Case Report: A Patient with COVID-19 under Myelosuppression Induced by Chemotherapy.
Abstract COVID-19 has now spread globally, and 10-20% of the cases are thought to proceed to a severe condition. However, information on COVID-19 in immunodeficient patients remains limited. We treated a 56-year-old man who developed COVID-19 after chemotherapy for mantle cell lymphoma. After 1 month of prolonged fever, the patient's respiratory condition deteriorated rapidly, and he died. COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients after chemotherapy, even with mild symptoms, can cause rapid immune reconstitution and respiratory deterioration. Therefore, caution is advised until negative PCR test results for SARS-CoV-...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Otsuka Y, Kobayashi T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Extrapulmonary Clinical Manifestations in COVID-19 Patients.
Abstract COVID-19 manifestations in symptomatic patients can be in the form of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction as well. Renal complications, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, endocrine system disorders, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, neurological dysfunctions, dermatological symptoms, hematological manifestations, and thromboinflammation are among the reported extrapulmonary complications. Moreover, the presence of coagulopathy, excessive and dysregulated immune responses, and autoimmunity by COVID-19 patients is considerable. The pathogenesis of infection entails the ent...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sarkesh A, Daei Sorkhabi A, Sheykhsaran E, Alinezhad F, Mohammadzadeh N, Hemmat N, Bannazadeh Baghi H Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Sex Workers Should not Be Forgotten in Africa's COVID-19 Response.
Abstract COVID-19 is a global health emergency facing many countries around the world. Sex workers in Africa are among one of the vulnerable populations disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic on the continent. Sex workers are excluded from African government safety net, and this may force some sex workers back to sex work amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of the nature of sex work, physical distancing and other precautionary measures are impossible to observe, further compromising COVID-19 response. Sex workers in Africa have been known to face high levels of stigma and discrimination, including li...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Adebisi YA, Alaran AJ, Akinokun RT, Micheal AI, Ilesanmi EB, Lucero-Prisno DE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

COVID-19 Response in Latin America.
tun R Abstract Effective management of a pandemic due to a respiratory virus requires public health capacity for a coordinated response for mandatory restrictions, large-scale testing to identify infected individuals, capacity to isolate infected cases and track and test contacts, and health services for those infected who require hospitalization. Because of contextual and socioeconomic factors, it has been hard for Latin America to confront this epidemic. In this article, we discuss the context and the initial responses of eight selected Latin American countries, including similarities and differences in public h...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Garcia PJ, Alarcón A, Bayer A, Buss P, Guerra G, Ribeiro H, Rojas K, Saenz R, Salgado de Snyder N, Solimano G, Torres R, Tobar S, Tuesca R, Vargas G, Atun R Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Donald J. Krogstad, MD (1943-2020), Physician-Scientist, Malaria Researcher, and Mentor.
Abstract Donald J. Krogstad, MD (1943-2020), Physician-Scientist, Malaria Researcher, and Mentor. PMID: 32918408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Koita O, Doumbia S, Oberhelman R, Weller P, Keating J, Eisele T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: COVID-19 Associated Renal Infarction and Ascending Aortic Thrombosis.
We present a 71-year-old man who initially presented with 2 weeks of fever, cough, and shortness of breath and was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. He required readmission due to worsened hypoxia and was later found to have left renal artery thrombosis with left kidney infarction, associated with an ascending aortic thrombus. He was anticoagulated and recovered uneventfully. We suggest that physicians have a high degree of suspicion to diagnose and manage the novel manifestations of this disease. PMID: 32918409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mukherjee A, Ghosh R, Furment MM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Africa's Nomadic Pastoralists and Their Animals Are an Invisible Frontier in Pandemic Surveillance.
ild H Abstract The effects of COVID-19 have gone undocumented in nomadic pastoralist communities across Africa, which are largely invisible to health surveillance systems despite the fact that they are of key significance in the setting of emerging infectious disease. We expose these landscapes as a "blind spot" in global health surveillance, elaborate on the ways in which current health surveillance infrastructure is ill-equipped to capture pastoralist populations and the animals with which they coexist, and highlight the consequential risks of inadequate surveillance among pastoralists and their livest...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hassell JM, Zimmerman D, Fèvre EM, Zinsstag J, Bukachi S, Barry M, Muturi M, Bett B, Jensen N, Ali S, Maples S, Rushton J, Tschopp R, Madaine YO, Abtidon RA, Wild H Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Lung Ultrasound for the Guidance of Adjunctive Therapies in Two Invasively Ventilated Patients with COVID-19.
Abstract Two patients with respiratory failure due to confirmed COVID-19 were examined using bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) shortly after intubation and start of invasive ventilation. In the first patient, LUS revealed extensive atelectatic areas. A recruitment maneuver was applied, resulting in some reaeration of areas that showed atelectasis, and some improvement in oxygenation was observed. Oxygenation improved further with the use of prone positioning. In the second patient, LUS showed diffuse abnormalities without atelectatic areas, and ventilation proceeded without a recruitment maneuver but with prone positi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pierrakos C, Attou R, Iesu E, Baelongandi H, Honore PM, Bos LDJ, Schultz MJ, De Bels D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Decreased Mortality of falciparum Malaria in Anemic Prisoners of War?
Abstract Modern clinical trials have suggested that anemia protects against malaria mortality. Military records of the Second World War in Asia were examined to see if there was support for this hypothesis. When relatively well-nourished Imperial Japanese Navy sailors captured on Nauru (n = 799) were imprisoned on the Fauro Islands, 26% died from falciparum malaria. Similarly treated but very malnourished colocated Imperial Army soldiers experienced low stable malaria mortality. One-fifth of previously healthy Australian Army soldiers (n = 252) retreating from New Britain died largely because of malaria in April 1...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shanks GD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Extensive Tinea Corporis and Inflammatory Tinea Capitis Caused by the Anthropophilic Dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans: Two Case Reports.
We report two atypical cases of tinea due to T. tonsurans in two children: a case of extensive tinea corporis and a case of inflammatory tinea capitis. PMID: 32901593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Akhoundi M, Marteau A, Lintanf M, Izri A, Brun S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Usefulness of C-Reactive Protein and Other Host BioMarker Point-of-Care Tests in the Assessment of Non-Malarial Acute Febrile Illnesses: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.
Abstract In low- and middle-income countries, in resource-limited settings, the implementation of diagnostic tools discriminating bacterial from nonbacterial fever is a matter of primary concern. The introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests highlighted the need for point-of-care tests (POCTs) supporting clinical decision-making for non-malarial febrile illnesses. The purpose of this work was to review the use of host biomarker POCTs for the assessment of acute non-malarial fever in resource-constraint settings. Specific objectives were as follows: 1) to estimate the accuracy of such tests in differentiating ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bertoli G, Ronzoni N, Silva R, Spinicci M, Perlini C, Omega L, Ursini T, Bartoloni A, Olliaro P, Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Building Public Health Capacity through a Sustainable South-South-North Training Program.
We describe our experience with a public health training collaboration between Peru and Bolivia, with Peru providing capacity building and expertise to Bolivia, while receiving supportive funding and training from the United States. This collaboration has led to a groundswell of research on clinically significant diseases, outreach to more than 800 scientists, several dozen publications, and the start of four institutional review boards. South-South and South-South-North collaborations should publish their experiences, and Northern funding organizations should consider funding such collaborations. PMID: 32901595 [PubM...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Clark T, Verastegui M, Tinajeros F, Calderon M, Colanzi R, Gilman RH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Cost of Dengue Illness in Indonesia across Hospital, Ambulatory, and not Medically Attended Settings.
Abstract Informed decisions concerning emerging technologies against dengue require knowledge about the disease's economic cost and each stakeholder's potential benefits from better control. To generate such data for Indonesia, we reviewed recent literature, analyzed expenditure and utilization data from two hospitals and two primary care facilities in Yogyakarta city, and interviewed 67 dengue patients from hospital, ambulatory, and not medically attended settings. We derived the cost of a dengue episode by outcome, setting, and the breakdown by payer. We then calculated aggregate Yogyakarta and national costs an...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wilastonegoro NN, Kharisma DD, Laksono IS, Halasa-Rappel YA, Brady OJ, Shepard DS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Assessment of Incubation Period of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Tunisia.
Abstract The period between the infective sandfly bites and appearance of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions is still hypothetical and little studied. This work aimed at assessing the incubation time of zoonotic CL (ZCL) due to Leishmania major using a standardized methodology. The retrospective analysis used the epidemiological, clinical, and biological information available in the database recording all the CL cases diagnosed at the Parasitology Department of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis during 2015-2019. It allowed for the selection of 92 privileged observations 1) of confirmed CL cases with presentation su...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aoun K, Kalboussi Y, BenSghaier I, Souissi O, Hammami H, Bellali H, Bouratbine A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Confidence in Antibiotic Prescribing Intentions among Senior Medical Students in India.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health problem in India. We surveyed medical students to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and factors associated with confidence in antibiotic prescribing intent. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 356 students were surveyed in July-August 2017 on AMR-related knowledge, attitudes, information sources and antimicrobial training. Antimicrobial resistance knowledge and attitude scores were calculated. Bivariate analysis using the chi-square test of independence and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were used to investigate ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ritchie O, Shetty V, Prabhu S, Shetty AK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Brucella Laboratory Exposures in Brazil: Rare or Unnoticed?
We describe the exposure level, prophylaxis, and serosurvey after 6 months, and we highlight the importance of disease report. PMID: 32901599 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tuon FF, Cequinel JC, da Silva Nogueira K, Becker GN Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Acute Vision Loss in a Young Returning Traveler with Dengue Fever.
We present the case of a 29-year-old German woman who developed severe acute vision loss because of dengue-associated maculopathy after traveling to Vietnam and Cambodia. Initially, the optical coherence tomography showed detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium, a central shift in the retinal pigmentation and intraretinal cysts. The patient was hospitalized and treated with a short course of intravenous prednisolone. Vision improved, and the patient showed full recovery at 9 months after the onset. This case highlights the importance of awareness and adequate management for ocular involvement in patients with dengue f...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Heinemann M, Bigdon E, Veletzky L, Jordan S, Jochum J, Knospe V, Schmiedel S, Ramharter M Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Hansen's Disease and Complications among Marshallese Persons Residing in Northwest Arkansas, 2003-2017.
Abstract Persons from the Republic of the Marshall Islands have among the highest rates of Hansen's disease (HD) in the world; the largest Marshallese community in the continental United States is in northwest Arkansas. In 2017, the HD Ambulatory Care Clinic in Springdale, Arkansas, informed the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) that Marshallese persons with HD had severe disease with frequent complications. To characterize their illness, we reviewed ADH surveillance reports of HD among Marshallese persons in Arkansas treated during 2003-2017 (n = 42). Hansen's Disease prevalence among Marshallese in Arkansas (1...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Labuda SM, Williams SH, Mukasa L, McGhee L Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Development of a Multiplex Bead Assay for the Detection of IgG Antibody Responses to Guinea Worm.
Abstract The success of the Guinea Worm (GW) Eradication Program over the past three decades has been tempered by the persistence of GW disease in a few African nations and the potential for a future resurgence in cases. Domestic dogs are now a major concern as a disease reservoir as large numbers of cases of canine GW disease are now reported each year, mainly along the Chari River in Chad. As a first step toward the development of a serologic assay for dogs, archived human plasma samples from dracunculiasis-positive donors from Togo were used to select adult female GW antigens for peptide sequencing and cloning....
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Priest JW, Stuchlik O, Reed M, Soboslay P, Cama V, Roy SL Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Agent-Based Simulation for Seasonal Guinea Worm Disease in Chad Dogs.
We present an agent-based simulation that models transmission of GW between a shared water source and a large population of dogs. The simulation incorporates various potential factors driving the infections including external factors and two currently used interventions, namely, tethering and larvicide water treatments. By defining and estimating infectivity parameters and seasonality factors, we test the simulation model on scenarios where seasonal patterns of dog infections could be driven by the parasite's life cycle alone or with environmental factors (e.g., temperature and rainfall) that could also affect human or dog...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Perini T, Keskinocak P, Li Z, Ruiz-Tiben E, Swann J, Weiss A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Performance and Practicality of a Rapid Molecular Test for the Diagnosis of Strep A Pharyngitis in a Remote Australian Setting.
Abstract Over 5 days, 120 schoolchildren from two schools in the remote Kimberley region of Australia were screened for Strep A pharyngitis. Molecular point-of-care testing identified Strep A pharyngitis in 13/18 (72.2%) symptomatic children. The portability and feasibility of molecular point-of-care testing was highly practical for remote settings. PMID: 32901604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pickering JL, Barth DD, Bowen AC Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Interferon- γ and IL-10 Release Assay for Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis.
Interferon-γ and IL-10 Release Assay for Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 08;: Authors: Rudzinski M, Pardini L, Bernstein M, Moré G, Khoury M, Duarte Szyszko SC, Argüelles C, Reina S, Oubiña JR Abstract Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were challenged with Toxoplasma gondii lysate antigen (TLA) in a cytokine release assay (CRA), run during the inactive period of the disease. Increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels were detected after PBMC stimulation with either ME49 reference strain (P = ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rudzinski M, Pardini L, Bernstein M, Moré G, Khoury M, Duarte Szyszko SC, Argüelles C, Reina S, Oubiña JR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Severe Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Patient with HIV Coinfection Undergoing Treatment for Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.
We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)/HIV coinfection in a patient undergoing regular antiretroviral therapy and treatment with thalidomide for erythema nodosum leprosum. He presented at a health service with high fever, chills, asthenia, pale skin, lower limb edema, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly. Visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by direct examination, and serological and molecular tests. Serum levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured. The patient began treatment with liposomal amphotericin B, with good clinical response; however, VL recurred 6 months later. Treatment was reinitiated, maintaining secondary ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aquino SR, Diniz LFB, Queiroz IT, Cunha MA, Justo AM, Silva ED, Pereira VRA, Medeiros ZM, Carmo RF Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Three Cases of Neurocysticercosis in Central Africa.
ia HH Abstract Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection prevalent in developing countries; however, it is neglected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we present three different cases seen in a consulting room in Lubumbashi. These cases are evidence that NCC is more common than it was previously thought in sub-Saharan Africa. Neurocysticercosis is a pathology-neglected and ignored infection, not only by the population but also by health professionals and health authorities in the DRC, and because of that, it is important to increase the research about NCC in the DRC to a...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mukuku O, Sánchez SS, Bugeme M, Garcia HH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Schistosoma mansoni Vector Snails in Antigua and Montserrat, with Snail-Related Considerations Pertinent to a Declaration of Elimination of Human Schistosomiasis.
Abstract Investigations leading to a WHO-validated declaration of elimination of schistosomiasis transmission are contemplated for several countries, including Caribbean island nations. With assistance from the Pan American Health Organization, we undertook freshwater snail surveys in two such nations, Antigua and Barbuda, and Montserrat in September and October 2017. Historically, the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni supported by the Neotropical vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata occurred in both countries. Transmission on the islands is thought to have been interrupted by the treatment of infected people, imp...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Laidemitt MR, Buddenborg SK, Lewis LL, Michael LE, Sanchez MJ, Hewitt R, Loker ES Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Severe Anemia Is Associated with Systemic Inflammation in Young Children Presenting to a Tertiary Hospital in Uganda.
Abstract The role of inflammation in severe anemia (SA) in African children has not been well characterized. We conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for SA in young children admitted at a tertiary unit in Uganda. Clinical, infectious, and micronutrient risk factors for anemia, along with markers of inflammation, were evaluated in children aged
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Opoka RO, Conroy AL, Waiswa A, Wasswa R, Tumwine JK, Karamagi C, John CC Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Village Response to Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis in Mwanza Region, Northwestern Tanzania: Are We Missing Socioeconomic, Cultural, and Political Dimensions?
Abstract Praziquantel (PZQ)-based mass drug administration (MDA) is the main approach for controlling schistosomiasis in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of clean and safe water, minimizing contacts with infested water, disposal of human waste in latrines, and snail control provide additional key interventions to break the transmission cycle and could complement and perhaps sustain the benefits of MDA. However, all interventions deployed need to be accepted by the targeted communities. A qualitative study was conducted to examine factors that might differentiate villages which did not show a ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mwanga JR, Kinung'hi SM, Mosha J, Angelo T, Maganga J, Campbell C Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Recurrent Clinical Symptoms of COVID-19 in Healthcare Professionals: A Series of Cases from Brazil.
We report cases with recurrence of symptoms compatible with COVID-19, with positive RT-PCR results, that could represent the occurrence of viral reactivation or reinfection. The true nature of this phenomenon should be better clarified in future studies. PMID: 32888288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernandes Valente Takeda C, Moura de Almeida M, Gonçalves de Aguiar Gomes R, Cisne Souza T, Alves de Lima Mota M, Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti L, Baima Colares JK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Correlation between Negative Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test and Severe Disease in Hospitalized Adults with Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Virus Infection.
Abstract False-negative rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) results could mislead physicians to exclude an influenza diagnosis. We sought to evaluate the association between negative RIDT and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We reviewed data from hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infections in a tertiary referral hospital in Taiwan from July 2009 to February 2011. The diagnosis was documented by real-time PCR or virus culture. Of 134 hospitalized adults infected with influenza virus, 38 (28%) were admitted to the ICU. Compared with RIDT-positive patients, the percentage of ICU ad...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Huang PY, Su CP, Liu SW, Kao KC, Hsieh YC, Huang CT Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Spatial Exposure of Agricultural Antimicrobial Resistance in Relation to Free-Ranging Domestic Chicken Movement Patterns among Agricultural Communities in Ecuador.
Abstract The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in chicken farming has been commonly associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in humans. Most of this work, however, has been focused on intensive large-scale operations. Intensive small-scale farming that regularly uses antibiotics is increasing worldwide and has different exposure pathways compared with large-scale farming, most notably the spatial connection between chickens and households. In these communities, free-ranging backyard chickens (not fed antibiotics) can roam freely, whereas broiler chickens (fed antibiotics) are reared in the...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hedman HD, Zhang L, Trueba G, Vinueza Rivera DL, Zurita Herrera RA, Villacis Barrazueta JJ, Gavilanes Rodriguez GI, Butt B, Foufopoulos J, Berrocal VJ, Eisenberg JNS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Chronic Fungal Meningitis Masquerading as Tubercular Meningitis.
Abstract Phaeohyphomycosis causes a wide spectrum of systemic manifestations and can affect even the immunocompetent hosts. Involvement of the central nervous system is rare. A 48-year-old farmer presented with chronic headache, fever, and impaired vision and hearing. Serial MRIs of the brain showed enhancing exudates in the basal cisterns, and lesions in the sella and perichiasmatic and cerebellopontine angle regions along with enhancement of the cranial nerves and leptomeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed lymphocytic pleocytosis with elevated protein and decreased glucose on multiple occasions. Clinical, i...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hesarur N, Seshagiri DV, Nagappa M, Rao S, Santosh V, Chandrashekar N, Reddy N, Sharma PP, Kumari P, Pruthi N, Shukla D, Saini J, Taly AB, Sinha S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Management of Childhood Infections in Poorly Planned Urban Settlements in Kampala and Wakiso Districts of Uganda.
Abstract The main objective of this study was to assess the management of childhood infections in high-density poorly planned urban areas of Kampala and Wakiso districts in Uganda, to develop a strategy to deliver integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness services. A total of 72 private healthcare facilities were surveyed (36 drug shops, eight pharmacies, 27 private clinics, and one herbal clinic); supplemented by focus group discussions with village health teams (VHTs), drug shops, and private clinic providers. The majority of drug shops (96.4%, 27/28), pharmacies (100%, 8/8), and (68%, pri...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mbonye AK, Awor P, Kayendeke M, Hansen KS, Magnussen P, Clarke SE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Six New Cases of Melioidosis in the Indian Ocean Region: Comoros, Madagascar, Reunion Island.
lou N Abstract Melioidosis is an emerging disease caused by the environmental Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis has been reported to be endemic mainly in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Here, we report the first two cases of melioidosis on the Comorian island of Mayotte. We also describe four cases that occurred over a short period of time in patients who had traveled between Mayotte, Madagascar, and Reunion Island. PMID: 32876008 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Renou A, Miltgen G, Blondé R, Jean F, Allyn J, Allou N Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

It Ain't Over Till It's Over: The Triple Threat of COVID-19, TB, and HIV.
Abstract It Ain't Over Till It's Over: The Triple Threat of COVID-19, TB, and HIV. PMID: 32876009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kay AW, Ness TE, Martinez L, Mandalakas AM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Primary Prophylaxis to Prevent Tuberculosis Infection in Prison Inmates: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
oda J Abstract In many low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in prisons is high, exposing incarcerated populations to an elevated risk of TB infection. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among HIV-negative male inmates of a high TB burden prison to determine whether isoniazid given twice weekly (900 mg) for 12 months prevents TB infection. The primary outcome was QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Plus (QFT) conversion to ≥ 0.35 international units per milliliter (IU/mL) at 6 months; secondary outcomes included alternative QFT thresholds (≥ 0.7, ≥ 2.0, and ≥ 4...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dias de Oliveira R, da Silva Santos A, Reis CB, de Cássia Leite A, Correia Sacchi FP, Araujo RP, Dos Santos PP, Rolla VC, Martinez L, Andrews J, Croda J Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Paralytic Ileus: A Potential Extrapulmonary Manifestation of Severe COVID-19.
We report two cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by paralytic ileus. The first patient was a 33-year-old man who was hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ventilator support and intensive care. He developed large bowel dilatation and perforation of the mid-transverse colon, and underwent laparotomy and colonic resection. Histopathology of the resected bowel specimen showed acute inflammation, necrosis, and hemorrhage, supporting a role for COVID-19-induced micro-thrombosis leading to perforation. The second patient was a 33-year-old man who had severe COVID-19 pneumonia, renal failure, and acute panc...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ibrahim YS, Karuppasamy G, Parambil JV, Alsoub H, Al-Shokri SD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Adrenal Pathology Findings in Severe COVID-19: An Autopsy Study.
In conclusion, adrenal lesions are frequent in patients with severe COVID-19. The lesions are mild but could contribute to the lethal outcome. PMID: 32876012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Freire Santana M, Borba MGS, Baía-da-Silva DC, Val F, Alexandre MAA, Brito-Sousa JD, Melo GC, Queiroga MVO, Leão Farias ME, Camilo CC, Naveca FG, Xavier MS, Monteiro WM, Hajjar LA, Ordi J, Lacerda MVG, Ferreira LCL Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Space-Time Conditional Autoregressive Modeling to Estimate Neighborhood-Level Risks for Dengue Fever in Cali, Colombia.
Abstract Vector-borne diseases affect more than 1 billion people a year worldwide, causing more than 1 million deaths, and cost hundreds of billions of dollars in societal costs. Mosquitoes are the most common vectors responsible for transmitting a variety of arboviruses. Dengue fever (DENF) has been responsible for nearly 400 million infections annually. Dengue fever is primarily transmitted by female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Because both Aedes species are peri-domestic and container-breeding mosquitoes, dengue surveillance should begin at the local level-where a variety of local factors may...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Desjardins MR, Eastin MD, Paul R, Casas I, Delmelle EM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

No Evidence of Acute Dengue Virus Infections at a Rural Site in Western Kenya, 2011 and 2013.
Abstract The incidence and spread of dengue virus (DENV) have increased rapidly in recent decades. Dengue is underreported in Africa, but recent outbreaks and seroprevalence data suggest that DENV is widespread there. A lack of ongoing surveillance limits knowledge about its spatial reach and hinders disease control planning. We sought to add data on dengue distribution in Kenya through diagnostic testing of serum specimens from persons with an acute febrile illness (AFI) attending an outpatient clinic in rural western Kenya (Asembo) during rainy seasons. Patients with symptoms not likely to be misclassified as de...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Matheson AI, Mogeni OD, Lacsina JR, Ochieng M, Audi A, Bigogo G, Neatherlin J, Margolis HS, Fields B, Ahenda P, Walson JL, Montgomery JM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Polio in Afghanistan: The Current Situation amid COVID-19.
Abstract Polio is a deadly viral disease that has been paralyzing many children in Afghanistan. Despite fundamental efforts, primarily vaccination, to reduce the number of cases in Afghanistan, there are still many children who are deprived of the vaccine every year. Afghanistan is one of the two remaining countries endemic for polio, and the country has undergone various challenges that have hampered the eradication of this disease. The underlying challenges include inaccessibility of unsecured areas, illiteracy, refusal, and, most recently, COVID-19. The country is in the midst of a battle against COVID-19, and ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ahmadi A, Essar MY, Lin X, Adebisi YA, Lucero-Prisno DE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Identification of Exertional Hypoxia and Its Implications in SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia.
Abstract Identification of Exertional Hypoxia and Its Implications in SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia. PMID: 32851969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hussain T, Saman HT, Yousaf Z Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Reporting COVID-19 A Conversation with Jon Cohen of Science.
PMID: 32851970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dunavan CP Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Fumigation of Schools for COVID-19 Prevention in Nigeria: The Need for a Rethink.
Abstract The government of Nigeria ordered closure of schools to slow the spread of COVID-19 when the pandemic hit the country. About 5 months into the outbreak, secondary schools have been reopened to allow students to write their terminal examinations. Many state governments and school owners are fumigating their schools as a way of disinfecting the school environment and ensuring safe resumption of academic activities. We discuss the undue attention given to fumigation in this instance and stress the importance of addressing more beneficial and sustainable strategies to prevent COVID-19 in Nigerian schools. ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oyeyemi A, Adesina A, Ogoina D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Evaluation of PfHRP2 and PfLDH Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance in Assosa Zone, Ethiopia.
The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performances of PfHRP2 and PfLDH RDTs using microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a reference test. A health facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from malaria-suspected study participants at selected health centers from November to December 2018. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for microscopy, RDTs, and qPCR method. The prevalence of P. falciparum was 26.4%, 30.3%, and 24.1% as determined by microscopy, PfHRP2 RDT, and PfLDH RDT, respectively. Compared with microscopy, the sensitivity and specificity of the PfHRP2 RDT were 96% an...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alemayehu GS, Lopez K, Dieng CC, Lo E, Janies D, Golassa L Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Maternal Hookworm Infection and Its Effects on Maternal Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Hookworm is an intestinal parasite that infects nearly 230 million people, with another 5.1 billion at risk, especially in poverty-stricken tropical and subtropical regions. Pregnancy is an especially vulnerable time for hookworm infection because of its effect on both maternal and subsequently fetal health. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The meta-analysis was performed on the association between maternal hookworm and maternal anemia, as well as maternal hookworm coinfection with malaria. The prevalence of hookworm ranged from 1% to 78% in pregnant women, whereas malaria prevalence r...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ness TE, Agrawal V, Bedard K, Ouellette L, Erickson TA, Hotez P, Weatherhead JE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Risk Factors for Mortality in Critically Ill Women Admitted to an Obstetric High-Dependency Unit in Sierra Leone.
Abstract A better understanding of the context-specific epidemiology, outcomes, and risk factors for death of critically ill parturients in resource-poor hospitals is needed to tackle the still alarming in-hospital maternal mortality in African countries. From October 2017 to October 2018, we performed a 1-year retrospective cohort study in a referral maternity hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone. The primary endpoint was the association between risk factors and high-dependency unit (HDU) mortality. Five hundred twenty-three patients (median age 25 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 21-30 years) were admitted to the...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marotta C, Pisani L, Di Gennaro F, Cavallin F, Bah S, Pisani V, Haniffa R, Beane A, Trevisanuto D, Hanciles E, Schultz MJ, Koroma MM, Putoto G Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Use of Ov16-Based Serology for Post-Elimination Surveillance of Onchocerciasis in Ecuador.
Unnasch TR Abstract Onchocerciasis is a blinding disease caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, with a worldwide distribution. Onchocerciasis has been targeted for regional elimination based on annual and semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin in endemic communities over several years. This strategy in Ecuador led to the interruption of transmission and suspension of ivermectin MDA in 2009 with certification of elimination in 2014. In the present study, we analyzed sera collected in 2018 from 123 children aged 5-9 years from formerly hyperendemic communities in the Esmeraldas focu...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Guevara Á, Salazar E, Vicuña Y, Hassan HK, Antonio M, Guderian R, Cooper PJ, Unnasch TR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Impact of Low-Cost Point-of-Use Water Treatment Technologies on Enteric Infections and Growth among Children in Limpopo, South Africa.
Abstract Enteric infections early in life have been associated with poor linear growth among children in low-resource settings. Point-of-use water treatment technologies provide effective and low-cost solutions to reduce exposure to enteropathogens from drinking water, but it is unknown whether the use of these technologies translates to improvements in child growth. We conducted a community-based randomized controlled trial of two water treatment technologies to estimate their effects on child growth in Limpopo, South Africa. We randomized 404 households with a child younger than 3 years to receive a silver-impre...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hill CL, McCain K, Nyathi ME, Edokpayi JN, Kahler DM, Operario DJ, Taylor DDJ, Wright NC, Smith JA, Guerrant RL, Samie A, Dillingham RA, Bessong PO, Rogawski McQuade ET Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Multicountry Comparison of Three Coverage Evaluation Survey Sampling Methodologies for Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Abstract Coverage evaluation surveys (CESs) are an important complement to routinely reported drug coverage estimates following mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Although the WHO recommends the routine use of CESs, they are rarely implemented. Reasons for this low uptake are multifaceted; one is uncertainty on the best sampling method. We conducted a multicountry study to compare the statistical characteristics, cost, time, and complexity of three commonly used CES sampling methods: the Expanded Program on Immunization's (EPI's) 30 × 7 cluster survey, a stratified design with s...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gass K, Deming M, Bougma R, Drabo F, Tukahebwa EM, Mkwanda S, Velasquez RT, Mejia RE, Mbabazi PS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Malaria Diagnosed in an Urban Setting Strongly Associated with Recent Overnight Travel: A Case-Control Study from Kampala, Uganda.
Abstract Malaria is frequently diagnosed in urban Kampala, despite low transmission intensity. To evaluate the association between recent travel out of Kampala and malaria, we conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were febrile outpatients with a positive malaria test; controls were febrile outpatients with a negative test. For every two cases, five controls were selected, matching on age. Data were collected on recent overnight travel out of Kampala (past 60 days), destination and duration of travel, and behavioral factors, including sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) during travel. From July ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Arinaitwe E, Mpimbaza A, Nankabirwa JI, Kamya V, Asiimwe A, Kuule JK, Kamya MR, Drakeley C, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Staedke SG Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research