Acute exacerbation admissions of fibrosing interstitial lung diseases - 3 years study
Introduction: Acute exacerbations (AE) are frequent in patients with fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (F-ILD) with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. AE are defined as a significant respiratory deterioration, less than 1-month duration, with new radiological abnormalities and associated with worse outcome.Aims: To study the etiology and outcomes of patients admitted with AE of F-ILD.Methods: Retrospective study of patients admitted with AE of F-ILD from January 2015 to August 2018. F-ILD due to pneumoconiosis and tuberculosis were excluded.Results: 115 admissions were identified, corresponding to 47 patients, ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Silva Guerra, S. I., Conceicao, M., Cunha, A., Correia, J., Vale, J., Antonio, C., Simoes Torres, A. Tags: ILD/DPLD of known origin Source Type: research

The value of endosonographic criteria of lymph nodes in the differential diagnosis of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy
Conclusion: the use of endosonographic patterns for the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the refusal to perform a biopsy in these patients is currently not possible. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zaitcev, I., Vasilev, I., Ermakov, P., Yablonskii, P. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

The role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy procedures in the diagnostic of pulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusions: Despite not significantly impacting TB diagnosis, bronchial and lung biopsies facilitated the differential diagnosis with other pulmonary diseases. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Antunes, C., Barbosa, J., Brysch, E., Almendra, A., Abreu, T., Mota, L., Semedo, J., Barbara, C. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

CT-guided percutaneous chest biopsy - diagnostic efficacy and complications: real life study
Conclusion: Percutaneous chest biopsy proved a high diagnostic yield, especially for malignancy, and is considered very safe when performed by trained physicians. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Costa e Silva, M., Melo, P., Rocha, D., Pereira, T., Oliveira, A. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

The Choice of lung biopsy method in the presence of limited focal lesions
Aim: to evaluate the possibility of historical transthoracic needle under CT-navigation (THBL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBL) to verify the etiology of focal lesions of the lungs.Material and Methods: two randomized groups of patients (50) with limited focal lung lesions, the etiology of which could not be clarified by non-invasive diagnostic methods. THBL with the area of the biopsy under CT was performed on 20(group 1), TBL with the material sampling of the 2nd segment of the right lung was performed on 30(group 2). The biopsy material in the form of 1-2 columns of tissue 1-2 mm in diameter and a length of 1-2 mmby pati...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Maltseva, A., Skornyakov, S., Tsvirenko, A., Berdnikov, R., Vakhruseva, D. Tags: Interventional pulmonology Source Type: research

Identification of specific EBUS-TBNA sonographic characteristics for differentiating sarcoidosis from tuberculosis and lymphoma
Background: We hypothesized that specific sonographic features on endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) may differentiate sarcoidosis from other lymph nodes. In current study, the sonographic features of sarcoidosis, lymphoma and tuberculosis lymph nodes were compared.Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study to analyze the patients with intrathoracic lymphadenopathy who underwent EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Sonographic features such as nodal size, margin, echogenicity, and presence or absence of calcification, a central hilar structure, coagulation necrosis sign, intranodular vascul...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cheng, W.-C., Chen, C.-Y., Chen, W.-C., Liao, W.-C., Chen, C.-H., Tu, C.-Y. Tags: Ultrasound Source Type: research

High Efficacy of High-dose Nitric Oxide and its Synergistic Effect with Antibiotics against Mycobacterium Abscessus
In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of high-dose NO combined with amikacin and clofazimine against M. abscessus. We have used a NO Exposure Chamber to test the susceptibility of three M. abscessus clinical strains (MAB-062600, MAB-030804, and MAB-010708) and ATCC 19977 to NO and its combination with clofazimine and amikacin. Disc Diffusion or E-test methods was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for each strain followed by Agar Dilution method to determine synergistic effects. Treatment with 250ppm NO alone for 10hr demonstrated a 5- to 6-log reductions in M. abscessus clinical...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chau, T., Blade, K., Da Silva, J., Ghaffari, A., Zelazny, A., Olivier, K. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Late Breaking Abstract - Use of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) specific antigens to detect NTM infection
This study, describes an immunological NTM-Interferon-gamma (IFN-) Release Assay (IGRA) that we have developed using specific NTM antigens to detect NTM sensitization.We enrolled 342 patients: 90 latently TB infected (LTBI), 69 active TB, 60 NTM culture positive, 13 NTM infection suspicion (positive TST, negative IGRA and no BCG vaccination record), 53 HIV positive (4 also LTBI), 32 unknown etiology lymphadenopathies, 3 non-NTM lymphadenopathies, and 22 uninfected controls with no TB exposure record. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood samples. Cells were then stimulated overnight with NTM spe...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Villar Hernandez, R., Latorre, I., Stojanovic, Z., Noguera-Julian, A., Souza-Galvao, M. L., Mendez, M., Rodrigo, C., Sabria, J., Martos, C., Santos, J. R., Puig, J., Lopez, N., Martinez-Planas, A., Soriano-Arandes, A., Jimenez, M. A., Dominguez, M., Mingu Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Non-tuberculosis mycobacterium related bronchiectasis is associated with oral commensals in the lower airway
Conclusion: A relationship between NTM and lower airway dysbiosis is identified, suggesting a role of oral anerobes in the inflammatory process of this disease or host susceptibility. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sulaiman, I., Wu, B., Tsay, J.-C., Li, Y., Scott, A., Basavaraj, A., Bessich, J., Michaud, G., Rafeq, S., Donington, J., Condos, R., Kamelhar, D., Addrizzo-Harris, D., Segal, L. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Exploring low-resource contexts to prepare for lung interventions - a mixed-method FRESH AIR study
Conclusion: Perceptions and behaviours were mainly shaped by the locally perceived identity and causes of CRD, and by cultural norms and traditions. Interventions targeting CRD should address such local contextual traits to enhance implementation success. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brakema, E., Van Der Kleij, R., Poot, C., Van Gemert, F., Kirenga, B., Le An, P., Lionis, C., Sooronbaev, T., Numans, M., Chavannes, N., Crone, M., Reis, R. Tags: General practice and primary care Source Type: research

Late Breaking Abstract - Short 12-month regimen with intravenous linezolid for pre-XDR TB: treatment outcomes and 24 months follow-up results
Conclusions: Administration of short 12-month regimen for pre-XDR patients improved the successful treatment outcomes to 90.7% in comparison with the use of conventional regimen. Relapses were only in 3 (4,7 %) patients after conventional 20-month regimen. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lytvynenko, N., Pogrebna, M., Senko, J., Protsyk, L., Chobotar, O., Grankina, N., Gumenuk, M. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Effectiveness of intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol administration in patients with new smear positive drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis with tuberculous meningoencephalitis and HIV co-infection in the intensive phase of treatment
The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous (i/v) isoniazid (H) and ethambutol (E) administration in patients with new smear positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB with TB meningoencephalitis(TM) and HIV co-infection in the intensive phase of treatment.Material and Methods: 54 patients with TB/TM and HIV co-infection were enrolled in this study. Group1 included 23 patients with TB/TM and HIV co-infection treated with E and H i/v, while rifampicin and pyrazinamide were prescribed orally. The group 2 consisted of 31 patients–treated with 1st-line anti-TB drugs orally. Concentrations of H an...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Butov, D., Feshchenko, Y., Kuzhko, M., Gumenuik, M., Kateryna, Y., Tkachenko, A., Nekrasova, N., Gulchuk, N., Tlustova, T., Butova, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Homeless with TB: A "long race" vulnerable group (20 years review)
This study estimates the value of specific TB programmatic interventions on a vulnerable group: homeless people in a county from an EU country with declining trend of tuberculosis starting 2010.Method: Comparison of 2 groups of homeless with TB, registered in two time periods:– 1998-2005 when DOTS strategy was initiated at local and then extended at national level (Group 1) and– 2010-2017: start of decline for TB (Group 2).Group 1- 82 homeless TB patients, Group 2 -74.Demographic characteristics, bacteriologic status, MDR rate, comorbidities, treatment results and social interventions were analysed.Results: The...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sorete Arbore, A., Cojocariu, V. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Endobronchial valve application in tuberculosis patients with low treatment adherence
Purpose of the Study: To increase the treatment effectiveness in patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis (DTB) with low adherence to stay in the hospital and receive anti-tuberculosis drugs by applying the method endobronchial valve installation (EbV).Material and Methods: An open, randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial of 125 patients with DTB was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups:Group I (n=65) - patients with low treatment adherence, who interrupted therapy in hospital and signed an informed consent for EbV installation.Group II (n=60) - patients with low treatment adherence, who inte...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Krasnov, D., Fadeev, P., Felker, I., Krasnov, V. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Tuberculosis and gastrectomy : A Nationwide Population-based Matched Cohort Study
The objective of this study was to examine the incidence and risk of tuberculosis in patients who underwent gastrectomy in Korea, an intermediate tuberculosis burden country. This population-based matched cohort study was conducted to analyze the sample database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. There were 3898 subjects with having gastrectomy as the gastrectomy group between 2004 and 2012, and 15,592 randomly selected matched subjects without gastrectomy as the non-gastrectomy group. Subjects with history of pulmonary tuberculosis before the index date 2 year were excluded. Both gastrectomy and non-gastrectomy...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jung, W., Choi, S. I., Kim, B.-K., Lee, E. J., In, K. H., Lee, S. Y. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Frequency of relapse rates in rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in operated patients
Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensive drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) are a complex problem in the world. Surgical treatment increases the chance of curing patients with MDR-TB or XDR.Study Concept: comparing of relapse rates in rifampicin-resistant cases for various periods after surgical chemotherapy.Methods: Retrospective study in CTRI from 2010 to 2011. 62 patients underwent surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. In all patients, tuberculosis was detected for the first time and MDR or XDR. After surgery, all patients received chemotherapy depending on the drug resistance. In 27 patients, the...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bagdasaryan, T., Ergeshov, A. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Changes in body composition and strength during initial treatment in malnourished patients with tuberculosis
Background: Malnutrition is common in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and leads to negative changes in body composition, i.e. loss of muscle mass and a decrease in physical function.1,2Aims and Objectives: Since it is unclear how body composition and strength change in malnourished patients with drug-susceptible TB, we aimed to assess changes during initial treatment.Methods: Between September 2016 and October 2017 14 patients with drug-susceptible TB admitted to our hospital were diagnosed with malnutrition by the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment. Patients were assessed within 10 days of the primary s...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: De Reus, Y. A., Ter Beek, L., Van Der Werf, T. S., Akkerman, O. W. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Adverse events in patients with MDR TB, treated by three types of the chemotherapy regimens
Background: The new regimens for MDR TB, presented by WHO in 2018, August, are promising, but their feasibility, depended on safety, isn’t tested enough in real-life conditions.Methods: The retrospective/prospective study include 205 pts with pulmonary MDR TB (18-78 y.o., 64.4% male), divided in 3 groups: "classic" optimized basic regimen (OBR) – 80 pts, OBR and 1-2 of the "fifth group drugs" – 51 pts (OBR+) and the "modern regimen", based on Bdq Lnz Mox/Lev Cycl with 1-2 other second-line drugs (MR – 74 pts). The groups were equal by gender, age and concomitant disease...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rodina, O., Borisov, S. E., Ivanova, D. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

The impact of bedaquiline and delamanid containing regimens on liver function in patients multi-infected with pulmonary DR-TB, HIV and viral hepatitis
Conclusion: In a high-risk group of pts for liver injury, Bdq and Dlm containing regimens showed a good efficacy and safety profile. Schemes with Dlm were the least hepatotoxic. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kiria, N., Avaliani, Z., Bolokadze, N., Kiria, N., Mikiashvili, L. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Statin with standard antituberculosis regimen and mortality in hospitalized pulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusions: In hospitalized patients with pulmonary TB, a statin with standard anti-TB regimen was significantly associated with a reduction of 90 days all-cause mortality after admission. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jeeraaumponwat, T. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

DOT-VOT Implementation of Tuberculosis Patients between 2012-2018
Aim: Evaluating yearly distribution of Directly Observed Therapy(DOT) and DOT variations through years at registered tuberculosis (TB) patients.Method: Retrospective analysis of TB patients’ files who registered Ankara 3rd TB Dispensary between 2012-2018 (Video Observed Therapy -VOT- was implemented at Ankara TB Dispensaries in 2012).Findings: In 7 years, 812 patients were registered. During treatment follow up, 38 patients who had diagnosis other than TB, excluded from study. Mean age was 47 (13-93). 51% were males and 49% were pulmonary TB. 15/774 cases who diagnosed TB after death and didn’t get any TB treat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Duyar Agca, F., Inan Süer, A., Cimen Beyaz, G. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in Singapore, 2005 to 2018
Conclusion: Among the local-born with rifampicin-resistant TB, 40.5% of them were not due to MDR-TB and there was a relatively high rate of HIV co-infection. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gan, S. H., Lim, L. K. Y., Wang, Y. T., Chee, C. B. E. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

New approaches to MDR/XDR TB chemotherapy in children and adolescents
Conclusions: We originally developed new scientifically justified criteria to determine chemotherapy duration for children and adolescents with MDR/XDR TB. Effectiveness of shortened chemotherapy regimens using fewer drugs was proved by absence of relapses. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Khiteva, A., Panova, L., Ovsyankina, E., Krushinskaya, E. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Bedaquiline in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a subanalysis in Korean population
In conclusion, bedaquiline showed similar efficacy and safety in Korean patients with MDR-TB despite their advanced drug-resistant profile, likely due to the effective companion drugs such as linezolid and later generation fluoroquinolones. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, J. H., Shim, T. S., Kwon, O. J., Kim, Y. S., Park, M. S., Hwang, S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

National advisory services for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in Europe: an ERS-TBnet survey
Conclusion: MDRTB management is often concentrated in tertiary centres. Clinical governance, regarding audit and outcome, are at an early stage in managing MDRTB. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bothamley, G. H., Andre, E., Kuksa, L., Barkana, L., Keane, J., Veziris, N., Van Crevel, R., Magis-Escurra, C., Jankovic, M., Schoch, O., Zellweger, J.-P., Vasankari, T., Eyuboglu, F., Holland, R., Normark, J., Macedo, R., Korzeniewska, M., Nanovoc, Z., B Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal distribution of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection in brazilian macroregions, between 2003 and 2016
This study aimed to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of TB-HIV coinfection, in accordance with the rates of incidence and prevalence, and proportion of deaths by tuberculosis coinfected individuals in five regions of Brazil. It was an ecological study of spatial-temporal distribution, using secondary data from individuals notified by TB/HIV, over the age of 15 years, between 2003 and 2016. The identification of spatial-temporal clusters was performed by ArcGis 10.1, developed by ESRI. A total of 81.101 new cases of TB/HIV coinfection were reported, with an average of 8,29% of coinfection in patients with tuberculos...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Teotonio, V., Teodulo, J. M. R., Sousa, G. S., Sousa, J. A., Barros, C. R. S. Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Unmasking the hidden tuberculosis mortality burden in a large postmortem study in Mozambique
Conclusions: The use of highly sensitive and easy to perform molecular tests in complete diagnostic autopsies may contribute to identify TB cases at death that would otherwise have been missed. The clinical diagnosis made by physicians has a poor sensitivity for the diagnosis of TB at death. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Garcia-Basteiro, A., Hurtado, J. C., Castillo, P., Fernandes, F., Navarro, M., Lovane, L., Casas, I., Quinto, L., Jordao, D., Ismail, M. R., Lorenzoni, C., Carrilho, C., Sanz, A., Rakislova, N., Mira, A., Alvarez-Martinez, M., Cossa, A., Cobelens, F., Man Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Late Breaking Abstract - Rituximab limits the progression of fibrosing mediastinitis
Conclusion: In young patients with progressive FM, we present the first prospective off-label use of Rituximab to limit disease progression based on imaging and clinical parameters. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Varghese, C., Johnson, G., Eiken, P., Tobias, P. Tags: Clinical Problems Source Type: research

Exosomal miRNAs and association with pulmonary tuberculosis
In this study, we examined the expression of miRNAs as biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of TB infection.Methods: Serum exosomes were isolated using the total exosome isolation (TEI) reagent (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific Corporation, USA). Serum-derived exosomes were isolated from TB patients (25 new case of active TB) and matched control subjects (25 persons). The expression of miR-484, miR-425, and miR-96 was examined by RT-PCR.Results: The expression of miR-484, miR-425, and miR-96 were significantly increased in serum of TB patients which correlated with the TB infection level. After normalization to U6, a...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mortaz, E., D. Alipoor, S., Folkerts, G., Garssen, J., Adcock, I. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Wood smoke effects on epithelial cell lines and human airway cells
Conclusion: Short term exposure to sooty wood smoke induced a bronchoalveolar eosinophilic insult. This may link with the development and worsening of asthma after chronic exposure to wood smoke. Moreover, the observed DNA damage in vitro may explain the previously shown reduction in airway cells, which in turn may causally affect cellular immunity and increase the incidence of respiratory infection (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hansson, A., Rankin, G., Uski, O., Sehlstedt, M., Bosson, J., Pourazar, J., Boman, C., Lindgren, R., Garcia Lopez, N., Behndig, A., Blomberg, A., Sandström, T., Muala, A. Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Overexpression, purification, enzymatic and microscopic characterization of recombinant mycobacterial F-ATP synthase.
r G Abstract The F-ATP synthase is an essential enzyme in mycobacteria, including the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Several new compounds in the TB-drug pipeline target the F-ATP synthase. In light of the importance and pharmacological attractiveness of this novel antibiotic target, tools have to be developed to generate a recombinant mycobacterial F1FO ATP synthase to achieve atomic insight and mutants for mechanistic and regulatory understanding as well as structure-based drug design. Here, we report the first genetically engineered, purified and enzymatically active recombinant M. smegmatis F1FO A...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - November 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Saw WG, Wong CF, Dick T, Grüber G Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Silver complexes with fluoroanthranilic acid isomers: spectroscopic characterization, antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxic studies over a panel of tumor cells
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Inorganica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Carlos M. Manzano, Douglas H. Nakahata, Juan C. Tenorio, Wilton R. Lustri, Flávia A. Resende Nogueira, Nadia A. Aleixo, Pietra S. da Silva Gomes, Fernando R. Pavan, Julia A. Grecco, Camila M. Ribeiro, Pedro P. CorbiAbstractThis manuscript presents three silver(I) complexes with fluoroanthranilic acid (fa) isomers, [Ag(4fa)]n, [Ag(5fa)]n and [Ag(6fa)]n, which were named as Ag4fa, Ag5fa and Ag6fa, respectively. The 1:1 metal/ligand molar composition of the complexes was determined by elemental, thermal and high-resolution mass...
Source: Inorganica Chimica Acta - November 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Burden and clinical characteristics of high grade tuberculosis destroyed lung: a nationwide study.
Authors: Han D, Lee HY, Kim K, Kim T, Oh YM, Rhee CK Abstract Background: Little clinical information on high grade tuberculosis destroyed lung (TDL) is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and healthcare utilization of high grade TDL patients, and compared the differences between acute exacerbation and healthcare burden according to inhaler compliance. Methods: This was an observational retrospective cohort study using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) service database (2011-2015). Patients diagnosed with high grade TDL in 2011 were enrolled and reviewe...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - November 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Infection and RNA-seq analysis of a zebrafish tlr2 mutant shows a broad function of this toll-like receptor in transcriptional and metabolic control and defense to Mycobacterium marinum infection
The function of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in host defense against pathogens, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is poorly understood. To investigate the role of TLR2 during mycobacterial infection, we ... (Source: BMC Genomics)
Source: BMC Genomics - November 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wanbin Hu, Shuxin Yang, Yasuhito Shimada, Magnus M ünch, Rubén Marín-Juez, Annemarie H. Meijer and Herman P. Spaink Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Galleria mellonella: An Infection Model for Screening Compounds Against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex
Drug screening models have a vital role in the development of novel antimycobacterial agents which are urgently needed to tackle drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We recently established the larvae of the insect Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) as a novel infection model for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Here we demonstrate its use as a rapid and reproducible screen to evaluate antimycobacterial drug efficacy using larvae infected with bioluminescent Mycobacterium bovis BCG lux. Treatment improved larval survival outcome and, with the exception of pyrazinamide, was associated with a significant reduction in...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - November 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Small-scale stable clusters of elevated tuberculosis incidence in Moscow, 2000 –2015. Discovery and spatio-temporal analysis
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alexei A. Romanyukha, Arseny S. Karkach, Sergey E. Borisov, Evgeny M. Belilovsky, Tatiana E. Sannikova, Olga I. Krivorotko Source Type: research

Mycobacterium smegmatis moxifloxacin persister cells produce high levels of hydroxyl radical, generating genetic resisters selectable not only with moxifloxacin, but also with ethambutol and isoniazid.
Abstract Bacterial antibiotic persister cells tolerate lethal concentrations of antibiotics but emerge as the antibiotic-sensitive population upon antibiotics withdrawal. However, the possibility of antibiotic-resistant genetic mutants emerging from the antibiotic persister population in the continued exposure to microbicidal concentrations of antibiotics needed investigation. We explored this possibility using the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis as a model organism for Mycobacterium tuberculosis biology, as it is known to incur antibiotic-resistant mutations identical to and at identical target positions as ...
Source: Microbiology - November 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Swaminath S, Paul A, Pradhan A, Sebastian J, Nair RR, Ajitkumar P Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Interaction of antitubercular drug candidates with α1-acid glycoprotein produced in pulmonary granulomas.
Interaction of antitubercular drug candidates with α1-acid glycoprotein produced in pulmonary granulomas. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 Nov 20;: Authors: Zsila F, Bősze S, Beke-Somfai T Abstract The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis can survive and replicate within host macrophages. Among various immunomodulatory substances, macrophages also produce α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix of tuberculosis granulomas that represents a specific binding environment. Employing circular dichroism (CD) and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopic methods, we...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - November 20, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zsila F, Bősze S, Beke-Somfai T Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Evaluating the sensitivity of the bovine BCG challenge model using a prime boost Ad85A vaccine regimen.
Abstract In the absence of biomarkers of protective immunity, newly developed vaccines against bovine tuberculosis need to be evaluated in virulent Mycobacterium bovis challenge experiments, which require the use of expensive and highly in demand Biological Safety Level 3 (BSL3) animal facilities. The recently developed bovine BCG challenge model offers a cheaper and faster way to test new vaccine candidates and additionally reduces the severity of the challenge compared to virulent M. bovis challenge in line with the remits of the NC3Rs. In this work we sought to establish the sensitivity of the BCG challenge mod...
Source: Vaccine - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Biffar L, Blunt L, Atkins W, Anderson P, Holder T, Xing Z, Vordermeier M, McShane H, Villarreal-Ramos B Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Comparison of CapitalBio™ Mycobacterium nucleic acid detection test and Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Guocan Yu, Yanqin Shen, Bo Ye, Da Chen, Kan XuAbstractThe CapitalBio™ Mycobacterium nucleic acid detection test is a real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan probe technology test for rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). This test had moderate sensitivity and high specificity for EPTB, like that of Xpert MTB/RIF, especially for lymph node, chest wall, and purulent fluid samples. (Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods)
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - November 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A case report of peritoneal tuberculosis diagnosed by laparoscopy in a low prevalence setting.
Authors: Van Slambrouck J, Vlasselaers J, Devos B Abstract Peritoneal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Considering the diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis in a low prevalence setting can be vital for the further clinical management in selected patients.In a young male with migration background, presenting with generalised abdominal pain, computed tomography revealed ascites, omental and peritoneal thickening and enlarged mesentery lymph nodes. Computed tomography also revealed a distal ureteral calculus at the right vesico-ureteral junction. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed a nodul...
Source: Acta Chirurgica Belgica - November 19, 2019 Category: Surgery Tags: Acta Chir Belg Source Type: research

Multiple Cranial Tuberculomas Without Meningitis in Two Infants With Miliary Tuberculosis
We describe 2 cases of miliary tuberculosis in young children with clinically unexpected central nervous system involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be considered part of the initial diagnostic workup for miliary tuberculosis in very young children. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Contribution of Real-Time Xpert MTB/RIF Testing to Establishing Early Diagnosis of Pediatric Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in a Nonendemic Setting: A Case Series
Microbiologic confirmation of pediatric extrapulmonary tuberculosis remains challenging, leading to diagnostic delays. In our retrospective case series, real-time molecular testing (Xpert MTB/RIF) on respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens resulted in a more rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a nonendemic, high resource setting. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Thunberg's Barospirator, a Fully Encasing Predecessor of the Iron Lung.
Abstract Used as a ventilator for assisting victims of polio, the barospirator was described by Swedish physician-scientist Torsten Thunberg in 1924. An immediate predecessor of the iron lung of Philip Drinker, the barospirator fully encased the entire body. Cyclic air-pressure changes within the chamber achieved ventilation during equilibrations of intrapulmonary and ambient pressures. Pulmonary medicine innovator Alvan Leroy Barach used a modified barospirator for lung rest as a treatment of tuberculosis in the 1940s. Adverse effects included damage to patients' tympanic membranes. Despite its limited clinical s...
Source: Pain Physician - November 19, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Haddad CS, Wang J, Alston TA Tags: J Anesth Hist Source Type: research

Patient and health care system characteristics are associated with delayed treatment of tuberculosis cases in Taiwan
The decline of the incidence rate of tuberculosis in Taiwan has been partly attributed to the launch of the directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) program in 2006, followed by the DOTS-Plus in 2007. How... (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Source: BMC Health Services Research - November 19, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Chien-Chou Chen, Po-Huang Chiang, Yen-Hsu Chen, I-Chun Fan and Ta-Chien Chan Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and other risk factors for kanamycin-induced hearing loss in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
. (Source: International Journal of Audiology)
Source: International Journal of Audiology - November 19, 2019 Category: Audiology Authors: Nazanin Ghafari Richard Court Maxwell Tawanda Chirehwa Lubbe Wiesner Lucretia Petersen Gary Maartens Tawanda Gumbo Helen McIlleron Lebogang Ramma Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes modulate the susceptibility of idiosyncratic antituberculous drug ‐induced liver injury and treatment outcomes in patients with tuberculosis
ConclusionsGenetic polymorphisms ofNOS2 andMAFK are associated with ATDILI susceptibility in Chinese patients with tuberculosis. The variants inNOS2 andMAFK affect treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients. Further studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of ATDILI susceptibility via regulation of the expression of ATDILI ‐susceptibility genes and proteins. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Qin Sun, Wei Sha, Hai ‐peng Liu, Peng Wang, Zhi‐bin Liu, Wen‐wen Sun, He‐ping Xiao Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs expression pattern in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION: We comprehensively analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNAs in PTB patients, thus providing new clues for exploring the regulatory mechanisms of dysregulated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of PTB. PMID: 31756428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Genomics)
Source: Genomics - November 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang X, Liang Z, Zhang Y, Dai K, Zhu M, Wang J, Hu X Tags: Genomics Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes modulate the susceptibility of idiosyncratic antituberculous drug ‐induced liver injury and treatment outcomes in patients with tuberculosis
ConclusionsGenetic polymorphisms ofNOS2 andMAFK are associated with ATDILI susceptibility in Chinese patients with tuberculosis. The variants inNOS2 andMAFK affect treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients. Further studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of ATDILI susceptibility via regulation of the expression of ATDILI ‐susceptibility genes and proteins. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Qin Sun, Wei Sha, Hai ‐peng Liu, Peng Wang, Zhi‐bin Liu, Wen‐wen Sun, He‐ping Xiao Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hepatotoxicity during TB treatment in people with HIV/AIDS related to NAT2 polymorphisms in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.
Authors: Araujo-Mariz C, Militão de Albuquerque MFP, Lopes EP, Ximenes RAA, Lacerda HR, Miranda-Filho DB, Lustosa-Martins BB, Pastor AFP, Acioli-Santos B Abstract INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Hepatotoxicity during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is frequent and may be related to the Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase (NAT2) acetylator profile, in which allele frequencies differ according to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate functional polymorphisms in NAT2 associated with the development of hepatotoxicity after initiating treatment for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Pernambuco, Nor...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - November 18, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research