A Critical Enquiry into Variability of Insecticidal Net Use in Cambodia: Implications for Assessing Appropriateness of Malaria Elimination Interventions.
Abstract Distributing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to individuals living in malaria-endemic regions is a cornerstone of global malaria control. National malaria control programs aim to achieve "universal coverage" of at-risk populations to reach LLINs' full potential to reduce malaria, progress of which is then measured by indicators constructed from standardized questionnaires. Through an exploration of variability in LLIN use in Cambodia, we argue that indicators of universal coverage of LLINs are not sufficiently commensurate with the realities they are intended to measure, limiting the suit...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gryseels C, Bannister-Tyrrell M, Uk S, Set S, Sokha S, Gerrets R, Peeters Grietens K Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Prospective Study on the Impact and Out-of-Pocket Costs of Dengue Illness in International Travelers.
This study is the first to date to investigate the impact and out-of-pocket costs of travel-related dengue illness from the patient's perspective and paves the way for future economic burden studies in this population. PMID: 30994088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tozan Y, Headley TY, Sewe MO, Schwartz E, Shemesh T, Cramer JP, Eberhardt KA, Ramharter M, Harrison N, Leder K, Angheben A, Hatz C, Neumayr A, Chen LH, De Pijper CA, Grobusch MP, Wilder-Smith A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Multilevel Analysis of Factors Associated with Treatment-Seeking Behaviors among Caregivers with Febrile Children in Malawi.
This study examined individual- and community-level factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviors and promptness in these behaviors among caregivers of febrile under-five children in Malawi. The 2015-2016 Malawi Demographic Health Survey was used to analyze a nationally representative sample of 4,133 under-five children who had fever within 2 weeks before the survey. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to examine the association between individual- and community-level factors and treatment-seeking behaviors. Approximately 67.3% of the caregivers reported seeking treatment for their febrile child, whereas ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nkoka O, Chuang TW, Chen YH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Safety and Differential Antibody and T-Cell Responses to Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Vaccine by Age in Tanzanian Adults, Adolescents, Children, and Infants.
RA, Schindler T, Billingsley PF, Daubenberger C, Sim BKL, Tanner M, Richie TL, Abdulla S, Hoffman SL Abstract In 2016, there were more cases and deaths caused by malaria globally than in 2015. An effective vaccine would be an ideal additional tool for reducing malaria's impact. Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine, composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) has been well tolerated and safe in malaria-naïve and experienced adults in the United States and Mali and protective against controlled human malaria infection with Pf in the United States and fie...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jongo SA, Church LWP, Mtoro AT, Chakravarty S, Ruben AJ, Swanson PA, Kassim KR, Mpina M, Tumbo AM, Milando FA, Qassim M, Juma OA, Bakari BM, Simon B, James ER, Abebe Y, K C N, Saverino E, Gondwe L, Studer F, Fink M, Cosi G, El-Khorazaty J, Styers D, Seder Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Rural South African Community Perceptions of Antibiotic Access and Use: Qualitative Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site.
, Kinsman J Abstract Knowledge and practices of rural South African populations with regard to antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) remain understudied. By using the case of four villages in the north east of the country, our aim was to investigate popular notions and social practices related to antibiotic use to inform patient-level social interventions for appropriate antibiotic use. To achieve this, we investigated where community members (village residents) were accessing and sourcing medication, and what they understood antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) to be. Embedded within the multicountry ABACUS p...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anstey Watkins J, Wagner F, Xavier Gómez-Olivé F, Wertheim H, Sankoh O, Kinsman J Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Enhanced Mycobacterial Antigen-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Lymph Node Tuberculosis.
Abstract Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is characterized by the enhanced baseline and antigen-specific production of type 1/17 cytokines and reduced baseline and antigen-specific production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 at the site of infection when compared with peripheral blood. However, the cytokine profile in the lymph nodes (LNs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive LNTB (LNTB+) and negative LNTB (LNTB-) has not been examined. To address this, we have examined the baseline and mycobacterial antigen-stimulated cytokine levels of type 1 (interferon gamma [IFNγ], tumor necrosis factor alp...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kathamuthu GR, Moideen K, Sridhar R, Baskaran D, Babu S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Neonatal Sepsis Epidemiology in a Rural Province in Southeastern Cambodia, 2015-2017.
Abstract Neonatal sepsis is the second most prevalent cause of neonatal deaths in low- and middle-income countries, and many countries lack epidemiologic data on the local causes of neonatal sepsis. During April 2015-November 2016, we prospectively collected 128 blood cultures from neonates admitted with clinical sepsis to the provincial hospital in Takeo, Cambodia, to describe the local epidemiology. Two percent (n = 3) of positive blood cultures identified were Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and were presumed pathogens, whereas 10% (n = 13) of positive blood cultures identified were likely contaminants, consistent ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Labuda S, Te V, Var C, Iv Ek N, Seang S, Bazzano A, Oberhelman R Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Surface Waters in Urban Brazil Highlights the Risks of Poor Sanitation.
Abstract Surface waters are an unappreciated reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Poor sanitation brings different species of environmental bacteria into contact, facilitating horizontal gene transfer. To investigate the role of surface waters as potential reservoirs of AMR, we studied the point prevalence of fecal contamination, AMR genes, and Enterobacteriaceae in an urban lake and rural river system in Northeast Brazil in comparison with a lake and sewer system in Northeast Ohio in the United States. Surface water samples were examined for evidence of human fecal contamination using microbial source tra...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bartley PS, Domitrovic TN, Moretto VT, Santos CS, Ponce-Terashima R, Reis MG, Barbosa LM, Blanton RE, Bonomo RA, Perez F Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Direct from Blood/Plasma Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Dengue Virus Detection in Point-of-Care Settings.
In this study, we developed and validated a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of DENV adapted for use in field settings. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed directly from plasma samples without RNA extraction. The assay detected all four serotypes of DENV spiked into blood or plasma. Our RT-PCR does not cross-react with pathogens that cause symptoms that overlap with dengue infection. The test performed equally well in a conventional laboratory qPCR instrument and a small, low-cost portable instrument that can be used in a field setting. The lower limit of ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mehta N, Perrais B, Martin K, Kumar A, Hobman TC, Cabalfin-Chua MN, Donaldo ME, Siose Painaga MS, Gaite JY, Tran V, Kain KC, Hawkes MT, Yanow SK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Resurgence of Pertussis Infections in Shandong, China: Space-Time Cluster and Trend Analysis.
Abstract Although vaccination is effective in preventing infection, pertussis remains endemic worldwide, including China. To lead better targeted prevention strategies, we examined dynamics of spatial and temporal patterns of pertussis transmission in Shandong, China, from 2009 to 2017. We used space-time cluster analysis, logistic regression analysis, and regression tree model to detect the changes in spatial patterns of pertussis infections in Shandong Province, China, between periods (2009-2011, 2012-2014, and 2015-2017). The yearly pertussis incidence rates dramatically increased by 16.8 times from 2009 to 201...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zhang Y, Bambrick H, Mengersen K, Tong S, Feng L, Zhang L, Liu G, Xu A, Hu W Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Schistosoma mansoni Infection as a Predictor of Low Aerobic Capacity in Ugandan Children.
Abstract Using the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT) as a morbidity metric, we assessed whether Schistosoma mansoni infection was associated with decreased aerobic capacity in Ugandan children across a range of altitudes, either at low (∼600 m) or high (∼1,000 m) altitudes. A total of 305 children were recruited from six schools within the Buliisa District, Lake Albert, Uganda. A subset (n = 96) of these had been previously assessed and treated for schistosomiasis ± malaria 2 weeks prior. Fitness scores on the 20mSRT were translated into VO2max using a standardized equation. Unadjusted and multivar...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Smith C, McLachlan G, Al Shehri H, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Atuhaire A, Muheki Tukahebwa E, LaCourse EJ, Stanton M, Stothard JR, Bustinduy AL Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Investment Case for Malaria Elimination in Thailand: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.
This study examines the expected costs and benefits of funding the NMES (elimination scenario) versus not funding malaria elimination programming (resurgence scenario) from 2017 to 2036. Two case projection approaches were used to measure the number of malaria cases over the study period, combined with a set of Thailand-specific economic assumptions, to evaluate the cost of a malaria case and to quantify the cost-benefit ratio. Model A projects cases based on national historical case data using a log-normal regression and change-point analysis model. Model B projects cases based on periodic Yala Province-level outbreak cyc...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sudathip P, Kongkasuriyachai D, Stelmach R, Bisanzio D, Sine J, Sawang S, Kitchakam S, Sintasath D, Reithinger R Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Development and Initial Validation of a Frontline Health Worker mHealth Assessment Platform (MEDSINC ®) for Children 2-60 Months of Age.
In this study, we describe the development and initial validation testing of a mobile health (mHealth) platform, MEDSINC®, designed for frontline health workers (FLWs) to perform clinical risk assessments of children aged 2-60 months. MEDSINC is a web browser-based clinical severity assessment, triage, treatment, and follow-up recommendation platform developed with physician-based Bayesian pattern recognition logic. Initial validation, usability, and acceptability testing were performed on 861 children aged between 2 and 60 months by 49 FLWs in Burkina Faso, Ecuador, and Bangladesh. MEDSINC-based clinical assessments b...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Finette BA, McLaughlin M, Scarpino SV, Canning J, Grunauer M, Teran E, Bahamonde M, Quizhpe E, Shah R, Swedberg E, Rahman KA, Khondker H, Chakma I, Muhoza D, Seck A, Kabore A, Nibitanga S, Heath B Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Elevated Human Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Seroprevalence in Khashm el Girba, Eastern Sudan.
Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that can evolve into deadly hemorrhagic fever and that is endemic in many parts of Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa. Because of several reports about CCHF outbreaks in the south of Sudan during the last years, we examined in this study if unrecognized CCHF-V infections also occurred in the eastern and central parts of the country. The study examined the seroprevalence of CCHF virus infection in 464 sera from three regions of Sudan without previous reports of CCHF infection. The total CCHF virus seroprevalence was 2.6% (12 sera). T...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rahden P, Adam A, Mika A, Jassoy C Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Daily Variations in the Expression of Genes Related to Insecticide Resistance in the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).
In this study, the expression of the CPR gene at transcriptional level was determined in different tissues and two life stages. The expression patterns showed differences in the tissues and stages studied, suggesting differential metabolic requirements. On the other hand, to investigate the presence of rhythms in the expression of genes related with insecticide resistance, we explored the daily expression profile of the CPR gene and a P450 gene (CYP4EM7) in fat body from adults of T. infestans under different dark/light regimes. The results suggest that CPR gene expression is under endogenous clock regulation and show a rh...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Varela GM, Stroppa MM, García BA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Accuracy of vaginal Self-Sampling for Screening Human Papillomavirus Types in Women from Rural Areas in Senegal.
Abstract Vaginal self-sampling and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be useful tools for women with limited access to health care living in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of vaginal self-sampling and high-risk HPV prevalence in two villages of central Senegal, women were asked to self-sample vaginal swabs for HPV detection in May, 2016. Vaginal swabs were collected from 133 women and were tested for HPV genotyping. The acceptability rate of vaginal self-sampling was 98.5%, and 99.2% of the women (133/134) used the device correctly. The quality of self-sampling was satisfac...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fall NS, Tamalet C, Diagne N, Fenollar F, Raoult D, Sokhna C, Lagier JC Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Host Selection of Field-Collected Anopheles jeyporiensis and Anopheles nivipes in Bangladesh.
Abstract Anopheles jeyporiensis and Anopheles nivipes appear to play an important role in contemporary malaria transmission in Bangladesh. However, very little is known about the natural host selection of these vectors. Therefore, host selection of these two species was investigated in Bandarban, the most malarious region of Bangladesh. A total of 480 engorged mosquitoes were analyzed. The human blood index (HBI) of An. jeyporiensis varied from 4.17% in outdoor to 19.17% in indoor collections. Similarly, HBI of An. nivipes ranged between 0.83% and 22.50% from outdoor to indoor. For both species, cow blood indices ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Al-Amin HM, Kafi MAH, Chakma S, Mohon AN, Khan WA, Haque R, Sullivan DJ, Norris DE, Alam MS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Interactions between Parasitic Infections and the Human Gut Microbiome in Odisha, India.
This study revealed several bacterial taxa negatively associated with specific STH infections, including Lactobacillus and Lachnospiracaea. Our results also suggest that relative abundance of Lactobacillus is driven by the STH infection status more so than by the Plasmodium infection status. This study contributes to efforts to understand the effects of the microbiome on host susceptibility to parasitic infections in endemic communities. PMID: 30963988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Huwe T, Prusty BK, Ray A, Lee S, Ravindran B, Michael E Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Utilization of Small RNA Genes to Distinguish Vibrio cholerae Biotypes via Multiplex PCR.
Abstract The diarrheal disease "cholera" is caused by Vibrio cholerae, and is primarily confined to endemic regions, mostly in Africa and Asia. It is punctuated by outbreaks and creates severe challenges to public health. The disease-causing strains are most-often members of serogroups O1 and O139. PCR-based methods allow rapid diagnosis of these pathogens, including the identification of their biotypes. However, this necessitates the selection of specific target sequences to differentiate even the closely related biotypes of V. cholerae. Oligonucleotides for selective amplification of small RNA (sRNA) g...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ahmed SA, Raabe CA, Cheah HL, Hoe CH, Rozhdestvensky TS, Tang TH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Morbidity Associated with Chronic Strongyloides stercoralis Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Strongyloides stercoralis, a worldwide-distributed soil-transmitted helminth, causes chronic infection which may be life threatening. Limitations of diagnostic tests and nonspecificity of symptoms have hampered the estimation of the global morbidity due to strongyloidiasis. This work aimed at assessing S. stercoralis-associated morbidity through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature. MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, LILACS, and trial registries (WHO portal) were searched. The study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Odds ratios (ORs) of the association between symp...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tamarozzi F, Martello E, Giorli G, Fittipaldo A, Staffolani S, Montresor A, Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Universal Standard for Safe and Secure Work with Arthropod Vectors: The American Committee of Medical Entomology's Arthropod Containment Guidelines.
Abstract The Universal Standard for Safe and Secure Work with Arthropod Vectors: The American Committee of Medical Entomology's Arthropod Containment Guidelines. PMID: 30963991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Higgs S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Impacts of Hurricanes Irma and Maria on Aedes aegypti Populations, Aquatic Habitats, and Mosquito Infections with Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses in Puerto Rico.
me RR Abstract Puerto Rico was severely impacted by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in September 2017. The island has been endemic for dengue viruses (DENV) and recently suffered epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV 2014) and Zika (ZIKV 2016) viruses. Although severe storms tend to increase the number of vector and nuisance mosquitoes, we do not know how they influence Aedes aegypti populations and arboviral transmission. We compared the abundance of female Ae. aegypti in autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps), container habitats, and presence of RNA of DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV in this vector before and after the hurricanes in C...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Barrera R, Felix G, Acevedo V, Amador M, Rodriguez D, Rivera L, Gonzalez O, Nazario N, Ortiz M, Muñoz JL, Waterman S, Hemme RR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Testing the Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Borrelia recurrentis, the Agent of Relapsing Fever.
ola P Abstract In recent years, bed bugs have reappeared in greater numbers, more frequently, and are biting humans in many new geographic areas. Infestations by these hematophagous insects are rapidly increasing worldwide. Borrelia recurrentis, a spirochete bacterium, is the etiologic agent of louse-borne relapsing fever. The known vectors are body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus. However, previous studies have suggested that bed bugs might also be able to transmit this bacterium. Adult Cimex lectularius were artificially infected with a blood meal mixed with bacterial suspension of B. recurrentis. They were subs...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: El Hamzaoui B, Laroche M, Bechah Y, Bérenger JM, Parola P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Rickettsia and Leptospira Infection in Four Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru.
ds AL Abstract Rickettsia and Leptospira spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. Rickettsia species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR). We explored the antibody prevalence among humans for these two groups of rickettsiae in four regions of Peru (Lima, Cusco, Puerto Maldonado, and Tumbes) and for Leptospira spp. in Puerto Maldonado and Tumbes. We also assessed risk factors for seropositivity and collected serum samples and ectoparasites from peri-domestic animals from households in sites with high human seroprevalence. In ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Salmon-Mulanovich G, Simons MP, Flores-Mendoza C, Loyola S, Silva M, Kasper M, Rázuri HR, Canal LE, Leguia M, Bausch DG, Richards AL Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

To Really Know the Disease: Creating a Participatory Community Education Workshop about Taenia solium Focused on Physical, Economic, and Epidemiologic Evidence.
Abstract Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is a neglected disease that causes preventable epilepsy. We conducted an experiential learning workshop in northern Peru to educate community members on T. solium transmission and motivate participation in community-led prevention and control. The workshop included presentation of local economic and epidemiologic data, followed by hands-on participation in pig dissection, group discussion of the T. solium life cycle, and viewing of eggs and nascent tapeworms with light microscopes. Among heads of household, we used community survey data to compare knowledge of the t...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Beam M, Spencer AG, Atto R, Camizan R, Vilchez P, Muro C, Gamboa R, Pray I, Garvey B, Fernandez L, Garcia HH, O'Neal SE, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Infections in HIV-Infected Patients in Sierra Leone.
ta RA Abstract HIV coinfection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) is common because of shared transmission routes. There is no published data on the prevalence of these infections in people living with HIV in Sierra Leone. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 211 HIV-positive patients aged ≥ 18 years in Freetown, Sierra Leone, in November 2017. Plasma samples were analyzed using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Architect System; Abbott Laboratories, Germany). The majority were female (63.5%), with median age 36 yea...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yendewa GA, Sahr F, Aguilera A, Lakoh S, Sesay M, Deen GF, Patiño L, Poveda E, Salata RA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Temperature Dependence of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocytic Stage Development.
Abstract Plasmodium falciparum infection causes febrile illness and severe disease with multiple organ failure and death when treatment is delayed. Antipyretic treatment is standard, and inducing hypothermia has been proposed to protect the brain in cerebral malaria. Here, we investigated the temperature dependence of asexual-stage parasite development and parasite multiplication in vitro. Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strain TM267 was incubated for 2 hours (short exposure) or 48 hours (continuous exposure) at different temperatures (32°C, 34°C, 35°C, 38°C, 39°C, and 40°C). The starting ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Singhaboot Y, Keayarsa S, Piaraksa N, Phumratanaprapin W, Kunawut P, Dondorp A, Chotivanich K Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Does Progressive Introduction of Benznidazole Reduce the Chance of Adverse Events in the Treatment of Chagas Disease?
oain Hernández M Abstract In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to assess whether introducing benznidazole at escalating doses reduces the probability of adverse events or treatment discontinuation compared with a full-dose scheme. We collected data from patients who had chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and underwent treatment from July 2008 to January 2017 in a referral center in Madrid. Dose was adjusted to body weight (5 mg/kg/day), with treatment introduction with full dose or escalating dose according to local consensus and protocols. Among the 62 patients treated, benznidazole was introduced...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Losada Galván I, Madrid Pascual O, Herrero Martínez JM, Pérez-Ayala A, Lizasoain Hernández M Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Expanded Availability of Intravenous Artesunate for the Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States.
Abstract Expanded Availability of Intravenous Artesunate for the Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States. PMID: 30927931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 29, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rosenthal PJ, Tan KR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Scrub Typhus and Q Fever Coinfection.
Abstract A 56-year-old female goat herder had scrub typhus that persisted after receiving doxycycline for 5 days. Her symptoms continued, prompting us to perform further examinations that revealed coinfection of Q fever and scrub typhus via molecular and serological testing. We also isolated Orientia tsutsugamushi using BALB/c mice and L929 cells. PMID: 30915946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jeong HJ, Choi S, Lee J, Gill B, Lee KM, Lee YS, Kim CM, Yun NR, Kim DM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Prevalence and Genotypic Distribution of Rotavirus in Thailand: A Multicenter Study.
Abstract Rotavirus has been one of the major etiological agents causing severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. In Thailand, rotavirus contributes to one-third of reported pediatric diarrheal cases. We studied stool samples from 1,709 children with acute gastroenteritis and 1,761 children with no reported gastroenteritis whose age ranged from 3 months to 5 years from four different regions in Thailand between March 2008 and August 2010. The samples were tested for the presence of rotavirus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of vp6 gene and enzyme-li...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sakpaisal P, Silapong S, Yowang A, Boonyasakyothin G, Yuttayong B, Suksawad U, Sornsakrin S, Lertsethtakarn P, Bodhidatta L, Crawford JM, Mason CJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Comparison of Pretravel Health Care, Travel-Related Exposures, and Illnesses among Pediatric and Adult U.S. Military Beneficiaries.
Abstract We evaluated differences in pretravel care, exposures, and illnesses among pediatric and adult travelers, using a prospective, observational cohort. Eighty-one pediatric travelers were matched 1:1 with adult military dependents by travel region, destination's malaria risk, and travel duration. Pediatric travelers were more likely to have coverage for hepatitis A and B (90% versus 67% of adults; 85% versus 44%), visit friends and relatives (36% versus 16%), report mosquito bites (69% versus 44%), and have close contact with wild or domesticated animals (40% versus 20%) than adults (P
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ashley DP, Fraser J, Yun H, Kunz A, Fairchok M, Tribble D, Mitra I, Johnson MD, Hickey PW, Ganesan A, Deiss RG, Lalani T, For The Idcrp TravMil Study Group Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

High Rate of Serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae Carriage in Pregnant Women in Botswana.
Abstract Maternal rectovaginal colonization is the major risk factor for early-onset neonatal sepsis due to Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a major cause of early life morbidity and mortality. Transmission generally occurs perinatally from colonized mothers to infants. Vaccines targeting a subset of GBS serotypes are under development, but GBS epidemiology remains poorly understood in many African nations. We performed a cross-sectional study of GBS colonization among pregnant women at two sites in Botswana, a country with minimal prior GBS carriage data. We found a rectovaginal colonization rate of 19%, comparable w...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: A'Hearn-Thomas B, Khatami A, Randis TM, Vurayai M, Mokomane M, Arscott-Mills T, Banda FM, Mazhani T, Lepere T, Gaolebale P, Nchingane S, Chamby A, Gegick M, Suzman E, Steenhoff AP, Ratner AJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in Rodents in an Urban Setting in Madagascar.
Abstract Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic bacterial disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Only limited studies have been conducted on the presence of Leptospira spp. in rats in Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar. We assessed Leptospira prevalence in small mammals in urban areas of Antananarivo where sanitation is inadequate and there is risk of flooding during the rainy season. We captured rodents and shrews at two sites and examined kidney samples from 114 animals using culture and a real-time PCR assay specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. We identified 23 positive samples containing Lepto...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rahelinirina S, Bourhy P, Andriamiaramanana F, Garin B, Rajerison M Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Cross-Sectional Study of the Availability of Azithromycin in Local Pharmacies and Associated Antibiotic Resistance in Communities in Kilosa District, Tanzania.
Abstract Mass drug administration (MDA) for trachoma control using azithromycin has generated concern for the development of resistant organisms. However, the contribution from azithromycin available in local pharmacies has not been studied. In Kilosa district, Tanzania, MDA stopped over 4 years ago, and this study sought to determine the availability of azithromycin in local pharmacies and correlate it with azithromycin resistance in children born after MDA. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 644 randomly selected hamlets in Kilosa district, in which the presence of a pharmacy and the availability of azith...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ansah D, Weaver J, Munoz B, Bloch EM, Coles CL, Lietman T, West S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Bacterial Infections Associated with Viperidae Snakebites in Children: A 14-Year Experience at the Hospital Nacional de Ni ños de Costa Rica†.
Bacterial Infections Associated with Viperidae Snakebites in Children: A 14-Year Experience at the Hospital Nacional de Niños de Costa Rica†. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Mar 25;: Authors: Brenes-Chacón H, Ulloa-Gutierrez R, Soriano-Fallas A, Camacho-Badilla K, Valverde-Muñoz K, Ávila-Agüero ML Abstract Secondary bacterial infections following Viperidae snakebite envenomation in children are common. Among 75 patients admitted because of snakebites at the only pediatric hospital in Costa Rica, 16 (21.3%) had a culture-confirmed secondary bacterial infection. Morganell...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Brenes-Chacón H, Ulloa-Gutierrez R, Soriano-Fallas A, Camacho-Badilla K, Valverde-Muñoz K, Ávila-Agüero ML Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: A Case of Type 1 Leprosy Reaction and Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Complicating the Clinical Course of Multibacillary Leprosy.
We present a case of intercurrent Type 1 reaction and DHS in a multibacillary leprosy patient recently started on multidrug treatment. PMID: 30915953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Craig J, MacRae C, Melvin RG, Boggild AK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Development of a Tool for Health Screening and Assessment in Orphanages in Lesotho.
Abstract In low- and middle-income countries that have high burdens of disease, simple interventions such as health screenings can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Among vulnerable children, orphans in particular, deaths are often caused by conditions preventable through early identification and provision of basic health and nutritional needs. After consulting local preventative care guidelines and medical providers, a health screening tool for use in orphanages was created. This tool was used to screen children in two orphanages in Lesotho. Overall, the tool was found to be easy, efficient, and valua...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Keating EM, Sanders J, Ngo K, Mohapi EQ, Mandalakas AM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome as a Cause of Acute Diarrhea.
This report highlights the importance of considering HFRS in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute diarrhea and the need for additional research on the usefulness of the buffy coat in the PCR diagnosis of HFRS. PMID: 30915955 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kim HK, Chung JH, Kim DM, Yun NR, Kim CM, Jalal S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Comparison of Reported and Survey-Based Coverage in Onchocerciasis Programs over a Period of 8 Years in Cameroon and Uganda.
Abstract Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin must reach a high treatment coverage (90% of the eligible population) if onchocerciasis is to be eliminated. Questions have been raised as to whether reported treatment figures reaching such high coverage are reliable. Sample surveys are proposed as the method of choice for "validating" reported coverage figures. The purpose of this study was to compare the district-level MDA coverage reported by programs with contemporaneous surveys of randomly selected respondents living in those same districts. Over an 8-year period, 19,219 households were select...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katabarwa MN, Griswold E, Habomugisha P, Eyamba A, Byamukama E, Nwane P, Khainza A, Hudson-Davis L, Weiss P, Richards FO Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Overweight, Obesity, and Older Age Favor Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Household Contacts in Low Tuberculosis-Incidence Settings within Panama.
In this study, we aim to identify risk factors associated with LTBI in HCCs of TB patients living in a low TB-incidence setting. Our results revealed that HCCs who are aged more than 50 years (OR = 4.05) and overweight (OR = 15.3) are at higher risk of acquiring LTBI. None of these LTBI household contacts progressed to active TB. These findings suggest that HCCs who are young adults and children with normal and low body mass index are less likely to acquire LTBI after exposure to TB patients, even in low TB-incidence settings. PMID: 30915957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cubilla-Batista I, Ruiz N, Sambrano D, Castillo J, de Quinzada M, Gasteluiturri B, Goodridge A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Group A Streptococcal emm Types Associated with Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis.
Abstract Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a postinfectious immune-mediated kidney disease associated with group A Streptococcus (GAS). The prevalence of APSGN varies within and between countries and is influenced by socioeconomic, host, and bacterial factors. The disease is more prevalent in developing countries and resource-poor settings of developed countries, such as the Indigenous populations residing in tropical Australia. The M-protein is a universally present GAS surface antigen that is the focus of molecular typing and vaccine research. Early reports suggested that some M-proteins (em...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Worthing KA, Lacey JA, Price DJ, McIntyre L, Steer AC, Tong SYC, Davies MR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Malaria Parasite Density in Individuals with Different Rapid Diagnostic Test Results and Concentrations of HRP2 Antigen.
Abstract Low-density malaria infections are a source of human morbidity in endemic settings and potentially contribute to ongoing malaria transmission. Conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were designed to detect clinically relevant parasite and antigen levels, but it is largely unknown what proportion of parasite (and antigen positive) infections are missed by conventional RDTs. Furthermore, RDTs can also provide false positives from lingering histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigenemia from a past infection. We analyzed 207 samples from Angolan outpatients with a bead-based HRP2 antigen assay and by qRT-PC...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Plucinski MM, Dimbu R, Fortes F, Murphy SC, Smith NT, Cruz KR, Seilie AM, Halsey ES, Aidoo M, Rogier E Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Four-Weekly Benzathine Penicillin G Provides Inadequate Protection against Acute Rheumatic Fever in Some Children (in Australia's Northern Territory).
This study aimed to identify recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) episodes which occurred despite adherence to prophylactic benzathine penicillin G (BPG). Data from Australia's Northern Territory were analyzed; ARF recurrences between 2012 and 2017 diagnosed while the person was prescribed BPG were identified. Days at risk (DAR)-median and interquartile range-preceding ARF onset were calculated. The timing of BPG doses was examined for individuals with no DAR. One hundred sixty-nine ARF recurrences were analyzed; median DAR in the previous 8 weeks before ARF onset was 29. Most recurrences occurred following> 7 DAR (87%...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: de Dassel JL, Malik H, Ralph AP, Hardie K, Remenyi B, Francis JR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Clinical Utility of Platelet Count as a Prognostic Marker for Melioidosis.
Abstract Thromobocytopenia predicts mortality in patients with melioidosis in Thailand. We analyzed platelet counts in two large cohorts of melioidosis patients in tropical northern Australia to assess utility in a different clinical setting. Admission platelet counts were compared between subgroups of patients with different clinical outcomes. Patients with more severe disease (indicated by bacteremia, septic shock, and death) had significantly lower platelet counts than those with less severe disease. Logistic regression analysis was carried out for potential predictors of mortality among various clinical parame...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kirby P, Smith S, Ward L, Hanson J, Currie BJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Feasibility of a Comprehensive Targeted Cholera Intervention in The Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Abstract A comprehensive targeted intervention (CTI) was designed and deployed in the neighborhoods of cholera cases in the Kathmandu Valley with the intent of reducing rates among the neighbors of the case. This was a feasibility study to determine whether clinical centers, laboratories, and field teams were able to mount a rapid, community-based response to a case within 2 days of hospital admission. Daily line listings were requested from 15 participating hospitals during the monsoon season, and a single case initiated the CTI. A standard case definition was used: acute watery diarrhea, with or without vomiting...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Roskosky M, Acharya B, Shakya G, Karki K, Sekine K, Bajracharya D, von Seidlein L, Devaux I, Lopez AL, Deen J, Sack DA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Approval of Tafenoquine for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis.
The objective would be a drug with> 95% efficacy and that is easily tolerated, including in children and pregnant women. For individuals who prefer weekly rather than daily drug administration, a further objective is a product that is administered weekly. The deficiencies of present agents are parasite resistance to chloroquine, neuropsychiatric liability of mefloquine, the need for daily dosing for atovaquone-proguanil, and daily dosing plus adverse reactions for doxycycline. A primaquine analogue, tafenoquine has a 17-day half-life and was approved for weekly prophylaxis in the United States and in Australia in 2018. ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Berman JD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pathogen Lists Do Not Tell Us What We Need to Do.
Abstract Brett-Major and others remind us that pathogen lists for emerging infectious diseases aid in the development of tools that target specific pathogens (e.g., vaccines) and help attract financial support. These lists tell us what we need to have, not what we need to do. The authors call for more research on ways to prevent these diseases (e.g., platform technologies for vaccines) and mitigate disease impact. Vaccines and new treatments that target individual pathogens have many limitations. However, we might save lives by treating patients with inexpensive generic drugs that target common features of the hos...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fedson DS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Vector Competence for West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (Flavivirus) of Three Tick Species of the Genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae).
In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of three South American tick species: Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, and Amblyomma tonelliae. Larval and nymphal ticks of each species were allowed to feed on chicks needle inoculated with WNV or SLEV. All three Amblyomma species acquired either WNV or SLEV through larval feeding, with infection rates varying from 3.1% to 100% for WNV and from 0% to 35.7% for SLEV in engorged larvae. Transstadial perpetuation of the viruses was demonstrated in the molted nymphs, with WNV infection rates varying from 0% to 33.7% and S...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Flores FS, Zanluca C, Guglielmone AA, Duarte Dos Santos CN, Labruna MB, Diaz A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. in the Lao People's Democratic Republic Using Disk Diffusion.
Abstract Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic bacteria of the Leptospira genus, which are fastidious, slow-growing organisms. Antimicrobial susceptibility data are limited; traditionally, the organisms have not been culturable on solid media. The recent development of Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar, which facilitates rapid growth of Leptospira spp., provides the opportunity for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Eighty-three Leptospira spp. clinical isolates originating from patients in Laos between 2006 and 2016 were tested against six antimicrobials (azithromycin, ceftri...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Boss J, Dance DAB, Chanthongthip A, Newton PN, Wuthiekanun V, Robinson MT Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research