Real-Time Fluorimetry Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis and as a Tool for Assessment of Cure for Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis
In this study, a real-time fluorimetry loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay has been established for the detection of different clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis. The study included 150 leishmaniasis patients (25 VL, 25 cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL], and 100-PKDL) along with 120 controls. The assay demonstrated sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 86.68-100) for diagnosis of VL and PKDL (95% CI: 79.61-100) and 96% (95% CI: 86.68-100) for CL with 100% specificity. Moreover, considering the cardinal role of PKDL, diagnosis using minimally invasive slit aspirate was explored, which demonstrated remarkable sens...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Keerti Kaumudee Dixit V Ramesh Ratan Gupta Narendra Singh Negi Ruchi Singh Poonam Salotra Source Type: research

Prevalence of Diabetes, Prediabetes, and Associated Risk Factors Among Agricultural Village Residents in the Dominican Republic
This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes among residents of agricultural settlement villages (bateyes) in the Dominican Republic. From March to April 2016, a cross-sectional, multi-stage cluster survey was conducted across the country's three agricultural regions (southwest, east, and north). At selected households, an adult completed a questionnaire to assess demographics, diabetes knowledge, and care, and two household residents of any age provided finger-prick blood samples that were analyzed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). HbA1c was categorized as normal (
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Valery E Madsen Beau De Rochars Hunter Keys Shenae K Samuels Ara Jo Gregory S Noland Manuel Gonzales Stephen Blount Arch G Mainous Source Type: research

Gut Microbiome Changes with Acute Diarrheal Disease in Urban Versus Rural Settings in Northern Ecuador
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd200831. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0831. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious studies have reported lower fecal bacterial diversity in urban populations compared with those living in rural settings. However, most of these studies compare geographically distant populations from different countries and even continents. The extent of differences in the gut microbiome in adjacent rural versus urban populations, and the role of such differences, if any, during enteric infections remain poorly understood. To provide new insights into these issues, we sampled the gut microbiome of young children wi...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria J Soto-Gir ón Angela Pe ña-Gonzalez Janet K Hatt Lorena Montero Maritza P áez Estefania Ortega Shanon Smith William Cevallos Gabriel Trueba Konstantinos T Konstantinidis Karen Levy Source Type: research

Omics Tools Applied to the Study of Chagas Disease Vectors: Cytogenomics and Genomics
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd201047. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1047. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTChagas disease is an illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that is distributed in 21 countries of Latin America. The main way of transmission of T. cruzi is through the feces of triatomines (Hemiptera and Triatominae) infected with the parasite. With technological advances came new technologies called omics. In the pre-genomic era, the omics science was based on cytogenomic studies of triatomines. With the Rhodnius prolixus genome sequencing project, new omics tools were applied to understand the organism at a s...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kelly Cristine Borsatto Monika Aparecida Coronado Raghuvir Krishnaswamy Arni Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi Source Type: research

Detecting Malaria Hotspots in Haiti, a Low-Transmission Setting
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd200465. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0465. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn 2006, Haiti committed to malaria elimination when the transmission was thought to be low, but before robust national parasite prevalence estimates were available. In 2011, the first national population-based survey confirmed the national malaria parasite prevalence was
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amber M Dismer Jean Frantz Lemoine M érilien Jean Baptiste Kimberly E Mace Daniel Impoinvil Jodi Vanden Eng Michelle A Chang Source Type: research

Trainee Perspectives Regarding Advanced Clinical Global Health Fellowships in North America
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd201589. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1589. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPostgraduate clinical global health (GH) training is a rapidly evolving field. To understand and improve training opportunities, we sought the perspectives of current and former trainees related to their advanced clinical training or global health fellowships and the anticipated impact on their careers. Clinical GH fellowships across North America were identified through websites and previous studies. An e-mail was sent to program directors to invite all current and former GH fellows to complete a web-based questionnaire. W...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Adam Frange Sean Duffy Tala Al-Rousan Ann Evensen Brett D Nelson Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome in Human Leptospirosis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd201000. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1000. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBased on a previous study and by incorporating new knowledge, the goal of our study was to understand more fully the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic pneumonia of severe human leptospirosis, highlighting the onset of capillary lesions by Leptospira itself and/or its antigenic/toxic products acting on the endothelium and binding to cadherins. Both events lead to loss of endothelial integrity, alter permeability, cause rupture, and open intercellular junctions, contributing to the hemorrhagic phenomena associated with severe lepto...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antonio C Nicodemo Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto Source Type: research

Parenteral Vaccination with a Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Boosts Vibriocidal and Anti-OSP Responses in Mice Previously Immunized with an Oral Cholera Vaccine
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd201511. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1511. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOral cholera vaccination protects against cholera; however, responses in young children are low and of short duration. The best current correlates of protection against cholera target Vibrio cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (anti-OSP), including vibriocidal responses. A cholera conjugate vaccine has been developed that induces anti-OSP immune responses, including memory B-cell responses. To address whether cholera conjugate vaccine would boost immune responses following oral cholera vaccination, we immunized mice with ora...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aklima Akter Meagan Kelly Richelle C Charles Jason B Harris Stephen B Calderwood Taufiqur R Bhuiyan Rajib Biswas Peng Xu Pavol Kov áč Firdausi Qadri Edward T Ryan Source Type: research

Development of rSs-NIE-1 and rSs-IR Recombinant Antigen-Based Immunoblot for Detection of Antibody to Strongyloides stercoralis
In conclusion, the biplex rSs-NIE-1 and rSs-IR immunoblot performs well in detecting IgG4 antibody in S. stercoralis-infected persons.PMID:33872212 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1539 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Joelma Nascimento de Souza I'Isha Langford Yongang Wang Neci Matos Soares Sukwan Handali Source Type: research

Case Report: Fulminant Infantile Beriberi: A Report of Six Cases
We report six thriving infants who presented with an acute fulminant illness with varied clinical manifestations mimicking common childhood illnesses like pneumonia and sepsis. Four of them presented with the severe cardiovascular form, called Shoshin beriberi, and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Empirical intravenous thiamine administered to four of the six infants resulted in dramatic recovery. Awareness of the clinical definition of infantile beriberi and treatment with empirical thiamine can be lifesaving.PMID:33872213 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0881 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Madhusudan Samprathi Faisal Mohammad Sridhar M Prakash Ramachandra Prakash Vemgal Source Type: research

Complexities of Zika Diagnosis and Evaluation in a U.S. Congenital Zika Program
The objective of the study was to describe the complexity of diagnosis and evaluation of Zika-exposed pregnant women/fetuses and infants in a U.S. Congenital Zika Program. Pregnant women/fetuses and/or infants referred for clinical evaluation to the Congenital Zika Program at Children's National (Washington, DC) from January 2016 to June 2018 were included. We recorded the timing of maternal Zika-virus (ZIKV) exposure and ZIKV laboratory testing results. Based on laboratory testing, cases were either confirmed, possible, or unlikely ZIKV infection. Prenatal and postnatal imaging by ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imag...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah B Mulkey Emily Ansusinha Caitlin Cristante Stephanie M Russo Cara Biddle Youssef A Kousa Lindsay Pesacreta Barbara Jantausch Benjamin Hanisch Nada Harik Rana F Hamdy Andrea Hahn Taeun Chang Mohamad Jaafar Tracey Ambrose Gilbert Vezina Dorothy I Bula Source Type: research

Rapid Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (m-LAMP) Assay for Differential Diagnosis of Leprosy and Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 19:tpmd190313. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0313. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLeprosy and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) are co-endemic neglected tropical diseases often misdiagnosed because of close resemblance in their clinical manifestations. The test that aids in differential diagnosis of leprosy and PKDL would be useful in endemic areas. Here, we report development of a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) assay for differential detection of Mycobacterium leprae and Leishmania donovani using a real-time fluorometer. The m-LAMP assay was rapid with a mean amplific...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shweta Joshi Keerti K Dixit Vanila Sharma V Ramesh Ruchi Singh Poonam Salotra Source Type: research

Ebola Outbreak amid COVID-19 in the Republic of Guinea: Priorities for Achieving Control
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd210228. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn February 2021, a new Ebola outbreak occurred amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. Technical committees and Ebola mitigation mechanisms used during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemics, have been redeployed by the public health organizations and African health organizations. As the burden on the local healthcare system is rising, fears of socioeconomic disruption are growing as well. Strategies used during the previous epidemic need to be reactivated, and new measures taken during the ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Christos Tsagkaris Shubhika Jain Shoaib Ahmad Mohammad Yasir Essar Emmanuel Adebowale Fajemisin Irem Adanur Olivier Uwishema Source Type: research

Major General (Ret) Philip King Russell
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd211932. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33852429 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Donald S Burke Scott Halstead Thomas P Monath Source Type: research

Ebola Outbreak amid COVID-19 in the Republic of Guinea: Priorities for Achieving Control
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd210228. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn February 2021, a new Ebola outbreak occurred amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. Technical committees and Ebola mitigation mechanisms used during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemics, have been redeployed by the public health organizations and African health organizations. As the burden on the local healthcare system is rising, fears of socioeconomic disruption are growing as well. Strategies used during the previous epidemic need to be reactivated, and new measures taken during the ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Christos Tsagkaris Shubhika Jain Shoaib Ahmad Mohammad Yasir Essar Emmanuel Adebowale Fajemisin Irem Adanur Olivier Uwishema Source Type: research

Major General (Ret) Philip King Russell
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd211932. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33852429 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Donald S Burke Scott Halstead Thomas P Monath Source Type: research

Ebola Outbreak amid COVID-19 in the Republic of Guinea: Priorities for Achieving Control
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd210228. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn February 2021, a new Ebola outbreak occurred amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. Technical committees and Ebola mitigation mechanisms used during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemics, have been redeployed by the public health organizations and African health organizations. As the burden on the local healthcare system is rising, fears of socioeconomic disruption are growing as well. Strategies used during the previous epidemic need to be reactivated, and new measures taken during the ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Christos Tsagkaris Shubhika Jain Shoaib Ahmad Mohammad Yasir Essar Emmanuel Adebowale Fajemisin Irem Adanur Olivier Uwishema Source Type: research

Major General (Ret) Philip King Russell
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd211932. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33852429 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Donald S Burke Scott Halstead Thomas P Monath Source Type: research

Ebola Outbreak amid COVID-19 in the Republic of Guinea: Priorities for Achieving Control
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd210228. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn February 2021, a new Ebola outbreak occurred amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. Technical committees and Ebola mitigation mechanisms used during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemics, have been redeployed by the public health organizations and African health organizations. As the burden on the local healthcare system is rising, fears of socioeconomic disruption are growing as well. Strategies used during the previous epidemic need to be reactivated, and new measures taken during the ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Christos Tsagkaris Shubhika Jain Shoaib Ahmad Mohammad Yasir Essar Emmanuel Adebowale Fajemisin Irem Adanur Olivier Uwishema Source Type: research

Major General (Ret) Philip King Russell
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd211932. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33852429 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Donald S Burke Scott Halstead Thomas P Monath Source Type: research

Analytical and Clinical Evaluation of Two RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic Tests with Emergency Use Authorization in Ecuador
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 5:tpmd201439. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1439. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDozens of RT-qPCR kits are available in the market for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, some of them with Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or at least by a responsible agency of their country of origin, but many of them lack proper evaluation studies because of COVID-19 pandemic emergency. We evaluated the clinical performance of two commercially available kits in South America, the 2019-nCoV kit (Da An Gene, Guangzhou, China) and GenomeCoV19 kit (ABM, Richmond, Canada), for RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel Alfredo Bruno Alberto Orlando Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain Source Type: research

Ensuring COVID-19 Vaccines for Migrant and Immigrant Farmworkers
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 13:tpmd210199. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0199. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMigrant and immigrant farmworkers are cornerstones to food security and production in many nations. In the United States, farmworkers have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Because they are considered essential workers, vaccines may be made imminently available to them and offer an opportunity to reduce these COVID-19-related impacts. It is essential for a successful vaccination campaign to address the unique challenges arising from this workforce's inherently mobile nature and limited access to healthcare. Prop...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christine M Thomas Amy K Liebman Alma Galv án Jonathan D Kirsch William M Stauffer Source Type: research

Analytical and Clinical Evaluation of Two RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic Tests with Emergency Use Authorization in Ecuador
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 5:tpmd201439. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1439. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDozens of RT-qPCR kits are available in the market for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, some of them with Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or at least by a responsible agency of their country of origin, but many of them lack proper evaluation studies because of COVID-19 pandemic emergency. We evaluated the clinical performance of two commercially available kits in South America, the 2019-nCoV kit (Da An Gene, Guangzhou, China) and GenomeCoV19 kit (ABM, Richmond, Canada), for RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel Alfredo Bruno Alberto Orlando Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain Source Type: research

Ensuring COVID-19 Vaccines for Migrant and Immigrant Farmworkers
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 13:tpmd210199. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0199. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMigrant and immigrant farmworkers are cornerstones to food security and production in many nations. In the United States, farmworkers have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Because they are considered essential workers, vaccines may be made imminently available to them and offer an opportunity to reduce these COVID-19-related impacts. It is essential for a successful vaccination campaign to address the unique challenges arising from this workforce's inherently mobile nature and limited access to healthcare. Prop...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christine M Thomas Amy K Liebman Alma Galv án Jonathan D Kirsch William M Stauffer Source Type: research

Case Report: Atypical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Two Cases from Northwest Ethiopia
We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. The first case was an HIV-infected patient with scrotal and penile involvement. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen and the scrotum. The second case was an immunocompetent individual with esophageal, laryngeal, and pharyngeal involvement and facial lesions. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen, skin, and esophageal biopsies. Current evidence suggests atypical presentation can occur in patients irrespective of their ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rezika Mohammed Helina Fikre Tigist Mekonnen Bewketu Abebe Arega Yeshanew Ermias Diro Johan van Griensven Source Type: research

Statistical Regression Model of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene; Treatment Coverage; and Environmental Influences on School-Level Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosome Prevalence in Kenya: Secondary Analysis of the National Deworming Program Data
In this study, we aimed to determine the factors associated with the 5-year school-level infection prevalence and relative reduction (RR) in prevalence in Kenya following the implementation of the program. Multiple variables related to treatment, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors were assembled and included in mixed-effects linear regression models to identify key determinants of the school location STH and schistosomiasis prevalence and RR. Reduced prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with low (
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Collins Okoyo Suzy J Campbell Chrispin Owaga Nelson Owuor Graham Medley Charles Mwandawiro Source Type: research

Diphyllobothriasis from Eating Sushi
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd210105. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33844646 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuya Ando Yosuke Ono Sachiko Ono Source Type: research

Cyclone Idai as a Trigger for Pellagra Outbreak in Nhamatanda, Mozambique: A Case-Control Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201321. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1321. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mid-June 2019, 3 months after cyclone Idai landfall in Mozambique, health authorities of Nhamatanda district reported an outbreak of Pellagra. Applying a mixed-method protocol, we carried out an investigation to characterize cases of pellagra, identify the associated factors for the outbreak using a case-control study, and explore the perceived impact on food security (availability, access, and usage) before and after Idai. We collected data from 121 cases and 121 controls and conducted in-depth interviews with 69 heads ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: V ánio André Mugabe Arlete Mahumane Cynthia Sem á Érika Valeska Rossetto Cresc êncio Sequeira Nhabomba Neusa Fataha Unicia Nyamula Ang élica Sotomane Wilson Irugula Benigno Canze Osvaldo Frederico Inlamea Uriel Kitron Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro Eduardo Source Type: research

Mobilizing a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Workforce at Warp Speed: A Framework for Successful Program Implementation
We describe the early experience in the City and County of San Francisco, where contact tracing capability was rapidly expanded to respond to COVID-19. Important prerequisites to scale up included rapid expansion of the COVID-19 contact tracing workforce, a comprehensive training and onboarding program, and the institution of effective performance management metrics. The San Francisco model for contact tracing, including focusing on rigorous training, recruiting, and partnering with community-based organizations from diverse, affected communities, is an inclusive approach relevant to other jurisdictions and settings.PMID:3...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jessica Celentano Darpun Sachdev Mivic Hirose Alexandra Ernst Michael Reid Source Type: research

Candidatus Dirofilaria Hongkongensis Infections in Humans During 2005 to 2020, in Kerala, India
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201521. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1521. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe tried to determine the epidemiology and species of human dirofilariasis observed at two tertiary care hospitals in Kerala. We searched the hospital database to identify cases of dirofilariosis from January 2005 to March 2020. Along with human isolates, one dog Dirofilaria isolate was also subjected to PCR and sequencing of pan filarial primers cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 12S rDNA. We documented 78 cases of human dirofilariosis. The orbit, eyelid, and conjunctiva were the most commonly affected sites. Molecular char...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anil Kumar Ani Sreedhar Lalitha Biswas Sarga Prabhat Parasmal Suresh Anisha Asokan Rita Mary Tomy Vivek Vinod Bindu Lakshmanan Ajit Nambiar Raja Biswas Source Type: research

House Structure Is Associated with Malaria among Febrile Patients in a High-Transmission Region of Zambia
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201378. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1378. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSince the late nineteenth century, the importance of house structure as a determinant of malaria risk has been recognized. Few studies to date have examined the association of housing and malaria in clinical populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of febrile patients (n = 282) at two rural health clinics in a high malaria-transmission area of northern Zambia. Participants underwent testing for Plasmodium falciparum infection by PCR. Demographic and other risk factors including house structure, indoor residual spra...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jay Sikalima Jessica L Schue Sarah E Hill Modest Mulenga Ray Handema Victor Daka Justin Chileshe Webster Kasongo Mike Chaponda Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya William J Moss Matthew M Ippolito Southern and Central Africa International Centers of Excellence for Source Type: research

Case Report: Atypical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Two Cases from Northwest Ethiopia
We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. The first case was an HIV-infected patient with scrotal and penile involvement. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen and the scrotum. The second case was an immunocompetent individual with esophageal, laryngeal, and pharyngeal involvement and facial lesions. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen, skin, and esophageal biopsies. Current evidence suggests atypical presentation can occur in patients irrespective of their ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rezika Mohammed Helina Fikre Tigist Mekonnen Bewketu Abebe Arega Yeshanew Ermias Diro Johan van Griensven Source Type: research

Statistical Regression Model of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene; Treatment Coverage; and Environmental Influences on School-Level Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosome Prevalence in Kenya: Secondary Analysis of the National Deworming Program Data
In this study, we aimed to determine the factors associated with the 5-year school-level infection prevalence and relative reduction (RR) in prevalence in Kenya following the implementation of the program. Multiple variables related to treatment, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors were assembled and included in mixed-effects linear regression models to identify key determinants of the school location STH and schistosomiasis prevalence and RR. Reduced prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with low (
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Collins Okoyo Suzy J Campbell Chrispin Owaga Nelson Owuor Graham Medley Charles Mwandawiro Source Type: research

Diphyllobothriasis from Eating Sushi
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd210105. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33844646 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuya Ando Yosuke Ono Sachiko Ono Source Type: research

Cyclone Idai as a Trigger for Pellagra Outbreak in Nhamatanda, Mozambique: A Case-Control Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201321. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1321. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mid-June 2019, 3 months after cyclone Idai landfall in Mozambique, health authorities of Nhamatanda district reported an outbreak of Pellagra. Applying a mixed-method protocol, we carried out an investigation to characterize cases of pellagra, identify the associated factors for the outbreak using a case-control study, and explore the perceived impact on food security (availability, access, and usage) before and after Idai. We collected data from 121 cases and 121 controls and conducted in-depth interviews with 69 heads ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: V ánio André Mugabe Arlete Mahumane Cynthia Sem á Érika Valeska Rossetto Cresc êncio Sequeira Nhabomba Neusa Fataha Unicia Nyamula Ang élica Sotomane Wilson Irugula Benigno Canze Osvaldo Frederico Inlamea Uriel Kitron Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro Eduardo Source Type: research

Mobilizing a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Workforce at Warp Speed: A Framework for Successful Program Implementation
We describe the early experience in the City and County of San Francisco, where contact tracing capability was rapidly expanded to respond to COVID-19. Important prerequisites to scale up included rapid expansion of the COVID-19 contact tracing workforce, a comprehensive training and onboarding program, and the institution of effective performance management metrics. The San Francisco model for contact tracing, including focusing on rigorous training, recruiting, and partnering with community-based organizations from diverse, affected communities, is an inclusive approach relevant to other jurisdictions and settings.PMID:3...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jessica Celentano Darpun Sachdev Mivic Hirose Alexandra Ernst Michael Reid Source Type: research

Candidatus Dirofilaria Hongkongensis Infections in Humans During 2005 to 2020, in Kerala, India
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201521. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1521. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe tried to determine the epidemiology and species of human dirofilariasis observed at two tertiary care hospitals in Kerala. We searched the hospital database to identify cases of dirofilariosis from January 2005 to March 2020. Along with human isolates, one dog Dirofilaria isolate was also subjected to PCR and sequencing of pan filarial primers cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 12S rDNA. We documented 78 cases of human dirofilariosis. The orbit, eyelid, and conjunctiva were the most commonly affected sites. Molecular char...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anil Kumar Ani Sreedhar Lalitha Biswas Sarga Prabhat Parasmal Suresh Anisha Asokan Rita Mary Tomy Vivek Vinod Bindu Lakshmanan Ajit Nambiar Raja Biswas Source Type: research

House Structure Is Associated with Malaria among Febrile Patients in a High-Transmission Region of Zambia
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201378. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1378. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSince the late nineteenth century, the importance of house structure as a determinant of malaria risk has been recognized. Few studies to date have examined the association of housing and malaria in clinical populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of febrile patients (n = 282) at two rural health clinics in a high malaria-transmission area of northern Zambia. Participants underwent testing for Plasmodium falciparum infection by PCR. Demographic and other risk factors including house structure, indoor residual spra...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jay Sikalima Jessica L Schue Sarah E Hill Modest Mulenga Ray Handema Victor Daka Justin Chileshe Webster Kasongo Mike Chaponda Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya William J Moss Matthew M Ippolito Southern and Central Africa International Centers of Excellence for Source Type: research

The Heavy Toll of COVID-19 in Bolivia: A Tale of Distrust, Despair, and Health Inequalities
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 9:tpmd210097. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33835944 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: V íctor Villarroel Saavedra M ónica Arebalo López Nicol ás Dauby Source Type: research

The Heavy Toll of COVID-19 in Bolivia: A Tale of Distrust, Despair, and Health Inequalities
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 9:tpmd210097. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33835944 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: V íctor Villarroel Saavedra M ónica Arebalo López Nicol ás Dauby Source Type: research

The Heavy Toll of COVID-19 in Bolivia: A Tale of Distrust, Despair, and Health Inequalities
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 9:tpmd210097. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33835944 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: V íctor Villarroel Saavedra M ónica Arebalo López Nicol ás Dauby Source Type: research

Mosquito Net Ownership, Utilization, and Preferences among Mobile and Migrant Populations Sleeping in Forests and Farms in Central Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200711. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0711. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStrengthening vector control measures among mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) is crucial to malaria elimination, particularly in areas with multidrug-resistant malaria. Although a global priority, providing access and ensuring high coverage of available tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among these vulnerable groups remains a significant challenge. We assessed mosquito net ownership, utilization, and preference among individuals who slept in a forest and/or on a farm against those residing only in vill...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sara E Canavati Gerard C Kelly Thuan Huu Vo Long Khanh Tran Thang Duc Ngo Duong Thanh Tran Kimberly A Edgel Nicholas J Martin Source Type: research

Enhanced IL-6 and IL-12B Gene Expression After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Leprosy Patients May Increase the Risk of Neural Damage
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210034. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0034. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExperts have called attention to the possible negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related cytokine storm syndrome on the progression of leprosy-related disabilities. We assessed the frequency of reactional states in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium leprae and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We consecutively included patients during the first peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and analyzed the expressions of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, ...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gilberto Santos Morais Junior Patr ícia Shu Kurizky Selma Regina Penha Silva Cerqueira Daniel Holanda Barroso Heidi Luise Schulte Cleandro Pires de Albuquerque Eliana Teles de Gois Laila Salmen Espindola Jaime Martins Santana Izabela Marques Dourado Bast Source Type: research

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Crystal VC-O1 Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201280. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1280. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholera is a severe acute, highly transmissible diarrheal disease which affects many low- and middle-income countries. Outbreaks of cholera are confirmed using microbiological culture, and additional cases during the outbreak are generally identified based on clinical case definitions, rather than laboratory confirmation. Many low-resource areas where cholera occurs lack the capacity to perform culture in an expeditious manner. A simple, reliable, and low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) would improve identification of cases...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amanda K Debes Kelsey N Murt Ethyl Waswa Gerald Githinji Mama Umuro Caroline Mbogori Mellisa Roskosky Malathi Ram Allison Shaffer David A Sack Waqo Boru Source Type: research

Impact of Testing on Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Brothel Sex Workers in Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200942. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0942. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPast studies that have designed interventions to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have typically provided onsite treatment to sex workers who tested positive, which were expensive and difficult to implement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention which tested for STIs and provided information on the closest treatment facility on reducing the prevalence of STIs among female brothel-based sex workers (BSWs) in Bangladesh. The study adopted a pre-post interventional...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Asad Islam HongQi Alexis Tan Claire C Bristow Md Golam Hasnain Russell Smyth Liang Choon Wang Source Type: research

Case Report: A New Mycobacterium ulcerans Genotype Causing Buruli Ulcer in C ôte d'Ivoire
We report one case of Buruli ulcer in a peri-urban area in Côte d'Ivoire, confirmed by whole genome sequencing which indicated a M. ulcerans genotype previously unreported in Côte d'Ivoire.PMID:33819173 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1307 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Bahadoran Nassim Hammoudi Alice Gaudart Jamal Saad Yoan Di Filippo Michel Drancourt Raymond Ruimy Source Type: research

Case Report: Recent Case Reports of Levant Blunt-Nosed Viper Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snakebites in Iran
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201640. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1640. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEnvenomation and death resulting from snakebites represent a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The WHO has defined snakebite as a neglected tropical health concern. Bites from Macrovipera lebetina obtusa usually cause life-threatening systemic hemodynamic disturbances, reduced functionality of the kidneys, and other serious symptoms, including hypotension shock, edema, and tissue necrosis, at the bite site. Herein, we highlight five cases of M. l. obtusa envenomati...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seyed Mahdi Kazemi Ahmed Al-Sabi Chengbo Long Mahmoud I Shoulkamy Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz Source Type: research

Nonparametric Binary Classification to Distinguish Closely Related versus Unrelated P. Falciparum Parasites
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210117. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0117. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAssessing genetic relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum genotypes is a key component of antimalarial efficacy trials. Previous methods have focused on determining a priori definitions of the level of genetic similarity sufficient to classify two infections as sharing the same strain. However, factors such as mixed-strain infections, allelic suppression, imprecise typing methods, and heterozygosity complicate comparisons of apicomplexan genotypes. Here, we introduce a novel method for nonparametric statistical testing of relat...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mateusz M Plucinski Joel L N Barratt Source Type: research

Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia Complicated by Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, and Pneumoperitoneum
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210092. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0092. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33819176 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0092 (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ashraf O E Ahmed Mouhand F H Mohamed Khalid Ahmed Source Type: research

Rapid Screening for Non-falciparum Malaria in Elimination Settings Using Multiplex Antigen and Antibody Detection: Post Hoc Identification of Plasmodium malariae in an Infant in Haiti
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201450. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1450. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHaiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk fact...
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lotus L van den Hoogen Camelia Herman Jacquelin Pr ésumé Ithamare Romilus Gina Mond élus Tamara Elism é Alexandre Existe Jacques Boncy Vena Joseph Gillian Stresman Kevin K A Tetteh Chris Drakeley Michelle A Chang Jean F Lemoine Thomas P Eisele Eric Ro Source Type: research