Clinical Features of Acute Chikungunya Virus Infection in Children and Adults during an Outbreak in the Maldives
We describe the genotype and polymorphism of Maldives chikungunya virus using phylogenetic analysis. All isolates were consistent with the East Central South African genotype of the Indian Ocean lineage, with a specific E1-K211E mutation. In addition, we explored the clinical and laboratory manifestations of acute chikungunya in children and adults, of which severe infection was found in some children, whereas arthritis primarily occurred in adults. Arthritides in adults occurred irrespective of underlying comorbidities and were associated with the degree of viremia.PMID:34339379 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0189 (Source: The Am...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hisham Ahmed Imad Juthamas Phadungsombat Emi E Nakayama Keita Suzuki Ahmed Mifthah Ibrahim Aminath Afaa Aminath Azeema Aminath Nazfa Aminath Yazfa Anoosha Ahmed Athifa Saeed Azna Waheed Fathimath Shareef Mohamed Moinul Islam Shausha Mohamed Anees Sana Sal Source Type: research

Standardization and Evaluation of an Anti-ZIKV IgM ELISA Assay for the Serological Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd210163. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0163. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHere, we describe the development of the in-house anti-Zika virus (ZIKV) IgM antibody capture ELISA (in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA) for the detection and diagnosis of acute ZIKV infections. We compared the in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA assay performance against two commercial kits, Euroimmun ZIKV IgM and InBios 2.0 ZIKV IgM ELISA. We tested the assays' ability to detect anti-ZIKV IgM using a well-defined serum sample panel. This panel included 80 ZIKV negative samples (20 negative, 20 found to be primary dengue virus [DENV][ infections,...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kanittha Sirikajornpan Piyarat Suntarattiwong Detchvijitr Suwanpakdee Sutchana Tabprasit Darunee Buddhari Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk Chonticha Klungthong Yongyuth Poolpanichupatam Rome Buathong Anon Srikiatkhachorn Anthony Jones Stefan Fernandez Taweewun Huns Source Type: research

Chikungunya Fever in Southern Thailand, 2018
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd210436. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0436. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInfection by the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes acute febrile illness and debilitating arthralgia. Outbreaks are sometimes not recognized because of its clinical resemblance to the more common dengue fever ubiquitous in tropical countries. An upsurge of dengue-like illness was reported in Satun province located in southern Thailand during the rainy season in 2018. We investigated probable outbreak of CHIKV disease. We collected serum samples from 127 patients and tested for CHIKV infection based on nucleic a...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Natthaphon Nanakorn Theerakamol Pengsakul Kannika Bunrod Suwich Thammapalo Pathomporn Prikchoo Sompong Vongpunsawad Yong Poovorawan Source Type: research

Clinical Usefulness of Nested Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd210183. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0183. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease. Few studies have assessed the clinical usefulness of nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for diagnosing SFTS. We performed conventional RT-PCR targeting the M segment, nested RT-PCR targeting M and S segments, and real-time RT-PCR targeting the S segment of SFTSV for four patients with suspected SFTS. Although conventional RT-PCR results for the first two patients were neg...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Choon Mee Kim Dong-Min Kim Na-Ra Yun Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Protective Immunity Against Rabies in Unvaccinated Butchers Working at Dog Slaughterhouses in Northern Vietnam
This study aimed to determine the rabies neutralizing antibody (NTA) and risk factors in dog slaughterers to propose appropriate intervention methods for this occupational group. In 2016, a cross-sectional study on NTA against rabies virus and related factors was conducted among 406 professional dog slaughterers in Vietnam. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and their sera were tested for rabies NTA by a rapid focus fluorescence inhibition test. Statistical algorithms were used to analyze the data. The results showed that most of the professional dog butchers (344/406 subjects, 84.7%) had n...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anh Kieu Thi Nguyen Anh Hoang Vu Thu Tuyet Nguyen Dong Vinh Nguyen Giang Chau Ngo Thai Quang Pham Satoshi Inoue Akira Nishizono Source Type: research

Confirming Autochthonous Buruli Ulcer Cases in Burkina Faso, West Africa
We report seven polymerase chain reaction-documented patients in Burkina Faso, a neighboring country of Côte d'Ivoire, where previously Buruli ulcer cases were confirmed primarily using clinical arguments.PMID:34339384 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0895 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anselme Millogo Dezemon Zingue Amar Bouam Sylvain Godreuil Michel Drancourt Nassim Hammoudi Source Type: research

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology of Enteric Viruses and Surveillance of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness Outbreaks in a Resource-Limited Region
This study applied the principles of wastewater-based epidemiology for the preventive identification of potential outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis and hepatitis A by analyzing the presence of human enteric viruses in influents of small municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) handling domestic sewage, together with public health reports of acute diarrheal and hepatitis A disease in Costa Rica during 2013. Raw wastewater samples were collected during four seasonal periods with different rainfall levels. The presence of five human enteric viruses (rotavirus A, norovirus GI, norovirus GII, enterovirus, and hepati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Luz Chac ón Eric Morales Carmen Valiente Liliana Reyes Kenia Barrantes Source Type: research

Impact of Recent SARS-CoV-2 Infection on the Course and Severity of Dengue in Children: A Prospective Observational Study from North India
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of acute or recent infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the course and outcomes of dengue fever in children. We prospectively enrolled 44 children with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of dengue fever. Assessment of acute and recent SARS-CoV-2 infection was done using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and IgG antibody through ELISA. Children were grouped based on evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and clinical severity, and outcomes were compared. The median age of the study cohort was 96 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 69-129 months). Fever (98%), vomiting (78%), abdominal...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Namita Ravikumar Manjinder Singh Randhawa Karthi Nallasamy Suresh Kumar Angurana Mahendra Kumar Gursimran Kaur Mohi Radha Kanta Ratho Muralidharan Jayashree Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Infections in a Semi-Arid Rural African Setting: Evidence of Reactive Case Detection in Northwestern Kenya
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd210256. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0256. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn northwestern Kenya, Turkana County has been historically considered unsuitable for stable malaria transmission because of its unfavorable climate and predominantly semi-nomadic population; consequently, it is overlooked during malaria control planning. However, the area is changing, with substantial development, an upsurge in travel associated with resource extraction, and more populated settlements forming. Recently, numerous malaria outbreaks have highlighted the need to characterize malaria transmission and its associa...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hannah R Meredith Amy Wesolowski Diana Menya Daniel Esimit Gilchrist Lokoel Joseph Kipkoech Betsy Freedman Samuel Lokemer James Maragia George Ambani Steve M Taylor Wendy Prudhomme-O'Meara Andrew A Obala Source Type: research

The Friend
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd201653. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1653. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34339388 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1653 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Madhusudan Samprathi Source Type: research

Repeated Ivermectin Treatment Induces Ivermectin Resistance in Strongyloides ratti by Upregulating the Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Genes
In conclusion, IVM subtherapeutic doses induced IVM resistance in S. ratti by the F4 generation with corresponding upregulation of some ABC isoform genes. The study provides a model for inducing and assessing drug resistance in Strongyloides.PMID:34339389 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0377 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chatchawan Sengthong Manachai Yingklang Kitti Intuyod Ornuma Haonon Porntip Pinlaor Chanakan Jantawong Nuttanan Hongsrichan Thewarach Laha Sirirat Anutrakulchai Ubon Cha'on Paiboon Sithithaworn Somchai Pinlaor Source Type: research

Social Stressors, Arboviral Infection, and Immune Dysregulation in the Coastal Lowland Region of Ecuador: A Mixed Methods Approach in Ecological Perspective
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 2:tpmd201625. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1625. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAedes aegypti, the mosquito that transmits arboviral diseases such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika viruses (ZIKV), is present in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Individuals at risk of mosquito-borne disease (MBD) in the urban tropics face daily challenges linked to their socio-environment conditions, such as poor infrastructure, poverty, crowding, and limited access to adequate healthcare. These daily demands induce chronic stress events and dysregulated immune responses. We sought to investiga...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 2, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Denisse Vega Ocasio Anna M Stewart-Ibarra Rachel Sippy Christina Li Kaitlyn McCue Kestutis G Bendinskas Brooks B Gump Cinthya Cueva-Aponte Efrain Beltr án Ayala Craig N Morrell Timothy D Dye Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in Patients with Complicated Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210108. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, has a potential role in cases with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) with paradoxical reactions. Although several articles have described the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB, no systematic review has been performed in this regard. Different electronic databases were searched for articles describing the use of thalidomide in patients with CNS-TB. For determining pooled estimates in the quantitative review, studies with a minimum sample size of 5 were only ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda Pragnya Panda Lesa Dawman Rakesh Kumar Sihag Indar Kumar Sharawat Source Type: research

Case Report: A Case of Tuberculosis with Psoriasiform Lichen Scrofulosorum Exhibiting Koebner's Phenomenon followed by Scrofuloderma
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210251. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0251. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLichen scrofulosorum is the most common tuberculid in the Indian population and the second most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. We discuss an uncommon presentation of lichen scrofulosorum, with psoriasiform morphology and koebnerization at tuberculin test site, associated with cervical lymphadenitis in a 17-year-old girl. Although the cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 3 months of antitubercular treatment (ATT), she developed scrofuloderma in the left cervical region at 4 months. In the absence of rifampicin...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ishika Muradia Geeti Khullar Shruti Sharma Sachin Kolte Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564a. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314373 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ning Zhang Ruiyan Zhang Teng Chen Xiaocheng Li Shubo Zhang Wenchen Han Bin He Hang Yin Ying Meng Jinghui Zhao Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564b. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314374 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: R Tedjo Sasmono Edison Johar Benediktus Yohan Chairin Nisa Ma'roef Amin Soebandrio Khin Sa Myint Paul Pronyk Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro Elizabeth Jane Soepardi Alain Bouckenooghe William Hawley Ronald Rosenberg Ann M Powers Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in Patients with Complicated Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210108. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, has a potential role in cases with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) with paradoxical reactions. Although several articles have described the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB, no systematic review has been performed in this regard. Different electronic databases were searched for articles describing the use of thalidomide in patients with CNS-TB. For determining pooled estimates in the quantitative review, studies with a minimum sample size of 5 were only ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda Pragnya Panda Lesa Dawman Rakesh Kumar Sihag Indar Kumar Sharawat Source Type: research

Case Report: A Case of Tuberculosis with Psoriasiform Lichen Scrofulosorum Exhibiting Koebner's Phenomenon followed by Scrofuloderma
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210251. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0251. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLichen scrofulosorum is the most common tuberculid in the Indian population and the second most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. We discuss an uncommon presentation of lichen scrofulosorum, with psoriasiform morphology and koebnerization at tuberculin test site, associated with cervical lymphadenitis in a 17-year-old girl. Although the cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 3 months of antitubercular treatment (ATT), she developed scrofuloderma in the left cervical region at 4 months. In the absence of rifampicin...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ishika Muradia Geeti Khullar Shruti Sharma Sachin Kolte Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564a. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314373 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ning Zhang Ruiyan Zhang Teng Chen Xiaocheng Li Shubo Zhang Wenchen Han Bin He Hang Yin Ying Meng Jinghui Zhao Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564b. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314374 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: R Tedjo Sasmono Edison Johar Benediktus Yohan Chairin Nisa Ma'roef Amin Soebandrio Khin Sa Myint Paul Pronyk Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro Elizabeth Jane Soepardi Alain Bouckenooghe William Hawley Ronald Rosenberg Ann M Powers Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in Patients with Complicated Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210108. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, has a potential role in cases with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) with paradoxical reactions. Although several articles have described the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB, no systematic review has been performed in this regard. Different electronic databases were searched for articles describing the use of thalidomide in patients with CNS-TB. For determining pooled estimates in the quantitative review, studies with a minimum sample size of 5 were only ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda Pragnya Panda Lesa Dawman Rakesh Kumar Sihag Indar Kumar Sharawat Source Type: research

Case Report: A Case of Tuberculosis with Psoriasiform Lichen Scrofulosorum Exhibiting Koebner's Phenomenon followed by Scrofuloderma
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210251. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0251. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLichen scrofulosorum is the most common tuberculid in the Indian population and the second most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. We discuss an uncommon presentation of lichen scrofulosorum, with psoriasiform morphology and koebnerization at tuberculin test site, associated with cervical lymphadenitis in a 17-year-old girl. Although the cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 3 months of antitubercular treatment (ATT), she developed scrofuloderma in the left cervical region at 4 months. In the absence of rifampicin...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ishika Muradia Geeti Khullar Shruti Sharma Sachin Kolte Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564a. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314373 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ning Zhang Ruiyan Zhang Teng Chen Xiaocheng Li Shubo Zhang Wenchen Han Bin He Hang Yin Ying Meng Jinghui Zhao Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564b. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314374 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: R Tedjo Sasmono Edison Johar Benediktus Yohan Chairin Nisa Ma'roef Amin Soebandrio Khin Sa Myint Paul Pronyk Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro Elizabeth Jane Soepardi Alain Bouckenooghe William Hawley Ronald Rosenberg Ann M Powers Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in Patients with Complicated Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210108. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, has a potential role in cases with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) with paradoxical reactions. Although several articles have described the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB, no systematic review has been performed in this regard. Different electronic databases were searched for articles describing the use of thalidomide in patients with CNS-TB. For determining pooled estimates in the quantitative review, studies with a minimum sample size of 5 were only ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda Pragnya Panda Lesa Dawman Rakesh Kumar Sihag Indar Kumar Sharawat Source Type: research

Case Report: A Case of Tuberculosis with Psoriasiform Lichen Scrofulosorum Exhibiting Koebner's Phenomenon followed by Scrofuloderma
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210251. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0251. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLichen scrofulosorum is the most common tuberculid in the Indian population and the second most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. We discuss an uncommon presentation of lichen scrofulosorum, with psoriasiform morphology and koebnerization at tuberculin test site, associated with cervical lymphadenitis in a 17-year-old girl. Although the cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 3 months of antitubercular treatment (ATT), she developed scrofuloderma in the left cervical region at 4 months. In the absence of rifampicin...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ishika Muradia Geeti Khullar Shruti Sharma Sachin Kolte Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564a. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314373 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ning Zhang Ruiyan Zhang Teng Chen Xiaocheng Li Shubo Zhang Wenchen Han Bin He Hang Yin Ying Meng Jinghui Zhao Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564b. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314374 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: R Tedjo Sasmono Edison Johar Benediktus Yohan Chairin Nisa Ma'roef Amin Soebandrio Khin Sa Myint Paul Pronyk Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro Elizabeth Jane Soepardi Alain Bouckenooghe William Hawley Ronald Rosenberg Ann M Powers Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Thalidomide in Patients with Complicated Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210108. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, has a potential role in cases with central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) with paradoxical reactions. Although several articles have described the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB, no systematic review has been performed in this regard. Different electronic databases were searched for articles describing the use of thalidomide in patients with CNS-TB. For determining pooled estimates in the quantitative review, studies with a minimum sample size of 5 were only ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda Pragnya Panda Lesa Dawman Rakesh Kumar Sihag Indar Kumar Sharawat Source Type: research

Case Report: A Case of Tuberculosis with Psoriasiform Lichen Scrofulosorum Exhibiting Koebner's Phenomenon followed by Scrofuloderma
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 27:tpmd210251. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0251. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLichen scrofulosorum is the most common tuberculid in the Indian population and the second most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. We discuss an uncommon presentation of lichen scrofulosorum, with psoriasiform morphology and koebnerization at tuberculin test site, associated with cervical lymphadenitis in a 17-year-old girl. Although the cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 3 months of antitubercular treatment (ATT), she developed scrofuloderma in the left cervical region at 4 months. In the absence of rifampicin...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ishika Muradia Geeti Khullar Shruti Sharma Sachin Kolte Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564a. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314373 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564a (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ning Zhang Ruiyan Zhang Teng Chen Xiaocheng Li Shubo Zhang Wenchen Han Bin He Hang Yin Ying Meng Jinghui Zhao Source Type: research

Stability of Zika Virus Antibodies in Specimens from a Retrospective Serological Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210564b. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34314374 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0564b (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: R Tedjo Sasmono Edison Johar Benediktus Yohan Chairin Nisa Ma'roef Amin Soebandrio Khin Sa Myint Paul Pronyk Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro Elizabeth Jane Soepardi Alain Bouckenooghe William Hawley Ronald Rosenberg Ann M Powers Source Type: research

The Role of Trust in the Pattern of Enrolment to a Social Health Insurance Scheme and Distribution of Healthcare Facilities in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria
This study explored the factors associated with the skewed distribution of enrollees across facilities and the influence of stakeholders. This is a descriptive, qualitative, case study design among stakeholders of the NHIS in Ibadan, Oyo State, Southwest, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted between March and June, 2019, with all selected individual stakeholders as listed earlier. Data analysis was done using an inductive thematic approach. Across the board, there was a low level of trust in government and government policies among healthcare providers and enrollees. Few healthcare providers were willing to render s...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: David Ayobami Adewole Steve Reid Tolu Oni Source Type: research

Case Report: Khat Chewing and Acute Myocardial Infarction in Two Young Men without Underlying Risk Factors
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210318. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0318. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTKhat (Catha edulis) chewing is linked to several social, psychological, and health-related problems. Studies show that khat is associated with gastrointestinal and nervous system diseases. However, little is known about khat's effect on the cardiovascular system. This case report describes acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among two young adults who chew khat frequently, but who do not have underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Case 1 is a 29-year-old apparently healthy man who presented with severe, squeezi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ahmed Abdulahi Hussen Foziya Mohammed Hussien Nejib Yusuf Aragaw Yimer Ahmed Hamid Yimam Hassen Source Type: research

Tuberculous Encephalitis May Be Undetectable on Magnetic Resonance Imaging but Detectable on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210288. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0288. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNeurotuberculosis (NT) continues to be a global health problem with severe morbidity and mortality. The manifestations of NT are well-known and encompass forms such as meningitis, tuberculomas, military tuberculosis, ventriculitis, and brain abscess. Data of all patients with central nervous system tuberculosis who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) were analyzed. Over a 7-year period (2014-2021), we encountered three p...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Boby Varkey Maramattom Shagos Gopalan Nair Santhamma Source Type: research

Utility of the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis from Blood Samples in Ethiopia
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210334. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0334. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRapid and accurate diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is needed to initiate prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of VL from blood in an endemic area in Ethiopia. LAMP was positive in 117/122 confirmed VL cases and negative in 149/152 controls, resulting in a sensitivity of 95.9% (95% CI: 90.69-98.66) and a specificity of 98.0% (95% CI: 94.34-99.59), respectively. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dawit Gebreegzabher Hagos Yazezew Kebede Kros Mahmud Abdulkader Zekarias Gessessew Arefaine Etsay Nigus Henk H D F Schallig Dawit Wolday Source Type: research

The Role of Trust in the Pattern of Enrolment to a Social Health Insurance Scheme and Distribution of Healthcare Facilities in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria
This study explored the factors associated with the skewed distribution of enrollees across facilities and the influence of stakeholders. This is a descriptive, qualitative, case study design among stakeholders of the NHIS in Ibadan, Oyo State, Southwest, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted between March and June, 2019, with all selected individual stakeholders as listed earlier. Data analysis was done using an inductive thematic approach. Across the board, there was a low level of trust in government and government policies among healthcare providers and enrollees. Few healthcare providers were willing to render s...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: David Ayobami Adewole Steve Reid Tolu Oni Source Type: research

Case Report: Khat Chewing and Acute Myocardial Infarction in Two Young Men without Underlying Risk Factors
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210318. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0318. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTKhat (Catha edulis) chewing is linked to several social, psychological, and health-related problems. Studies show that khat is associated with gastrointestinal and nervous system diseases. However, little is known about khat's effect on the cardiovascular system. This case report describes acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among two young adults who chew khat frequently, but who do not have underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Case 1 is a 29-year-old apparently healthy man who presented with severe, squeezi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ahmed Abdulahi Hussen Foziya Mohammed Hussien Nejib Yusuf Aragaw Yimer Ahmed Hamid Yimam Hassen Source Type: research

Tuberculous Encephalitis May Be Undetectable on Magnetic Resonance Imaging but Detectable on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210288. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0288. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNeurotuberculosis (NT) continues to be a global health problem with severe morbidity and mortality. The manifestations of NT are well-known and encompass forms such as meningitis, tuberculomas, military tuberculosis, ventriculitis, and brain abscess. Data of all patients with central nervous system tuberculosis who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) were analyzed. Over a 7-year period (2014-2021), we encountered three p...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Boby Varkey Maramattom Shagos Gopalan Nair Santhamma Source Type: research

Utility of the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis from Blood Samples in Ethiopia
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 26:tpmd210334. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0334. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRapid and accurate diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is needed to initiate prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of VL from blood in an endemic area in Ethiopia. LAMP was positive in 117/122 confirmed VL cases and negative in 149/152 controls, resulting in a sensitivity of 95.9% (95% CI: 90.69-98.66) and a specificity of 98.0% (95% CI: 94.34-99.59), respectively. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 26, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dawit Gebreegzabher Hagos Yazezew Kebede Kros Mahmud Abdulkader Zekarias Gessessew Arefaine Etsay Nigus Henk H D F Schallig Dawit Wolday Source Type: research

The Burden of Snakebite in Rural Communities in Kenya: A Household Survey
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd210266. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0266. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAnnually, about 2.7 million snakebite envenomings occur worldwide, primarily affecting those living in rural regions. Effective treatment exists but is scarce, and traditional treatments are commonly used. To inform context-specific policies in Kenya, this study aimed to determine the health-seeking behavior and the health, social, and economic burden of snakebites in rural communities. Nonprobability sampling was used to survey 382 respondents from four snakebite-endemic counties, from February to August 2020, using a stru...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gaby I Ooms Janneke van Oirschot Benjamin Waldmann Dorothy Okemo Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse Hendrika A van den Ham Tim Reed Source Type: research

Disparities in Physical Accessibility among Rural Thais Under Universal Health Coverage
This study aims to explore various barriers in accessing outpatient care among the participants from different age groups and to identify determinants associated with physician visits. The study had adopted Andersen's Behavioral Model (ABM) of Health Services Use. A cross-sectional study design was adopted to collect data from 417 participants through a questionnaire survey. Poisson regression models were used to explore determinants for explaining the differences in outpatient care use. The regression results revealed that divergent relationships existed among age groups. Children and elderly participants tended to decrea...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rattanakarun Rojjananukulpong Mokbul Morshed Ahmad Shahab E Saqib Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasound Findings of Patients with Dengue Infection: A Prospective Observational Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd201274. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1274. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLung ultrasound (LUS) is performed for several conditions and is a more sensitive method of detecting pathological pulmonary changes than chest X-ray. Therefore, LUS for individuals with dengue could be an important tool for the early detection of pleural effusions and pulmonary edema signifying capillary plasma leakage, which is the hallmark of severe dengue pathophysiology. We conducted a prospective observational study of pulmonary changes identifiable with LUS in dengue patients admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Dis...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hiroshi Koyama Wirongrong Chierakul Prakaykaew Charunwatthana Natpatou Sanguanwongse Benjaluck Phonrat Udomsak Silachamroon Arjen M Dondorp Source Type: research

Necrotizing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Admitted to Intensive Care Unit in Reunion Island: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd210009. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis retrospective and single-center study in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) assessed frequency, mortality, causative pathogens of severe necrotizing skin, and necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (NSSTIs) admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Sixty-seven consecutive patients were included from January 2012 to December 2018. Necrotizing skin and soft tissue infection represented 1.06% of total ICU admissions. We estimate the incidence of NSSTI requiring ICU at 1.21/100,000 person/years in Reunion Island. Twenty (30%)...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: David Vandroux Alexia Mubuanga Nkusu Bernard-Alex Gauzere Olivier Martinet Source Type: research

Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Is Increased in Chagasic Cardiomyopathy
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd200401. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0401. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTChagas disease (CD) mainly conveys stroke risk through structural cardiac disease. However, stroke and cognitive impairment are seen in CD independently of cardiac disease severity. Chronic inflammation may be an explanation for this association, because inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke and dementia. In the present study, we selected five candidate biomarkers for Chagas disease: interleukin-6, membrane metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), oros...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Karina Oliveira Garcia Thiago Cerqueira Silva Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes Iuri Ferreira Felix Murilo Araujo Oliveira Maria Eduarda Lisboa Marques Leila Souza Brito Santos Paulo Roberto Sampaio Peixoto Sousa Pedro Jos é Ramiro Muiños Renata Martins Maia Source Type: research

Treatment of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding by Percutaneous Transsplenic Varices Embolization in Chronic Hepatic Schistosomiasis Japonicum Patients
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd210304. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0304. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo evaluate percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization (PTSVE) in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with chronic hepatic schistosomiasis japonicum (CHS), 29 CHS patients (20 males and 9 females) complicated with UGIB were selected as the investigation subjects. The patients were treated by PTSVE under the guidance of X-ray fluoroscopy. The success rate of PTSVE and the rate of complications were observed. In addition, the degrees of varices before and after PTSVE were evaluated by abdom...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ying Li Ban Sheng Cai Xin Li Shuai Ju Xiu Ying Yang Jin Wei Qiang Source Type: research

Performance of a New Microfluidic Dengue NS1 Immuno-magnetic Agglutination Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of Dengue Infection in Adults
In this study, we evaluated the performance of a new rapid and semi-quantitative microfluidic DENV NS1 immuno-magnetic agglutination assay or IMA (ViroTrack Dengue Acute, BluSense Diagnostics, Copenhagen, Denmark). We studied 233 subjects confirmed to have DENV infection (by a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) and 200 control samples were taken from patients with confirmed diagnoses of other febrile illnesses, in Thailand. Samples were tested using the NS1 antigen (Ag) detection methods: in-house NS1 Ag ELISA (ELISA), SD BIOLINE Dengue NS1 Ag RDT (ICT), and ViroTrack Dengue Acute (IMA). Sensitiviti...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ekkarat Wongsawat Yupin Suputtamongkol Susan Assanasaen Saowaluk Silpasakorn Panisadee Avirutnan Chunya Puttikhunt Nasikarn Angkasekwinai Eakkawit Yamasmith Tanapan Prommool Kanigar Niwattayakul Source Type: research

Anti-Racism and Anti-Colonialism Praxis in Global Health-Reflection and Action for Practitioners in US Academic Medical Centers
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd210187. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0187. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe movement to decolonize global health and address power inequities among its actors is not new. Founded on the work of colonized and marginalized people themselves, initiatives at universities, schools of public health, and international development organizations have emerged to call for anti-racism and anti-colonialism within the field. US Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) have been less vocal in this wider discussion, despite their large engagement in the field through clinical, research, and medical education activities...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zeinabou Niam é Daffé Yodeline Guillaume Louise C Ivers Source Type: research

Serological Differences after Acute Zika Virus Infections between Children and Adults: Implication for Use of a Serological Test
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd210134. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0134. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInformation is limited regarding differential serological responses after acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infections and prevalence of cross-reactivity with anti-dengue virus (DENV) assays comparing children and adults. Early convalescent sera from a cohort of suspected mild DENV cases between December 2016 and September 2018 at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute in Thailand were tested for nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-based anti-ZIKV IgM and IgG ELISAs (Euroimmun), and in-house anti-DENV IgM- and IgG-capture ELISAs. ZIK...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jurai Wongsawat Patama Suttha Sumalee Chanama Somkid Srisopa Nichapa Yonchoho Putiporn Limpanadusadee Source Type: research

Assessment of a New Antigen Detection Test for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 19:tpmd210125. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0125. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCanine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a serious zoonotic disease in Brazil and Southern Europe. CVL is primarily caused by Leishmania infantum and its diagnosis relies primarily on detection of parasites in bone marrow or lymph node aspirates by microscopic observation of the parasites in stained smears, parasite culture, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serological tests exist but they do not distinguish active disease from simple exposure to parasite antigens. Here, we have assessed the utility of a new monoclonal ant...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 19, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Claudia Abeijon Stefano Pizzirani Antonio Campos-Neto Source Type: research