Acceptance Rates and Beliefs toward COVID-19 Vaccination among the General Population of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey
This study aims to explore these beliefs and highlight concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy in the general population of Pakistan since they are a hindrance to an effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immunization in the country. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 1,778 participants from all four provinces of Pakistan. Results from the study showed more than half of the participants to be unsure of the safety (50%) and efficacy (51%) of the vaccine, whereas 42% were concerned about the side effects of the vaccine. About 72% of the respondents planned to get vaccinated, whereas 28% refused to do so. Inter...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farah Yasmin Waleed Asghar Maryam Salma Babar Hiba Khan Shoaib Ahmad Zaid Hameed Muhammad Sohaib Asghar Hamza Nauman Abdullah Khan Khattak Zara Arshad Syed Muhammad Ismail Shah Sarush Ahmed Siddiqui Muhammad Osama Muhammad Samsoor Zarak Source Type: research

Acceptance Rates and Beliefs toward COVID-19 Vaccination among the General Population of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey
This study aims to explore these beliefs and highlight concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy in the general population of Pakistan since they are a hindrance to an effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immunization in the country. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 1,778 participants from all four provinces of Pakistan. Results from the study showed more than half of the participants to be unsure of the safety (50%) and efficacy (51%) of the vaccine, whereas 42% were concerned about the side effects of the vaccine. About 72% of the respondents planned to get vaccinated, whereas 28% refused to do so. Inter...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farah Yasmin Waleed Asghar Maryam Salma Babar Hiba Khan Shoaib Ahmad Zaid Hameed Muhammad Sohaib Asghar Hamza Nauman Abdullah Khan Khattak Zara Arshad Syed Muhammad Ismail Shah Sarush Ahmed Siddiqui Muhammad Osama Muhammad Samsoor Zarak Source Type: research

Acceptance Rates and Beliefs toward COVID-19 Vaccination among the General Population of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey
This study aims to explore these beliefs and highlight concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy in the general population of Pakistan since they are a hindrance to an effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immunization in the country. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 1,778 participants from all four provinces of Pakistan. Results from the study showed more than half of the participants to be unsure of the safety (50%) and efficacy (51%) of the vaccine, whereas 42% were concerned about the side effects of the vaccine. About 72% of the respondents planned to get vaccinated, whereas 28% refused to do so. Inter...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farah Yasmin Waleed Asghar Maryam Salma Babar Hiba Khan Shoaib Ahmad Zaid Hameed Muhammad Sohaib Asghar Hamza Nauman Abdullah Khan Khattak Zara Arshad Syed Muhammad Ismail Shah Sarush Ahmed Siddiqui Muhammad Osama Muhammad Samsoor Zarak Source Type: research

Wrong Place at the Wrong Time
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 13:tpmd210429. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0429. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34516399 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0429 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anil Kallesh Sahalini Gu Source Type: research

Lupus Vulgaris
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 13:tpmd210736. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0736. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34516400 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0736 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Palaniappan Vijayasankar Raveendran Premjith Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan Source Type: research

The Supposedly Innocuous Eye Worm: Or, What Could Make You Put Chili in Your Eye?
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 13:tpmd210319. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0319. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34516401 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0319 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luzia Veletzky Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma Michael Ramharter Source Type: research

Wrong Place at the Wrong Time
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 13:tpmd210429. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0429. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34516399 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0429 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anil Kallesh Sahalini Gu Source Type: research

Lupus Vulgaris
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 13:tpmd210736. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0736. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34516400 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0736 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Palaniappan Vijayasankar Raveendran Premjith Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan Source Type: research

The Supposedly Innocuous Eye Worm: Or, What Could Make You Put Chili in Your Eye?
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 13:tpmd210319. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0319. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34516401 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0319 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luzia Veletzky Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma Michael Ramharter Source Type: research

Strengthening Virology Research in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Preparing for Future Pandemics
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 10:tpmd210589. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0589. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region is known to be a global hotspot to viral outbreaks because of many factors. To limit the impact of future outbreaks, it is crucial for the ASEAN governments to strengthen regional virology research capacity. The ASEAN governments have collaborated in several virology initiatives, with the most recent being the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Center for Public Health Emergencies and Emerging Diseases. However, several challenges, including technology disparities, ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adriana Viola Miranda Lowilius Wiyono Ian Christopher N Rocha Trisha Denise D Cede ño Don Eliseo Iii Lucero-Prisno Source Type: research

Strengthening Virology Research in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Preparing for Future Pandemics
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 10:tpmd210589. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0589. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region is known to be a global hotspot to viral outbreaks because of many factors. To limit the impact of future outbreaks, it is crucial for the ASEAN governments to strengthen regional virology research capacity. The ASEAN governments have collaborated in several virology initiatives, with the most recent being the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Center for Public Health Emergencies and Emerging Diseases. However, several challenges, including technology disparities, ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adriana Viola Miranda Lowilius Wiyono Ian Christopher N Rocha Trisha Denise D Cede ño Don Eliseo Iii Lucero-Prisno Source Type: research

Strengthening Virology Research in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Preparing for Future Pandemics
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 10:tpmd210589. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0589. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region is known to be a global hotspot to viral outbreaks because of many factors. To limit the impact of future outbreaks, it is crucial for the ASEAN governments to strengthen regional virology research capacity. The ASEAN governments have collaborated in several virology initiatives, with the most recent being the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Center for Public Health Emergencies and Emerging Diseases. However, several challenges, including technology disparities, ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adriana Viola Miranda Lowilius Wiyono Ian Christopher N Rocha Trisha Denise D Cede ño Don Eliseo Iii Lucero-Prisno Source Type: research

Intraspecific and Interspecific Phenotypic Differences Confirm the Absence of Cryptic Speciation in Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera, Triatominae)
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210323. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0323. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTriatoma sordida is an endemic Chagas disease vector in South America, distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Chromosomal, molecular, isoenzimatic, and cuticular hydrocarbon pattern studies indicate cryptic speciation in T. sordida. Recently, T. rosai was described from specimens from Argentina initially characterized as T. sordida. Although several authors assume that the speciation process that supports this differentiation in T. sordida is the result of cryptic speciation, further morphological and/or morp...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ariane Cristina Caris Garcia Jader de Oliveira Daniel Cesaretto Cristal Luiza Maria Grzyb Delgado Isadora de Freitas Bittinelli Cleber Galv ão Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez Britez Hern án José Carrasco Jo ão Aristeu da Rosa Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Evidence on the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Screen-and-Treat Interventions for Malaria Control
This study systematically synthesized the existing evidence on MSAT, from both epidemiological and economic perspectives. Searches were conducted on six databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINALH, Web of Science, Global Health, and Google Scholar) between October and December 2020. Only experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of MSAT in reducing malaria prevalence or incidence were included. Of the 2,424 citation hits, 14 studies based on 11 intervention trials were eligible. Eight trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and three trials in Asia. While five trials target...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sooyoung Kim Verah Nafula Luande Joacim Rockl öv Jane M Carlton Yesim Tozan Source Type: research

Are Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies For Malaria Beginning To Fail in Africa?
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210797. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0797. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34491214 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0797 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philip J Rosenthal Source Type: research

An Exploration of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Physicians toward Pharmacovigilance at Tertiary Care Hospitals in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210336. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0336. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDrug safety assures the effectiveness, safety, and security of drugs, vaccines, and other biologicals to protect public health. Medication-related errors coupled with unjudicial medication practices often cause a catastrophic impact on the healthcare system globally. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of physicians toward pharmacovigilance and barriers to adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting at tertiary care hospitals in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sec...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhammad Junaid Hassan Sharif Ghulam Murtaza Zelal Kharaba Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim Mohammad Ismail Abdul Mannan Manal Buabeid Xianju Huang Shujaat Ali Khan Khezar Hayat Source Type: research

Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness Training in Lao PDR: A Pilot Study of an Adaptable Approach to Training and Supervision
This study highlights the importance of a focus on education to ensure the translation of guidelines into practice and thereby lead to improvements in the quality of pediatric care. The IMNCI training approach is acceptable and valued by healthcare worker participants.PMID:34491216 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0544 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Freya O'Loughlin Sommanikhone Phangmanixay Kongkham Sisouk Viengvaly Phommanivong Onevanh Phiahouaphanh Salwa AlEryani Hendrikus Raajimakers Amy Gray Source Type: research

Bullous Scabies: Clinical, Dermoscopic, and Pathologic Characteristics of 10 Patients
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210516. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0516. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBullous scabies (BS) is a rare atypical clinical variant of scabies and is easily confused with bullous disorders. The diagnosis of BS is always a challenge, and physicians often misdiagnose BS patients. Patients with BS admitted from 2012 to 2020 were enrolled in this study. The clinical, dermoscopic, and pathological characteristics of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Ten patients with BS were enrolled in this study. Seven of the 10 patients were male. The bullae were most commonly found on the thighs and arms (...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Feng-Zeng Li Meng Jia Ke-Jun Chen Qian Ye Sheng Fang Source Type: research

Bite Injuries among Vaccination Staff Participating in a Mass Canine Rabies Vaccination Campaign, Haiti 2016-2017
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210241. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0241. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTElimination of dog-transmitted human rabies worldwide will require large-scale dog vaccination campaigns. However, this places participating vaccinators at increased risk. Data from the 2016-2017 Haitian mass rabies vaccination campaign was analyzed to determine dog bite incidence among vaccinators. A survey was then developed for completion by all identifiable bitten vaccinators covering demographics; experience and training; bite episode details; attitudes toward dogs and rabies; and medical care. A parallel group of unbit...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rudy T Kirkhope Andrew D Gibson Pierre Dilius Augustin Kelly Crowdis Natael F énelon Ewan T MacLeod Marco A N Vigilato Emily G Pieracci Ryan M Wallace Source Type: research

Learning-by-Teaching Approach Improves Dengue Knowledge in Children and Parents
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210253. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0253. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is narrow evidence on which strategies are most effective for disseminating information on dengue prevention. This is particularly relevant because social habits have a great prevention capacity for dengue. We investigated how effective are children as health educators, and how much they learn as they teach. We recruited 142 children and 97 parents in Argentina's tropical area for two cluster randomized parallel trials. In Study 1, we compared the dynamics of dengue knowledge of 10-year-old children who-after receiving...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Julia Hermida Agust ín Perez Santangelo Cecilia In és Calero Carolina Goizueta Manuel Espinosa Mariano Sigman Source Type: research

Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Investigation of Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Resistance
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210214. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0214. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRoutine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored. The primary...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leah F Moriarty Papy Mandoko Nkoli Joris Losimba Likwela Patrick Mitashi Mulopo Eric Mukomena Sompwe Junior Matangila Rika Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko Samaly S Svigel Sam Jones Nsengi Y Ntamabyaliro Albert Kutekemeni Kaputu Naomi Lucchi Gireesh Subramaniam Ma Source Type: research

Case Report: Fatal Viscerotropic Disease in a Young Woman Following Yellow Fever Vaccination
We report the case of a young woman with an unusual presentation of yellow fever 17DD vaccine-associated acute viscerotropic disease, with severe hepatic impairment following a long incubation period. She died more than a month after yellow fever vaccination.PMID:34491221 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0235 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mari ângela Ottoboni Brunaldi Ren é Julias Costa Silva Alexandre Todorovic Fabro Daniel Cardoso de Almeida E Araujo Anibal Basile-Filho Maria Auxiliadora-Martins Mayra Gon çalves Menegueti Maria Isabel Beloddi Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito Benedito Ant Source Type: research

Pediatric Hospital Medicine and Global Health: A Fitting Niche for an Emerging Subspecialty
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd201201. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1201. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs North American hospitals serve increasingly diverse patient populations, including recent immigrants, refugees, and returned travelers, all pediatric hospitalists (PHs) require foundational competency in global health, and a subset of PHs are carving out niches focused in global health. Pediatric hospitalists are uniquely positioned to collaborate with low- and middle-income country clinicians and child health advocates to improve the health of hospitalized children worldwide. Using the 2018 WHO standards for improving th...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heather Haq Amy R L Rule Alexandra Coria Lineo K Thahane Regina M Duperval Adelaide Barnes Tania Condurache Kathy Ferrer Michelle J Shenoy Joanne Mendoza Christiana M Russ Source Type: research

IgG Subclasses and Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease
In this study, we evaluated the role of IgG subclasses in the congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a case-control study in a public maternity hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, enrolling women at delivery. Thirty women who transmitted T. cruzi to their newborns (cases), and 51 women who did not (controls) were randomly selected from 676 total seropositive women. Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 levels were measured by in-house ELISA. The IgG4 levels were unmeasurable as a result of low levels in all participants. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results and demographic factors were als...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cristian Roca Edith S M álaga-Machaca Manuela R Verastegui Billy Scola Edward Valencia-Ayala Maria Del Carmen Mendui ña Sassan Noazin Natalie M Bowman Freddy Tinajeros Robert H Gilman Working Group of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia and Peru Source Type: research

Case Report: Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis with Multi-Organ Involvement Presented with Intussusception
We describe a 23-month-old immunocompetent boy from a subtropical area in Iran who presented with intussusception. Prolonged fever, an abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and peripheral eosinophilia strongly suggested GIB. Accordingly, GIB was diagnosed based on the characteristic histopathology (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon) detected in a liver sample taken via biopsy. Exploratory laparotomy showed several organs, including the colon, gall bladder, liver, and abdominal wall, were involved. Antifungal therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, liposomal amphotericin B, a saturated soluti...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zahra Jafarpour Gholamreza Pouladfar Alireza Dehghan Mohammad Hossein Anbardar Hamid Reza Foroutan Source Type: research

Field Efficacy of Larvivorous Fish and Pyriproxyfen Combined with Community Engagement on Dengue Vectors in Cambodia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd201088. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1088. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEvidence on the effectiveness of low-cost, sustainable biological vector control tools for Aedes mosquitoes is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this trial was to estimate the impact of guppy fish in combination with the larvicide pyriproxyfen (PPF) (Sumilarv® 2MR) and communication for behavioral impact (COMBI) activities to reduce entomological indices in Cambodia. In this cluster randomized, controlled superiority trial, 30 clusters comprised of one or more villages each was allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive eith...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John Christian Hustedt Dyna Doum Vanney Keo Sokha Ly BunLeng Sam Vibol Chan Neal Alexander John Bradley Marco Liverani Didot Budi Prasetyo Agus Rachmat Muhammad Shafique Sergio Lopes Leang Rithea Jeffrey Hii Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Unsuccessful Outcomes of Tuberculosis Treatment in 125 Municipalities in Colombia 2014 to 2016
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd201063. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1063. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOur aim was to identify the risk factors associated with unsuccessful outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 in the 125 municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia. We studied a retrospective cohort of patients with TB diagnosed between 2014 and 2016, from national routine surveillance systems, in 125 municipalities of Antioquia. Factors associated with unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcomes (treatment failed, lost to follow up, or death) were identified utilizing a Poisson regres...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lizeth Andrea Paniagua-Saldarriaga Daniele Maria Pelissari Zulma Vanessa Rueda Source Type: research

An Adaptive Intervention Trial Design for Finding the Optimal Integrated Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination in Africa: A Model Simulation Study
This study provides a new pathway for informing the optimal integrated malaria vector interventions, and the new strategy can be tested in field trials.PMID:34491227 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0254 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guofa Zhou Ming-Chieh Lee Xiaoming Wang Daibin Zhong Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder Guiyun Yan Source Type: research

Intraspecific and Interspecific Phenotypic Differences Confirm the Absence of Cryptic Speciation in Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera, Triatominae)
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210323. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0323. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTriatoma sordida is an endemic Chagas disease vector in South America, distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Chromosomal, molecular, isoenzimatic, and cuticular hydrocarbon pattern studies indicate cryptic speciation in T. sordida. Recently, T. rosai was described from specimens from Argentina initially characterized as T. sordida. Although several authors assume that the speciation process that supports this differentiation in T. sordida is the result of cryptic speciation, further morphological and/or morp...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ariane Cristina Caris Garcia Jader de Oliveira Daniel Cesaretto Cristal Luiza Maria Grzyb Delgado Isadora de Freitas Bittinelli Cleber Galv ão Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez Britez Hern án José Carrasco Jo ão Aristeu da Rosa Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Evidence on the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Screen-and-Treat Interventions for Malaria Control
This study systematically synthesized the existing evidence on MSAT, from both epidemiological and economic perspectives. Searches were conducted on six databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINALH, Web of Science, Global Health, and Google Scholar) between October and December 2020. Only experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of MSAT in reducing malaria prevalence or incidence were included. Of the 2,424 citation hits, 14 studies based on 11 intervention trials were eligible. Eight trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and three trials in Asia. While five trials target...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sooyoung Kim Verah Nafula Luande Joacim Rockl öv Jane M Carlton Yesim Tozan Source Type: research

Are Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies For Malaria Beginning To Fail in Africa?
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210797. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0797. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34491214 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0797 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philip J Rosenthal Source Type: research

An Exploration of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Physicians toward Pharmacovigilance at Tertiary Care Hospitals in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210336. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0336. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDrug safety assures the effectiveness, safety, and security of drugs, vaccines, and other biologicals to protect public health. Medication-related errors coupled with unjudicial medication practices often cause a catastrophic impact on the healthcare system globally. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of physicians toward pharmacovigilance and barriers to adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting at tertiary care hospitals in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sec...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhammad Junaid Hassan Sharif Ghulam Murtaza Zelal Kharaba Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim Mohammad Ismail Abdul Mannan Manal Buabeid Xianju Huang Shujaat Ali Khan Khezar Hayat Source Type: research

Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness Training in Lao PDR: A Pilot Study of an Adaptable Approach to Training and Supervision
This study highlights the importance of a focus on education to ensure the translation of guidelines into practice and thereby lead to improvements in the quality of pediatric care. The IMNCI training approach is acceptable and valued by healthcare worker participants.PMID:34491216 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0544 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Freya O'Loughlin Sommanikhone Phangmanixay Kongkham Sisouk Viengvaly Phommanivong Onevanh Phiahouaphanh Salwa AlEryani Hendrikus Raajimakers Amy Gray Source Type: research

Bullous Scabies: Clinical, Dermoscopic, and Pathologic Characteristics of 10 Patients
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210516. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0516. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBullous scabies (BS) is a rare atypical clinical variant of scabies and is easily confused with bullous disorders. The diagnosis of BS is always a challenge, and physicians often misdiagnose BS patients. Patients with BS admitted from 2012 to 2020 were enrolled in this study. The clinical, dermoscopic, and pathological characteristics of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Ten patients with BS were enrolled in this study. Seven of the 10 patients were male. The bullae were most commonly found on the thighs and arms (...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Feng-Zeng Li Meng Jia Ke-Jun Chen Qian Ye Sheng Fang Source Type: research

Bite Injuries among Vaccination Staff Participating in a Mass Canine Rabies Vaccination Campaign, Haiti 2016-2017
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210241. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0241. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTElimination of dog-transmitted human rabies worldwide will require large-scale dog vaccination campaigns. However, this places participating vaccinators at increased risk. Data from the 2016-2017 Haitian mass rabies vaccination campaign was analyzed to determine dog bite incidence among vaccinators. A survey was then developed for completion by all identifiable bitten vaccinators covering demographics; experience and training; bite episode details; attitudes toward dogs and rabies; and medical care. A parallel group of unbit...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rudy T Kirkhope Andrew D Gibson Pierre Dilius Augustin Kelly Crowdis Natael F énelon Ewan T MacLeod Marco A N Vigilato Emily G Pieracci Ryan M Wallace Source Type: research

Learning-by-Teaching Approach Improves Dengue Knowledge in Children and Parents
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210253. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0253. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is narrow evidence on which strategies are most effective for disseminating information on dengue prevention. This is particularly relevant because social habits have a great prevention capacity for dengue. We investigated how effective are children as health educators, and how much they learn as they teach. We recruited 142 children and 97 parents in Argentina's tropical area for two cluster randomized parallel trials. In Study 1, we compared the dynamics of dengue knowledge of 10-year-old children who-after receiving...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Julia Hermida Agust ín Perez Santangelo Cecilia In és Calero Carolina Goizueta Manuel Espinosa Mariano Sigman Source Type: research

Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Investigation of Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Resistance
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210214. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0214. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRoutine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored. The primary...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leah F Moriarty Papy Mandoko Nkoli Joris Losimba Likwela Patrick Mitashi Mulopo Eric Mukomena Sompwe Junior Matangila Rika Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko Samaly S Svigel Sam Jones Nsengi Y Ntamabyaliro Albert Kutekemeni Kaputu Naomi Lucchi Gireesh Subramaniam Ma Source Type: research

Case Report: Fatal Viscerotropic Disease in a Young Woman Following Yellow Fever Vaccination
We report the case of a young woman with an unusual presentation of yellow fever 17DD vaccine-associated acute viscerotropic disease, with severe hepatic impairment following a long incubation period. She died more than a month after yellow fever vaccination.PMID:34491221 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0235 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mari ângela Ottoboni Brunaldi Ren é Julias Costa Silva Alexandre Todorovic Fabro Daniel Cardoso de Almeida E Araujo Anibal Basile-Filho Maria Auxiliadora-Martins Mayra Gon çalves Menegueti Maria Isabel Beloddi Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito Benedito Ant Source Type: research

Pediatric Hospital Medicine and Global Health: A Fitting Niche for an Emerging Subspecialty
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd201201. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1201. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs North American hospitals serve increasingly diverse patient populations, including recent immigrants, refugees, and returned travelers, all pediatric hospitalists (PHs) require foundational competency in global health, and a subset of PHs are carving out niches focused in global health. Pediatric hospitalists are uniquely positioned to collaborate with low- and middle-income country clinicians and child health advocates to improve the health of hospitalized children worldwide. Using the 2018 WHO standards for improving th...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heather Haq Amy R L Rule Alexandra Coria Lineo K Thahane Regina M Duperval Adelaide Barnes Tania Condurache Kathy Ferrer Michelle J Shenoy Joanne Mendoza Christiana M Russ Source Type: research

IgG Subclasses and Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease
In this study, we evaluated the role of IgG subclasses in the congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a case-control study in a public maternity hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, enrolling women at delivery. Thirty women who transmitted T. cruzi to their newborns (cases), and 51 women who did not (controls) were randomly selected from 676 total seropositive women. Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 levels were measured by in-house ELISA. The IgG4 levels were unmeasurable as a result of low levels in all participants. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results and demographic factors were als...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cristian Roca Edith S M álaga-Machaca Manuela R Verastegui Billy Scola Edward Valencia-Ayala Maria Del Carmen Mendui ña Sassan Noazin Natalie M Bowman Freddy Tinajeros Robert H Gilman Working Group of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia and Peru Source Type: research

Case Report: Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis with Multi-Organ Involvement Presented with Intussusception
We describe a 23-month-old immunocompetent boy from a subtropical area in Iran who presented with intussusception. Prolonged fever, an abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and peripheral eosinophilia strongly suggested GIB. Accordingly, GIB was diagnosed based on the characteristic histopathology (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon) detected in a liver sample taken via biopsy. Exploratory laparotomy showed several organs, including the colon, gall bladder, liver, and abdominal wall, were involved. Antifungal therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, liposomal amphotericin B, a saturated soluti...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zahra Jafarpour Gholamreza Pouladfar Alireza Dehghan Mohammad Hossein Anbardar Hamid Reza Foroutan Source Type: research

Field Efficacy of Larvivorous Fish and Pyriproxyfen Combined with Community Engagement on Dengue Vectors in Cambodia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd201088. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1088. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEvidence on the effectiveness of low-cost, sustainable biological vector control tools for Aedes mosquitoes is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this trial was to estimate the impact of guppy fish in combination with the larvicide pyriproxyfen (PPF) (Sumilarv® 2MR) and communication for behavioral impact (COMBI) activities to reduce entomological indices in Cambodia. In this cluster randomized, controlled superiority trial, 30 clusters comprised of one or more villages each was allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive eith...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John Christian Hustedt Dyna Doum Vanney Keo Sokha Ly BunLeng Sam Vibol Chan Neal Alexander John Bradley Marco Liverani Didot Budi Prasetyo Agus Rachmat Muhammad Shafique Sergio Lopes Leang Rithea Jeffrey Hii Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Unsuccessful Outcomes of Tuberculosis Treatment in 125 Municipalities in Colombia 2014 to 2016
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd201063. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1063. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOur aim was to identify the risk factors associated with unsuccessful outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 in the 125 municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia. We studied a retrospective cohort of patients with TB diagnosed between 2014 and 2016, from national routine surveillance systems, in 125 municipalities of Antioquia. Factors associated with unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcomes (treatment failed, lost to follow up, or death) were identified utilizing a Poisson regres...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lizeth Andrea Paniagua-Saldarriaga Daniele Maria Pelissari Zulma Vanessa Rueda Source Type: research

An Adaptive Intervention Trial Design for Finding the Optimal Integrated Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination in Africa: A Model Simulation Study
This study provides a new pathway for informing the optimal integrated malaria vector interventions, and the new strategy can be tested in field trials.PMID:34491227 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0254 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guofa Zhou Ming-Chieh Lee Xiaoming Wang Daibin Zhong Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder Guiyun Yan Source Type: research

Intraspecific and Interspecific Phenotypic Differences Confirm the Absence of Cryptic Speciation in Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera, Triatominae)
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210323. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0323. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTriatoma sordida is an endemic Chagas disease vector in South America, distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Chromosomal, molecular, isoenzimatic, and cuticular hydrocarbon pattern studies indicate cryptic speciation in T. sordida. Recently, T. rosai was described from specimens from Argentina initially characterized as T. sordida. Although several authors assume that the speciation process that supports this differentiation in T. sordida is the result of cryptic speciation, further morphological and/or morp...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ariane Cristina Caris Garcia Jader de Oliveira Daniel Cesaretto Cristal Luiza Maria Grzyb Delgado Isadora de Freitas Bittinelli Cleber Galv ão Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez Britez Hern án José Carrasco Jo ão Aristeu da Rosa Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Evidence on the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Screen-and-Treat Interventions for Malaria Control
This study systematically synthesized the existing evidence on MSAT, from both epidemiological and economic perspectives. Searches were conducted on six databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINALH, Web of Science, Global Health, and Google Scholar) between October and December 2020. Only experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of MSAT in reducing malaria prevalence or incidence were included. Of the 2,424 citation hits, 14 studies based on 11 intervention trials were eligible. Eight trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and three trials in Asia. While five trials target...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sooyoung Kim Verah Nafula Luande Joacim Rockl öv Jane M Carlton Yesim Tozan Source Type: research

Are Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies For Malaria Beginning To Fail in Africa?
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210797. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0797. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34491214 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0797 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philip J Rosenthal Source Type: research

An Exploration of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Physicians toward Pharmacovigilance at Tertiary Care Hospitals in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210336. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0336. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDrug safety assures the effectiveness, safety, and security of drugs, vaccines, and other biologicals to protect public health. Medication-related errors coupled with unjudicial medication practices often cause a catastrophic impact on the healthcare system globally. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of physicians toward pharmacovigilance and barriers to adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting at tertiary care hospitals in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sec...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhammad Junaid Hassan Sharif Ghulam Murtaza Zelal Kharaba Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim Mohammad Ismail Abdul Mannan Manal Buabeid Xianju Huang Shujaat Ali Khan Khezar Hayat Source Type: research

Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness Training in Lao PDR: A Pilot Study of an Adaptable Approach to Training and Supervision
This study highlights the importance of a focus on education to ensure the translation of guidelines into practice and thereby lead to improvements in the quality of pediatric care. The IMNCI training approach is acceptable and valued by healthcare worker participants.PMID:34491216 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0544 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Freya O'Loughlin Sommanikhone Phangmanixay Kongkham Sisouk Viengvaly Phommanivong Onevanh Phiahouaphanh Salwa AlEryani Hendrikus Raajimakers Amy Gray Source Type: research

Bullous Scabies: Clinical, Dermoscopic, and Pathologic Characteristics of 10 Patients
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210516. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0516. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBullous scabies (BS) is a rare atypical clinical variant of scabies and is easily confused with bullous disorders. The diagnosis of BS is always a challenge, and physicians often misdiagnose BS patients. Patients with BS admitted from 2012 to 2020 were enrolled in this study. The clinical, dermoscopic, and pathological characteristics of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Ten patients with BS were enrolled in this study. Seven of the 10 patients were male. The bullae were most commonly found on the thighs and arms (...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - September 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Feng-Zeng Li Meng Jia Ke-Jun Chen Qian Ye Sheng Fang Source Type: research