Chikungunya Outbreaks in India: A Prospective Study Comparing Neutralization and Sequelae during Two Outbreaks in 2010 and 2016.
Abstract Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a major public health concern and is caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In 2005, the virus was reintroduced into India, resulting in massive outbreaks in several parts of the country. During 2010 and 2016 outbreaks, we recruited 588 patients from a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India, during the acute phase of CHIKF; collected their blood and clinical data; and determined their arthralgic status 12 weeks post-onset of fever. We evaluated IgM/IgG CHIKV-binding antibodies and their neutralizing capacity, sequenced complete genomes of 21 CHIKV strains, and correlated mut...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jain J, Kaur N, Haller SL, Kumar A, Rossi SL, Narayanan V, Kumar D, Gaind R, Weaver SC, Auguste AJ, Sunil S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Propranolol Reduces Portal Vein Diameter in Schistosomal Liver with Portal Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Abstract Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) complicates portal hypertension, leading to life-threatening variceal bleeding. Variceal bleeding is associated with increased portal vein diameter (PVD). Beta-blockers prevent variceal bleeding. It is unclear whether beta-blockers such as propranolol can reduce PVD in HSS. We aimed to explore the effect of propranolol on PVD in HSS. A longitudinal study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia, as an extension of a clinical trial of rifaximin undertaken to test the hypothesis that rifaximin could reduce bacterial translocation in HSS. We randomized 85 ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sinkala E, Vinikoor M, Zyambo K, Besa E, Nsokolo B, Kelly P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Optimizing the Number of Child Deaths Averted with Mass Azithromycin Distribution.
Abstract Biannual mass azithromycin distribution to children younger than 5 years has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Antibiotic-sparing approaches to azithromycin distribution, such as targeting to younger children who are at higher risk of mortality, are being considered by policymakers. We evaluated the absolute number of deaths averted in the Macrolides Oraux pour Réduire le Décès avec un Oeil sur la Résistance study in three age-groups: 1-5 months, 1-11 months, and 1-59 months. The number of deaths averted decreased from 729 (95% CI 492 to 966) in ch...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oldenburg CE, Arzika AM, Maliki R, Lin Y, O'Brien KS, Keenan JD, Lietman TM, For The Mordor Study Group Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Malaria Parasitemia and Nutritional Status during the Low Transmission Season in the Presence of Azithromycin Distribution among Preschool Children in Niger.
Abstract The relationship between malaria and malnutrition is complicated, and existence of one may predispose or exacerbate the other. We evaluated the relationship between malaria parasitemia and nutritional status in children living in communities participating in a cluster-randomized trial of biannual azithromycin compared with placebo for prevention of childhood mortality. Data were collected during the low malaria transmission and low food insecurity season. Parasitemia was not associated with weight-for-height Z-score (24 months: P = 0.11 azithromycin communities, P = 0.75 placebo communities), weight-for-a...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Arzika AM, Maliki R, Boubacar N, Kane S, Cook CA, Lebas E, Lin Y, O'Brien KS, Austin A, Keenan JD, Lietman TM, Oldenburg CE, For The Mordor Study Group Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Impact of Biannual Azithromycin on Anemia in Preschool Children in Kilosa District, Tanzania: A Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial.
Abstract A cluster-randomized clinical trial showed that biannual single-dose azithromycin reduced mortality in preschool children; we sought to determine the effect on anemia. A simple random sample of 30 communities from Kilosa district, Tanzania, were themselves randomized to receive either 6-monthly treatment of children aged 1-59 months with single-dose azithromycin or placebo. From each community, 40 preschool children were randomly selected at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. At surveys, the children underwent hemoglobin testing; WHO definitions for anemia were applied. After adjusting for community clus...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bloch EM, Munoz B, Weaver J, Mrango Z, Lietman TM, West SK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Household Costs Associated with Hospitalization of Children with Severe Pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador.
er DH Abstract Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. The total cost of pneumonia-related hospitalization, including household-level cost, is poorly understood. To better understand this burden in an urban setting in South America, we incorporated a cost study into a trial assessing zinc supplements in treatment of severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months at a public hospital in Quito, Ecuador, which provides such treatment at no charge. Data were collected from children's caregivers at hospitalization and discharge on out-of-pocket payments for medical and nonmedic...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sabin LL, Estrella B, Sempértegui F, Farquahar N, Mesic A, Halim N, Lin CY, Rodriguez O, Hamer DH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: An Adolescent Girl with Isolated Neuropsychiatric Features and Apparent Post-Malaria Neurological Syndrome.
Abstract The post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is an unusual and relatively underreported complication of malaria, which usually occurs after the resolution of acute febrile illness and the patient is free from parasitemia. The clinical spectrum of the PMNS varies from acute-onset cerebellar ataxia to significant encephalopathy with focal deficits resembling acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Uncommon presentations of PMNS include Guillain-Barre syndrome, postural tremor, or even isolated neuropsychiatric features. Although in a significant proportion of PMNS cases clinical resolution occurs with conser...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Panda PK, Sharawat IK, Panda PK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Biannual Treatment of Preschool Children with Single Dose Azithromycin to Reduce Mortality: Impact on Azithromycin Resistance in the MORDOR Trial in Tanzania.
Abstract The Macrolides Oraux pour Réduire les Décès avec un Oeil sur la Résistance study showed that administration of biannual, single-dose azithromycin to preschool children reduces mortality. We sought to evaluate its impact on azithromycin resistance. Thirty randomly selected communities in Kilosa district, Tanzania, were randomized to receive 6-monthly single-dose azithromycin (∼20 mg/kg) versus placebo treatment of children aged 1-59 months. From each community, 40 children (aged 1-59 months) were randomly selected at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Isolation and resistance testi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bloch EM, Coles CL, Kasubi M, Weaver J, Mrango Z, Munoz B, Lietman TM, West SK Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Impact of Education on Knowledge and Practice of Kala Azar Preventive Measures among Seasonal and Migrant Agricultural Workers in Northwest Ethiopia.
Abstract Kala azar occurs among seasonal and migrant agricultural workers in northwest Ethiopia and accounts for almost 60% of the disease burden in the country. We conducted a quantitative study on the level of knowledge and practice of this vulnerable group in relation to kala azar transmission and acceptability of its vector control tools. A total of 403 workers were randomly selected from eight farms using a purposive sampling technique. Knowledge and practice scores were calculated based on 12 and 9 core questions, respectively. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with knowledge...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alemayehu M, Paintain L, Adera C, Berhe R, Gebeyehu A, Gizaw Z, Herrero M, Mulugeta Beshah A, Den Boer M, Nigusie A, Alem M, Yechale E, Elnaiem DA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Clinical Presentation and Response to Therapy in Children with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
In conclusion, our data indicate that there are significant differences in the clinical presentation of CL between children and adults. Physicians caring for children with CL should be aware that lesions may take longer to heal and remain alert for the possibility of higher odds of therapeutic failure in this group. PMID: 32043440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Suprien C, Rocha PN, Teixeira M, Carvalho LP, Guimarães LH, Bonvoisin T, Machado PRL, Carvalho EM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Fever Management in Sickle Cell Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Survey of SCD Management Programs.
Abstract Management of fever is a key element of care for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). There exist few studies of current practices in managing fevers in SCD in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and malaria-endemic regions where SCD is prevalent. We surveyed medical providers in these settings to characterize current practices in infection prevention and fever management for children with SCD. We found wide variation in use of newborn screening for early diagnosis and infection prevention, pneumococcal vaccination, use of antibiotics and antimalarials, and route of antibiotic administration. Cou...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Coria AL, Taylor CM, Tubman VN Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Interruption of Transmission of Human Onchocerciasis by an Annual Mass Drug Administration Program in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria.
Abstract Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria were endemic for onchocerciasis. The rural populations of these two states received annual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for a period of 8-26 years (1992-2017). Ivermectin combined with albendazole was given for 8-13 of these years for lymphatic filariasis (LF); the LF MDA program successfully concluded in 2012, but ivermectin MDA continued in areas known to have a baseline meso-/hyperendemic onchocerciasis. In 2017, serological and entomological assessments were undertaken to determine if MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped in accordance with...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Richards FO, Eigege A, Umaru J, Kahansim B, Adelamo S, Kadimbo J, Danboyi J, Mafuyai H, Saka Y, Noland GS, Anyaike C, Igbe M, Rakers L, Griswold E, Unnasch TR, Nwoke BEB, Miri E Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Entomological Investigation Detects Dengue Virus Type 1 in Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) during the 2015-16 Outbreak in Hawaii.
Abstract A dengue outbreak occurred on Hawaii Island between September 2015 and March 2016. Entomological investigations were undertaken between December 2015 and February 2016 to determine which Aedes mosquito species were responsible for the outbreak. A total of 3,259 mosquitoes were collected using a combination of CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps, Biogents BG-Sentinel traps, and hand-nets; immature mosquitoes were collected during environmental surveys. The composition of species was Aedes albopictus (58%), Aedes aegypti (25%), Wyeomyia mitchelli (7%), Aedes vexans (5%), Culex quinquefasciatus (4%), and Aedes jap...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hasty JM, Felix GE, Amador M, Barrera R, Santiago GS, Nakasone L, Park SY, Okoji S, Honda E, Asuncion B, Save M, Munoz-Jordan JL, Martinez-Conde S, Medina FA, Waterman SH, Petersen LR, Johnston DI, Hemme RR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Behavioral Aspects of Phlebotomine Sand Flies Associated with a Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Atl ántico, Northern Colombia.
Behavioral Aspects of Phlebotomine Sand Flies Associated with a Case of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Atlántico, Northern Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Feb 10;: Authors: Santamaría E, Cabrera OL, Marceló C, Goenaga-Olaya S, Maestre-Serrano R Abstract After the first autochthonous case of cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in the Atlántico department in the Caribbean region of Colombia, entomological sampling was conducted in the specific areas where the infection might have occurred. CDC traps were installed inside and outside dwellings in the peri-urban and rural areas ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Santamaría E, Cabrera OL, Marceló C, Goenaga-Olaya S, Maestre-Serrano R Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Modifications in a Reference Freeze-Dried Direct Agglutination Test to Improve Visceral Leishmaniasis Detection.
Abstract Currently, a significantly lower temperature (35°C) than initially established (56°C) is indicated as the maximum temperature storage for the commercial reference visceral leishmaniasis (VL) freeze-dried direct agglutination test (FD-DAT). Despite an approximately 50% loss in the number of promastigotes in an FD-DAT batch that expired 7 years earlier, the promastigotes maintained a similar morphology to the equivalent valid batch implying most likely that auto-agglutination, rather than aging, is the main reason for expiry. The substitution of normal saline by citrate-saline, which was initially r...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Harith AE, Awad Y, Mahamoud A, Abass E, Mansour D, Moura de Melo C, Madi RR, Semiao-Santos SJ, Osman HA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Prevalence and Outcomes of Sepsis in Adult Patients in Two Hospitals in Malawi.
In conclusion, sepsis is common and is associated with a high risk of death in admitted patients in hospitals in Malawi. In low-resource settings, qSOFA score that uses commonly available vital signs data may be a tool that could be used for identifying patients at risk-both for those with and without a suspected infection. PMID: 32043446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kayambankadzanja RK, Schell CO, Namboya F, Phiri T, Banda-Katha G, Mndolo SK, Bauleni A, Castegren M, Baker T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Successful Treatment of a Patient with Microfilaremic Dirofilariasis Using Doxycycline.
We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with microfilaremic dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens, which is a very rare condition in humans. Of note, just one of six large-volume blood samples of this patient was positive for microfilariae. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the parasite gene determined the geographic origin of the causative helminth. The patient was treated successfully with doxycycline. This drug was chosen because of the patient's reluctance to the use of ivermectin and to provide an anthelmintic effect by targeting the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia present in most filarial specie...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lechner AM, Gastager H, Kern JM, Wagner B, Tappe D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Impact of Doxycycline as Malaria Prophylaxis on Risk of Influenza-Like Illness among International Travelers.
Abstract Travelers are often at risk for both influenza-like illness (ILI) and malaria. Doxycycline is active against pathogens causing ILI and is used for malaria prophylaxis. We evaluated the risk factors for ILI, and whether the choice of malaria prophylaxis was associated with ILI. TravMil is a prospective observational study enrolling subjects presenting to military travel clinics. Influenza-like illness was defined as subjective fever with either a sore throat or cough. Characteristics of trip and use of malaria prophylaxis were analyzed to determine association with development of ILI. Poisson regression mo...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lago K, Telu K, Tribble D, Ganesan A, Kunz A, Geist C, Fraser J, Mitra I, Lalani T, Yun H, For The Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program TravMil Study Group Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Survey of Schistosomiasis in Saint Lucia: Evidence for Interruption of Transmission.
Abstract Saint Lucia at one time had levels of schistosomiasis prevalence and morbidity as high as many countries in Africa. However, as a result of control efforts and economic development, including more widespread access to sanitation and safe water, schistosomiasis on the island has practically disappeared. To evaluate the current status of schistosomiasis in Saint Lucia, we conducted a nationally representative school-based survey of 8-11-year-old children for prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections using circulating antigen and specific antibody detection methods. We also conducted a questionnaire about...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gaspard J, Usey MM, Fredericks-James M, Sanchez MJ, Atkins L, Campbell CH, Corstjens PLAM, van Dam GJ, Colley DG, Secor WE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Challenges to Making the Decision to Stop Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis: Lessons Learned from Nigeria.
Abstract Challenges to Making the Decision to Stop Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis: Lessons Learned from Nigeria. PMID: 32043450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Evans DS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Ash and Orihel's Atlas for the Ages.
Abstract Ash and Orihel's Atlas for the Ages. PMID: 32043451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Panosian Dunavan C Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Antibodies to Hepatitis C in the General Population of Benue State, Central Nigeria.
Abstract There have been various estimates of the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections in Nigeria. Recent studies have shown the prevalence to be lower than previously reported. The different populations studied might be responsible for this. It is important to have a real population data that would inform the policies to be adopted for eradication. We set out to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and pattern of hepatitis B and C in Benue State, Central Nigeria. Four thousand and five (4,005) subjects, aged 1 year and older, were selected through a multistage random sampling to represent all parts of th...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Malu AO, Achinge GI, Utoo PM, Kur JT, Obekpa SA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Associations among Soil-Transmitted Helminths, G6PD Deficiency and Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia, and Anemia in Schoolchildren from a Conflict Zone of Northeast Myanmar.
This study revealed a high prevalence of G6PDd, STHs, and anemia in schools located in a conflict zone. In areas where malnutrition and STH infections are rampant, testing for both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and anemia should be considered before treating vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines. PMID: 32043453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zeng W, Malla P, Xu X, Pi L, Zhao L, He X, He Y, Menezes LJ, Cui L, Yang Z Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium leprae in a Case of Smear-Negative Relapse.
We report a case of multidrug-resistant M. leprae in a case of relapse where slit skin smear (SSS) was negative and histopathology was inconclusive. Drug resistance studies in leprosy are undertaken only in smear-positive relapse cases, and detection of this type of multidrug resistance in a case with negative SSS and innocuous histopathology is rather unusual and highlights the importance of undertaking drug resistance tests even in smear-negative cases of leprosy relapse. Resistance to ofloxacin (OFL) is also a cause for concern as OFL is one of the reserve drugs recommended for treatment of rifampicin-resistant strains....
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kamat D, Narang T, Ahuja M, Lavania M, Dogra S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Genomic and Phylogenetic Analysis of Zika Virus Isolates from Asymptomatic Blood Donors in the United States and Puerto Rico, 2016.
In this study, we showed the circulation of two slightly distinct virus strains among Puerto Rico blood donors, one of which was also reported in Florida. PMID: 32043455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Assis FL, Sippert E, Rocha BC, Volkova E, Fares-Gusmao R, Ok S, Chancey C, Rios M Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

An Epidemiological Survey of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in a Lightly Infected Community, Eastern Thailand.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of O. viverrini infection in a northeastern-descendent community in rural Sa Kaeo Province, eastern Thailand, using stool examination and molecular technique. The Kato-Katz method was performed to determine eggs per gram (EPG) for infection intensity. Phosphate-buffered saline-ethyl acetate concentration was used to prepare specimens for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA. From 1,245 specimens, 105 (8.4%) samples were identified as Opisthorchis-like eggs from stool...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Boondit J, Suwannahitatorn P, Siripattanapipong S, Leelayoova S, Mungthin M, Tan-Ariya P, Piyaraj P, Naaglor T, Ruang-Areerate T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Comparison of Face Washing and Face Wiping Methods for Trachoma Control: A Pilot Study.
Abstract Eye-to-eye transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma, may be plausibly interrupted if faces are kept free of ocular and nasal discharge. Between April and June 2018, 83 children aged 1-9 years with active trachoma were recruited from 62 households and allocated to a face cleaning protocol: face washing with water, face washing with water and soap, or face wiping. Faces were examined for the presence of ocular and nasal discharge, and swabs were taken from faces and hands to test for C. trachomatis at baseline, immediately post protocol, and after 1, 2, and 4 hours (washing pro...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Czerniewska A, Versteeg A, Shafi O, Dumessa G, Aga MA, Last A, MacLeod D, Sarah V, Dodson S, Negussu N, Sori BK, Kirumba M, Biran A, Cairncross S, Burton MJ, Greenland K Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Interactions of Schistosoma and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.
Abstract Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. More than 220 million people worldwide were estimated to have active schistosomiasis in 2017, 90% of whom live on the African continent, but only 102 million were reported to have received treatment. Africa is also disproportionately burdened by HIV, with an estimated 26 million people living with HIV in 2017. Given these overlapping epidemics, we conducted a systematic review to ascertain the contribution of schistosomes to HIV acquisition risk, the contribution of HIV to schistosome acquisition, th...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Furch BD, Koethe JR, Kayamba V, Heimburger DC, Kelly P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

First Description of Seronegative HTLV-1 Carriers in Argentina.
tes S Abstract In some areas of Argentina endemic for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), tropical spastic paraparesis is frequent in subjects who lack antibodies against the virus; however, the relevance of this seronegative status in the country has not been investigated. In neighboring countries, HTLV-1-seronegative status has been described in patients with different diseases; however, data regarding features of seronegative HTLV-1 carriers are scarce. We investigated the seronegative status in 124 relatives of 28 HTLV-1-infected subjects from an endemic area in Northwest Argentina. Blood samples and c...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gallego S, Frutos MC, Blanco S, Castro G, Balangero M, Elías Panigo D, Mangeaud A, Remondegui C, Santos Rocha A, Melo Franco G, Lobato Martins M, Barbosa-Stancioli EF, Nates S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Absence of Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Cord Blood and Urine from Newborns with Congenital Abnormalities, Indonesia.
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently been confirmed as endemic in Indonesia, but no congenital anomalies (CA) related to ZIKV infection have been reported. We performed molecular and serological testing for ZIKV and other flaviviruses on cord serum and urine samples collected in October 2016 to April 2017 during a prospective, cross-sectional study of neonates in Jakarta, Indonesia. Of a total of 429 neonates, 53 had CA, including 14 with microcephaly. These 53, and 113 neonate controls without evidence of CA, were tested by ZIKV-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), pan-f...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Putri ND, Dhenni R, Handryastuti S, Johar E, Ma'roef CN, Fadhilah A, Perma Iskandar AT, Prayitno A, Karyanti MR, Satari HI, Jumiyanti N, Aprilia YY, Sriyani IY, Dewi YP, Yudhaputri FA, Safari D, Hadinegoro SR, Rosenberg R, Powers AM, Aye Myint KS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome in Chagas Disease.
Abstract Chronic Chagas heart disease has different clinical manifestations including arrhythmias, heart failure, and stroke. Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms and when associated with changes in the electrocardiogram, such as T-wave changes, electrically inactive areas, and segmental wall motion abnormalities, may lead to a misdiagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Here, we describe two patients with Chagas heart disease and syncope due to sustained ventricular tachycardia who were misdiagnosed with ACS, and discuss the role of novel imaging modalities in the differential diagnosis and risk strat...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Moll-Bernardes RJ, Saraiva RM, Sarmento de Oliveira R, Tavares Pinheiro MV, Camargo GC, Xavier de Brito AS, Altino de Almeida S, Siqueira FPR, de Souza Nogueira Sardinha Mendes F, Barbosa RM, Xavier SS, Rosado de Castro PH, Silvestre de Sousa A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Typhoid in Laos: An 18-Year Perspective.
We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection in Laos based on isolates accrued over 18 years at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane. All blood cultures collected from patients presenting with fever submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Mahosot Hospital (February 2000-December 2018) were included. This included patients from Vientiane and four provincial hospitals and one typhoid outbreak investigation. A total of 913 (1.5%) of 60,384 blood cultures were positive for S. Typhi. The majority of isolates with data available (712/898, 79.3%) were ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Roberts T, Rattanavong S, Phommasone K, Chansamouth V, Davong V, Keoluangkhot V, Hongsakhone S, Bounsavath N, Mayxay M, Vongsouvath M, Dance DAB, Newton PN Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Decline in Total Serum IgE and Soluble CD30 in the Context of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Decline in Bolivia.
Abstract In the Bolivian Chaco, recent surveys documented a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections as compared with the 1980s after thirty years of preventive chemotherapy (PC). Concomitant immunological rearrangements are expected. Because nematode infections are associated with increased levels of circulating IgE and glycoprotein CD30 soluble form (sCD30), this study aims to evaluate changes in serological markers of T helper (Th)2-cells activity between 1987 (high STH prevalence) and 2013 (low STH prevalence) in rural communities in the Bolivian Chaco area. We collecte...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Della Bella C, Spinicci M, Rojo D, Grassi A, Gamboa H, Benagiano M, Torrez R, Tapinassi S, Gabrielli S, Cancrini G, Macchioni F, Alnwaisri H, Azzurri A, Monasterio J, Montresor A, Olliaro P, D'Elios MM, Bartoloni A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Auditing Preparedness for Vector Control Field Studies.
Abstract The value of baseline entomological data to any future area-wide release campaign relies on the application of consistent methods to produce results comparable across different times and places in a stepwise progression to larger releases. Traditionally, standard operating procedures (SOPs) and operational plans support this consistency and, thus, the validity of emergent data. When release plans include transgenic mosquitoes for vector control or other novel beneficial insects, additional factors come into play such as biosafety permits, stakeholder acceptance, and ethics approval, which require even gre...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Collins CMT, Quinlan MM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Roadmap for the Development of Ivermectin as a Complementary Malaria Vector Control Tool.
Abstract In the context of stalling progress against malaria, resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides, and residual transmission, mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, an endectocide used for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), has emerged as a promising complementary vector control method. Ivermectin reduces the life span of Anopheles mosquitoes that feed on treated humans and/or livestock, potentially decreasing malaria parasite transmission when administered at the community level. Following the publication by WHO of the preferred product characteristics for endectocides as vector control tools, this r...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: The Ivermectin Roadmappers Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Ivermectin and Malaria-Putting an Elderly Drug to a New Test.
PMID: 31971159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Campbell WC Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Poultry Ownership Associated with Increased Risk of Child Diarrhea: Cross-Sectional Evidence from Uganda.
Abstract Domestic animals have been associated with enteric infections in young children and can also be carriers of respiratory viruses. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of health outcomes in children aged 5) of poultry had 83% higher diarrhea prevalence than those with ≤ 5 poultry (adjusted PR = 1.83 [1.04, 3.23], P = 0.04). Children in households with the above-median number (> 2) of cows had 48% lower prevalence of respiratory infection than those with ≤ 2 cows (adjusted PR = 0.52 [0.35, 0.76], P
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ercumen A, Prottas C, Harris A, Dioguardi A, Dowd G, Guiteras R Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Treatment of Sick Children Seeking Care in the Private Health Sector in Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.
In conclusion, the intervention improved treatment of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea because of provider adherence to treatment guidelines. The policy implications of these findings are to initiate a dialogue at district and national levels on how to scale up the intervention in the private sector. NCT02450630 registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: May 9, 2015. PMID: 31971139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mbonye AK, Buregyeya E, Rutebemberwa E, Lal S, Clarke SE, Hansen KS, Magnussen P, LaRussa P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Autochthonous Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in Corrientes Province, Argentina.
This study aims to describe an outbreak of Leishmania infantum-caused human CL in the Department Capital of Corrientes Province, Argentina. We retrospectively analyzed the reported cases of CL in this area from May 2015 to December 2016. Eighty cases of CL were clinically and analytically diagnosed, and there was one case of visceral leishmaniasis in a boy who also had CL. Patients' median age was 33.6 years (range 1-89 years), and 18.5% were younger than 15 years; the male:female ratio was 3.5:1. Cases lived mostly in the municipality of Corrientes (72.8%), whereas 27.2% resided in Riachuelo. Although 67.9% had a single l...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Acosta-Soto L, Encinas ES, Deschutter EJ, Pasetto RA, Petri-de-Odriozola EM, Bornay-Llinares FJ, Ramos-Rincón JM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Implementation Lessons from a Multifaceted National Newborn Program in Solomon Islands: A Mixed-Methods Study.
This study describes the implementation of an intervention to improve the quality of newborn care in the Solomon Islands, a small island developing state and lower middle-income country in the Western Pacific. Inputs included training, equipment provision, and healthcare system organizational changes. For evaluation, we used a mixed-methods design, using quantitative (audits of health facility equipment, structure, and organization) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews and focused group discussions with healthcare workers) methods. Participants highlighted the practical, interactive, coaching style of training and i...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tosif S, Jatobatu A, Maepio A, Gray A, Gilbert K, Hodgson J, Duke T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Limited Awareness of Hepatitis B but Widespread Recognition of Its Sequelae in Rural Senegal: A Qualitative Study.
Abstract To achieve the WHO's global strategy of eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, it is essential to ensure adequate understanding of hepatitis B disease to facilitate uptake of screening, linkage to care, and adherence to antiviral therapy. Sub-Saharan Africa has the world's highest prevalence of HBV infection, yet less than 1% of HBV-infected people have been diagnosed. Lay populations do not widely recognize "hepatitis B." Hypothesizing that visible signs and symptoms of chronic HBV infection sequelae (jaundice, ascites, or cachexia) might be more easily recognizable, we conducted a qual...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Boye S, Shimakawa Y, Vray M, Giles-Vernick T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Putting Guidance into Practice: Interpretation of the Oral Cholera Vaccine Recommendations for U.S. Travelers.
Abstract The American Committee on Immunization Practices recommends the use of the oral cholera vaccine (OCV) in international travelers aged 18-64 years who visit areas of active cholera transmission. CDC Travelers' Health Branch currently tracks areas of active cholera transmission and posts this information on their country-specific destination web pages at https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/list. Lessons learned from a webinar conducted among health care providers have led to improvements in how CDC shares information on the OCV. Here, we summarize the major considerations for providers offering the OC...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Conners EE, Angelo KM, Walker AT Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Systematic, Point-of-Care Urine Lipoarabinomannan (Alere TB-LAM) Assay for Diagnosing Tuberculosis in Severely Immunocompromised HIV-Positive Ambulatory Patients.
lla E Abstract Point-of-care urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) Alere Determine TB-LAM assay has shown utility diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-positive, severely immunocompromised, TB-symptomatic patients. We assessed LAM results in severely immunocompromised patients, who had LAM systematically performed at new or follow-up HIV consultations. This was a prospective, observational study on consecutive ambulatory,> 15-year-old HIV-positive patients with CD4
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Huerga H, Cossa L, Manhiça I, Bastard M, Telnov A, Molfino L, Sanchez-Padilla E Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Epidemiology of Hypoxemic Pneumonia among Young Infants in Malawi.
We describe hypoxemic pneumonia prevalence in outpatient and inpatient settings, in-hospital mortality, and clinical guideline performance for identifying hypoxemia in young infants in Malawi. In this retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, we investigate infants younger than 2 months participating in pneumonia surveillance at seven hospitals and 18 outpatient health centers in Malawi between 2011 and 2014. Logistic regression, multiple imputations with chained equations, and pattern mixture modeling were used to determine the association between peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) levels and hospital ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hooli S, King C, Zadutsa B, Nambiar B, Makwenda C, Masache G, Lufesi N, Mwansambo C, Malla L, Costello A, Colbourn T, McCollum ED Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in Pregnancy Mimicking Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.
In conclusion, in a patient with SSPE during the postpartum period, cortical vision loss and parieto-occipital white matter T2/FLAIR hyperintensities can simulate eclampsia. Inadvertent treatment with magnesium sulfate is likely if the diagnosis is missed. PMID: 31971157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sharma PK, Garg RK, Singla S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Does a Free-Trial Approach Increase Purchase and Use of a Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Product in Rural Haiti?
Abstract A cluster, randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effects of social marketing approach on purchase rates and water treatment behavior of Klorfasil, a chlorine-based household water treatment product among seven villages in Thomassique, Haiti, from May to December 2016. Villages were randomized to the free-trial (257 households) or cost-sharing (240 households) group. Households in the free-trial group were allowed 30 days of free Klorfasil use before purchase decision. Households who purchased Klorfasil were then followed up for 30, 60, and 180 days. At the last follow-up, respondents were a...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wu M, 蔡奉真 FT, Lin CP Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Analysis of Factors Influencing Cystic Echinococcosis in Northwest Non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Regions of China.
Abstract Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important health problem in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China. Understanding CE risk factors may help in formulating effective prevention and control measures. In the current study, negative binomial regression was used to analyze CE-related factors using prevalence data from 147 counties (cities, districts, and banners) in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China gathered from a national survey conducted in 2012, county economic data, and livestock production data for 2012. The negative binomial regression models indicated Echinococcus g...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zeng X, Guan Y, Wu W, Wang L, Cai H, Fang Q, Yu S, Zheng C Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Women's Health Perceptions and Beliefs Related to Zika Virus Exposure during the 2016 Outbreak in Northern Brazil.
Abstract During the 2016 Zika pandemic in Brazil, women's perceptions of infection risk, ability to adhere to Zika prevention strategies, or access to services following exposure were not emphasized in the public health response. Women in Fortaleza, Brazil, responded to a questionnaire on social factors related to perceived Zika risk and access to health care in June 2016. Data were coded using prespecified categories, and response frequency was reported. Of 37 respondents, most reported a lack of public services to support mosquito control (n = 19) or delayed access to reproductive health care (n = 14). Only 22% ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anderson EJ, Ernst KC, Fernando Martins F, da Silva Martins C, Koss MP Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Multiple Concurrent Illnesses Associated with Anemia in HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children Aged 6-59 Months, Hospitalized in Mozambique.
on TD Abstract Anemia is an increasingly recognized problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the magnitude, severity, and associated factors of anemia among hospitalized children aged 6-59 months, HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children (a child born to a known HIV-infected mother) with a documented fever or history of fever within the prior 24 hours of hospital admission (N = 413) were included in this analysis. Of 413 children enrolled, 364 (88%) were anemic, with 53% classified as mild anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] 7-9.9 g/dL). The most common diagnoses associated with hospital admission included acute re...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Duffy C, Kenga DB, Gebretsadik T, Maússe FE, Manjate A, Zaqueu E, Fernando HF, Green AF, Sacarlal J, Moon TD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Drought and Illness among Young Children in Uganda, 2009-2012.
We examined historical relationships between precipitation and diarrhea, cough, and fever among children aged 0-24 months in Uganda, a drought-prone region. Using data from the Uganda National Panel Survey from 2009 to 2012 (2,324 observations), we specified logistic regression models evaluating the relationships between deviations from annual and 30-day precipitation and caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and including enumeration of area-fixed effects. Nonlinearities were assessed using restricted cubic splines. We observed nonlinear (J-shaped) relationships betw...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Epstein A, Benmarhnia T, Weiser SD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research