)-N ′ -benzylidene-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide and the disordered hemi-DMSO solvate of (E)-2-oxo-N ′ -(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide: lattice energy and intermolecular interaction energy calculations for the latter
The crystal structures of the disordered hemi-DMSO solvate of (E)-2-oxo-N ′ -(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide, C20H18N2O6 · 0.5C2H6OS, and (E)-N ′ -benzylidene-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide, C17H12N2O3 (4: R = C6H5), are discussed. The non-hydrogen atoms in compound [4: R = (3,4,5-MeO)3C6H2)] exhibit a distinct curvature, while those in compound, (4: R = C6H5), are essential coplanar. In (4: R = C6H5), C — H...O and π – π intramolecular interactions combine to form a three-dimensional array. A three-dimensional array is also found for the hemi-DMSO solvate...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section E - September 3, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gomes, L.R. Low, J.N. Wardell, J.L. Capelini, C. C â mara, V.R.F. Silva, E.F. da Carvalho, S.A. Tags: crystal structure tuberculosis Hirshfeld surface analysis nitrogen-containing 2-oxo-2H-chromene derivative research communications Source Type: research

The Feasibility of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing to Identify Pathogens Causing Tuberculous Meningitis in Cerebrospinal Fluid
Conclusions: Our study indicates that mNGS is an alternative method to detect the presence of mycobacterial DNA in CSF samples from patients with TBM and deserves to apply as a front-line CSF test. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Expressing the TRAV1-TRAJ33 Chain Are Present in Pigs
In conclusion, pMAIT cells expressing the TRAV1-TRAJ33 chain have characteristics similar to human and mouse MAIT cells, further supporting the idea that the pig is an animal model for investigating MAIT cell functions in human disease. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - September 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of the M72/AS01E Candidate Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: The M72/AS01E vaccine against TB is safe and effective. Although the vaccine is associated with a mild adverse reaction, it is promising for the prevention of TB in healthy adults. Keywords: vaccine, tuberculosis, M72/AS01E, immunogenicity, safety (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - September 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Health worker and patient views on implementation of smoking cessation in routine tuberculosis care
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 03 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41533-019-0146-6Health worker and patient views on implementation of smoking cessation in routine tuberculosis care (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - September 3, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Melanie Boeckmann Sahil Warsi Maryam Noor Omara Dogar Esha Haowa Mustagfira Fariza Firoze Raana Zahid Anne Readshaw Kamran Siddiqi Daniel Kotz Ada Keding Rhian Gabe Anna Marshall Steve Parrott Shilpi Swami Amina Khan Sonia Raja Salman Sohail Rumana Huque Source Type: research

Possible binding of piperine in Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA-polymerase and rifampicin synergism.
Abstract The activity of rifampicin (RIF) and piperine (PIP) was evaluated at the relative transcript levels of 12 efflux pumps (EPs) and an additional mechanism was proposed behind the synergic interactions of PIP+RIF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Autodock-v4.2.3 and Molegro-v6 programs were used to evaluate PIP binding in Mtb RNA polymerase (RNAP). A hypothesis has been raised that PIP interferes in Mtb growth through RNAP inhibition, differently from what was previously endorsed for EPs inhibition only. PMID: 31481438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - September 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Murase LS, de Souza JVP, Meneguello JE, Seixas FAV, Hegeto LA, de Lima Scodro RB, Siqueira VLD, Caleffi Ferracioli KR, Cardoso RF Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Case Report: Epididymo-Orchitis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
We present a case of a 35-year-old man from Ethiopia with scrotal swelling and fever who was found to have epididymo-orchitis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient presented to the hospital multiple times before undergoing operative debridement with fine needle aspiration and tissue biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. He improved with antituberculous therapy. Patients with TB risk factors presenting with epididymitis that is refractory to empiric antibiotic therapy warrant consideration of TB epididymitis. Our case demonstrates the high index of suspicion required to establish a diagnosis of genitourinary TB. PM...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hane J, Duffey B, Kaiser R, Walker PF, Alpern JD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Low Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Contacts of Smear-Positive Adults in Brazil.
Abstract This follow-up cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the prevalence rate and risk factors related to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) in children aged
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliveira-Cortez A, Froede EL, Melo AC, Sant'Anna CC, Pinto LA, Mauricio da Rocha EM, Di Lorenzo Oliveira C, Camargos P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Nonsecretory intestinocystoplasty: postoperative outcomes of 25 years
The objective of bladder augmentation (BA) is to create a low-pressure reservoir with adequate capacity. Despite its benefits, the use of intestinal patches in bladder enlargement provides a high risk of developing complications and BA with demucosalised bowel represents a potential alternative. Therefore, this study evaluated urological parameters and long-term clinical follow-up of patients submitted to non-secretory BA in a single center with 25 years of experience. Materials and Methods Patients treated with BA underwent urological evaluation, which included history, physical examination and urodynamic study. The main ...
Source: International Braz J Urol - September 2, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis care in Botswana: evidence from a real-world setting
This study aimed to assess, in a real-world setting, the implementatio... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - September 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ley Muyaya Muyaya, Esperance Manwana Musanda and Jacques Lukenze Tamuzi Tags: Research article Source Type: research