Who Will Pay for the COVID-19 Vaccines for Africa?
Abstract Africa's health systems are strained by the COVID-19 pandemic. There are global efforts toward the development and trial of COVID-19 vaccines. However, considering the challenges and economic conditions of African nations, there could be limited access and availability of the vaccines on the continent. This will be the result of high cost and technical requirements to acquire the vaccines. There are indications that possible donor funding for COVID-19 vaccines from rich countries maybe put off considering the various challenges they face currently and the moves they are making in response to the disease. ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 7, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lucero-Prisno DE, Ogunkola IO, Imo UF, Adebisi YA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pragmatic Recommendations for Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Healthcare Facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
We report on a set of pragmatic recommendations for hospital-based IPC practices in resource-constrained settings of LMICs. For cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19, we suggest that patients be placed in a single isolation room, whenever possible. When single isolation rooms are unavailable or limited, we recommend cohorting patients with COVID-19 on dedicated wards or in dedicated hospitals. We also recommend that cases of suspected COVID-19 be cohorted separately from those with confirmed disease, whenever possible, to minimize the risk of patient-to-patient transmission in settings where confirmatory testing may be ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cobb N, Papali A, Pisani L, Schultz MJ, Ferreira JC, For The Covid-Lmic Task Force Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Recommendations for the Management of COVID-19 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
PMID: 33410393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dondorp AM, Papali AC, Schultz MJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pragmatic Recommendations for Identification and Triage of Patients with COVID-19 Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
We report on a series of LMIC-appropriate recommendations and suggestions for screening and triage of COVID-19 patients in LMICs, based on a pragmatic, experience-based appraisal of existing literature. We recommend that all patients be screened upon first contact with the healthcare system using a locally approved questionnaire to identify individuals who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19. We suggest that primary screening tools used to identify individuals who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19 include a broad range of signs and symptoms based on standard case definitions of COVID-19 disease. We recommend that scree...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Barros LM, Pigoga JL, Chea S, Hansoti B, Hirner S, Papali A, Rudd KE, Schultz MJ, Calvello Hynes EJ, For The Covid-Lmic Task Force And The Mahidol-Oxford Research Unit Moru Bangkok Thailand Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Corticosteroids: Unfamiliar but Potentially Fatal Infections That Can Arise following Short-Course Steroid Treatment.
Abstract Corticosteroid use is increasing worldwide as recent studies confer survival benefit of corticosteroids in the management of patients with severe COVID-19. Strongyloides and amebic infections are neglected diseases that can progress to catastrophic complications in patients exposed to corticosteroids, even with short treatment courses. To prevent lethal outcomes, clinicians should be aware of the threat these two parasitic infections pose to at-risk patients receiving corticosteroids, especially in the era of COVID-19. PMID: 33410395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal o...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 6, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shirley DA, Moonah S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Chagas Disease Vectors of Esp írito Santo, Brazil: First Report of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in the Brazilian State and Development of an Identification Key Based on Cytogenetic Data.
Chagas Disease Vectors of Espírito Santo, Brazil: First Report of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in the Brazilian State and Development of an Identification Key Based on Cytogenetic Data. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan 04;: Authors: de Oliveira J, Aristeu da Rosa J, Chaboli Alevi KC Abstract Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted, mainly, by hematophagous insects of the Triatominae subfamily. In Brazil, there are currently about 66 triatomine species distributed throughout the country's 27 states....
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: de Oliveira J, Aristeu da Rosa J, Chaboli Alevi KC Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Viral Hepatitis B and C and Knowledge of the Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Abstract Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) can significantly influence maternal and child health. Although HIV infection, malaria, and syphilis in pregnant women are likely to be systematically screened for and managed according to national guidelines in the Democratic Republic of Congo, there is no plan for HBV and HCV. Furthermore, there is no documentation regarding pregnant women's knowledge about HBV and HCV. This situation has motivated the researchers to undertake the current study, which was designed to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV. We have also assessed knowledge of the HBV infection among...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mudji J, Madinga B, Horsmans Y Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Severe Craniofacial Coccidioidomycosis in a Pregnant Woman.
We describe an unusual case of primary craniocutaneous coccidioidomycosis in a pregnant woman with infected bilateral periorbital nodules, intense pain at paranasal sinuses, and several osteolytic skull lesions. The analysis of 54 cases available in the literature makes us suggest that the area between the United States and Mexico is a risk zone for primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis. PMID: 33399041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Galaviz-Aboytes C, Ochoa-Ramírez LA, Alzate-Moctezuma JA, Ríos Burgueño ER, Millán JR, Velarde-Félix JS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Gametocytemia in a Pre-Elimination, Low Malaria Transmission Setting in Southern Zambia.
Abstract The WHO recommends single low-dose (SLD) primaquine as a gametocytocide to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in areas of low transmission. Despite this recommendation, uptake of SLD primaquine has been low because of concerns of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Individuals with G6PD deficiency can experience hemolysis when exposed to primaquine. In Southern Province, Zambia, malaria transmission has declined significantly over the past decade. Single low-dose primaquine may be an effective tool, but there is limited information on G6PD deficiency. We screened 137 residents in M...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kobayashi T, Kurani S, Hamapumbu H, Stevenson JC, Thuma PE, Moss WJ, For The Southern And Central Africa International Centers Of Excellence For Malaria Research Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Population Attributable Fraction of Anemia Associated with P. falciparum Infection in Children in Southern Malawi.
Abstract Anemia is a leading cause of morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The etiologies of anemia are multifactorial, and it is unclear what proportion of anemia is attributable to malaria in children of different ages in Malawi. We evaluated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of anemia due to malaria using multiple cross-sectional surveys in southern Malawi. We found a high prevalence of anemia, with the greatest proportion attributable to malaria among school-age children (5-15 years) in the rainy season (PAF = 18.8% [95% CI: 16.3, 21.0], compared with PAF = 5.2% [95% CI: 4.0, 6.2] among young children pooled across season [
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yimgang DP, Buchwald AG, Coalson JE, Walldorf JA, Bauleni A, Kapito-Tembo A, Mathanga DP, Taylor TE, Laufer MK, Cohee LM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Coral Reef Pathogen Aspergillus sydowii Causing Black Grain Mycetoma: A Review.
We report the case of a 62-year-old man with eumycetoma involving the left foot and ankle. Skin biopsy revealed black-brown grains, and in culture, a white colony fungus grew at day 8. Molecular sequencing using ITS1-ITS4 primers identified the species as Aspergillus sydowii. The patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg twice daily and terbinafine 250 mg daily for 8 months, with complete response and no recurrence after 2.5 years of follow-up. Aspergillus sydowii is a saprotrophic fungus that rarely causes skin or nail disease. No cases of eumycetoma caused by this agent have been previously reported. As its geographic...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vera-Cabrera L, Cardenas-de la Garza JA, Cuellar-Barboza A, Gallardo-Rocha A, Molina-Torres CA, Escalante-Fuentes W, Ocampo-Candiani J Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Refractory Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Supported by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation due to Coinfection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Leptospirosis in Reunion Island.
Abstract Infection with Leptospira spp. is common in Réunion, a tropical island in the Indian Ocean. However, respiratory coinfections between strains of Leptospira spp. and other microorganisms are rarely described. Here, we describe the first reported case of coinfection between Leptospira spp. and Chlamydia pneumoniae, responsible for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a favorable outcome. In a case of leptospirosis with severe respiratory illness, testing for respiratory coinfection, especially with atypical pathogens, could explain the seri...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lecadieu A, Veyret S, Persichini R, Duarte L, Caron M, Vidal C, Bordet E, Traversier N, Allyn J, Allou N Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Revisiting the Chromosomal Diversification of the Genus Rhodnius (St ål, 1859) (Hemiptera, Triatominae).
Revisiting the Chromosomal Diversification of the Genus Rhodnius (Stål, 1859) (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan 04;: Authors: Ravazi A, Olaia N, de Oliveira J, Santos Souza ED, Aristeu da Rosa J, Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira MT, Chaboli Alevi KC Abstract Although all triatomines are considered as potential vectors of the Chagas disease, the Triatoma, Panstrongylus, and Rhodnius genera are the most important from the epidemiological point of view. Based on cytogenetic analyzes carried out so far (C banding and FISH), the species of the genus Rhodnius show little interspecific ch...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ravazi A, Olaia N, de Oliveira J, Santos Souza ED, Aristeu da Rosa J, Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira MT, Chaboli Alevi KC Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Effect of Ebola Virus Disease on Maternal and Child Health Services and Child Mortality in Sierra Leone, 2014-2015: Implications for COVID-19.
We report PHU characteristics and service utilization changes for equivalent 4-month periods during the epidemic and the prior year. We present utilization changes by district and service type, and model excess child mortality. PHU closures (-8%) and staff attrition (-3%) were limited, but many facilities lacked amenities, medicines, and supplies. Utilization of preventive and scheduled services fell more than individualized, clinical care interventions, aside from malaria treatment which declined significantly. Ebola virus disease intensity in districts was weakly associated with utilization, aside from two districts that...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ngo TM, Rogers B, Patnaik R, Jambai A, Sharkey AB Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: A Rare Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Epididymo-Orchitis.
t B Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute infectious disease that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by extensive ecchymosis, internal hemorrhage, and hepatic dysfunction. The reported case fatality rate varies between 8% and 80%. It is frequently transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, which are endemic in the Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey in spring and summer. Our patient presented from an endemic area with fever, malaise, joint pain, and scrotal pain following a tick bite, and real-time PCR analysis of venous blood was positive for CCHF. Based on Doppler ultrasound performed ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 4, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kerget F, Demirdöğen ŞO, Kerget B Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

COVID-19 Misinformation and Infodemic in Rural Africa.
Abstract The world has witnessed rapid advancement and changes since the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China. The significant changes experienced during these times remain unprecedented. The African continent has initiated significant responses to curb the spread of the pandemic. However, there is an increasing concern that rural Africa is facing serious challenges in their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is due to the uncertainty if the populations are detached from or in synch with information on COVID-19. The findings reported here suggest that rural Africa is burdened with misinformation and inf...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Okereke M, Ukor NA, Ngaruiya LM, Mwansa C, Alhaj SM, Ogunkola IO, Jaber HM, Isa MA, Ekpenyong A, Lucero-Prisno DE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Clinical Profile and Treatment of COVID-19 Patients: Experiences from an Ethiopian Treatment Center.
In this study, we described the clinical profile, treatment used, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in one of the COVID-19 treatment centers of Ethiopia, Boru Meda Hospital. An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using medical records of COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Boru Meda Hospital with a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR result from May 9, 2020 to September 20, 2020. All patients with a positive RT-PCR were admitted to the hospital, regardless of symptom and severity status. A total of 279 COVID-19 patients were included in the final analysis. The median age of patients...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abdela SG, Abegaz SH, Demsiss W, Tamirat KS, van Henten S, van Griensven J Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: A Single-Center Case Series on Skin Manifestations of Leishmaniasis from a Non-Endemic State in Southern India.
Abstract Leishmaniasis is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with predominance of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) due to Leishmania donovani. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is uncommon, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is rarely reported in this region. Recent reports reveal a changing epidemiology and atypical manifestations. A retrospective study of 52 suspected cases with cutaneous and mucosal involvement seen from January 2008 to December 2018 in a tertiary care setting in a non-endemic state in southern India is reported. Twelve patients were confirmed to have leishmaniasis; seven had MCL, two had CL, and thre...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tharakan SJ, Peter Cv D, Karthik R, Rupa V, Rose W, Thomas M, Manuel M, Rupali P, Pulimood S, Rao Ajjampur SS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Mice Pups Breastfed by Foster Mothers Whose Breast Milk Contains Plasmodium falciparum Recombinant SE36 Antigen Develop Specific Antibodies.
Abstract Intranasal instillation of SE36, a malaria vaccine candidate antigen, in lactating BALB/c female mice resulted in the appearance of the antigen in breast milk as demonstrated by sandwich ELISA and Western blot. Pups born of immunologically naive mice and breastfed on lactating foster mothers exposed intranasally to SE36 developed IgG anti-SE36 antibodies. These data demonstrate that maternal immunization in mice by this route in lactating mothers can result in active immunization of offspring via ingestion of breast milk containing antigen. If confirmed in a nonhuman primate model and in human subjects, t...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Njoroge MM, Irungu Mwangi V, Owalla TJ, Ozwara H, Egwang TG Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Cross-Sectional Study of the Impact of COVID-19 on Domestic Violence, Menstruation, Genital Tract Health, and Contraception Use among Women in Jordan.
This study assessed the COVID-19 pandemic impact on domestic violence, genital tract health, menstruation, and contraception use among 200 women in Jordan using a self-validated survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was structured to compare frequencies of domestic violence, reproductive tract infections, menstrual irregularities, and contraception use, type, source, and replacement during or after total curfew in Jordan with 6-months before the pandemic; 20.5% of women suffered from increased domestic abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Incidence of menstrual problems and genital tract infections was significantly reduc...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aolymat I Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Safe Use and Storage of Cleaners, Disinfectants, and Hand Sanitizers: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among U.S. Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic, May 2020.
Abstract Cleaning and disinfection of frequently touched surfaces and frequent hand hygiene are recommended measures to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, poison center calls regarding exposures to cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers have increased as compared with prior years, indicating a need to evaluate household safety precautions. An opt-in Internet panel survey of 502 U.S. adults was conducted in May 2020. Survey items evaluated knowledge regarding use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; attitudes ab...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gharpure R, Miller GF, Hunter CM, Schnall AH, Kunz J, Garcia-Williams AG Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pragmatic Recommendations for Therapeutics of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
Abstract The therapeutic options for COVID-19 patients are currently limited, but numerous randomized controlled trials are being completed, and many are on the way. For COVID-19 patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), we recommend against using remdesivir outside of a clinical trial. We recommend against using hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. We suggest empiric antimicrobial treatment for likely coinfecting pathogens if an alternative infectious cause is likely. We suggest close monitoring without additional empiric antimicrobials if there are no clinical or laborator...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shetty VU, Brotherton BJ, Achilleos A, Akrami KM, Barros LM, Checkley W, Cobb N, Maximous S, Misango D, Park C, Taran S, Lee BW, For The Covid-Lmic Task Force And The Mahidol-Oxford Research Unit Moru Bangkok Thailand Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Lack of Association of Initial Viral Load in SARS-CoV-2 Patients with In-Hospital Mortality.
In conclusion, an elevated nasopharyngeal viral load was not a determinant of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19, as much as age, comorbidity, and myocardial damage determined by elevated cTnI are. PMID: 33357280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carrasquer A, Peiró ÓM, Sanchez-Gimenez R, Lal-Trehan N, Del-Moral-Ronda V, Bonet G, Gutierrez C, Fort-Gallifa I, Martin-Grau C, Benavent C, Vidal F, Bardají A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Gross National Happiness Framework and the Health System Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Bhutan.
This article describes how the concept of GNH provided the framework for the government to respond to this pandemic. PMID: 33355069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dorji T Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Modeling the Stability of SARS-CoV-2 on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Abstract We modeled the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on personal protective equipment (PPE) commonly worn in hospitals when carrying out high-risk airway procedures. Evaluated PPE included the visors and hoods of two brands of commercially available powered air purifying respirators, a disposable face shield, and Tyvek coveralls. Following an exposure to 4.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of SARS-CoV-2, all materials displayed a reduction in titer of> 4.2 log10 by 72 hours postexposure, with detectable titers at 72 hours varying by material (1.1-2.3 log10 PFU/mL). Our results highlight the need for proper doffing...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Haddow AD, Watt TR, Bloomfield HA, Fetterer DP, Harbourt DE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pragmatic Recommendations for Safety while Caring for Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
Abstract Infection prevention and control measures to control the spread of COVID-19 are challenging to implement in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This is compounded by the fact that most recommendations are based on evidence that mainly originates in high-income countries. There are often availability, affordability, and feasibility barriers to applying such recommendations in LMICs, and therefore, there is a need for developing recommendations that are achievable in LMICs. We used a modified version of the GRADE method to select important questions, searched the literature for relevant evidence,...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Inglis R, Barros L, Checkley W, Cizmeci EA, Lelei-Mailu F, Pattnaik R, Papali A, Schultz MJ, Ferreira JC, For The Covid-Lmic Task Force Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Vector Competence of Aedes albopictus Populations from the Northeastern United States for Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Viruses.
Abstract The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector of a number of arboviruses, including Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, and has recently expanded its range in the eastern United States to southern New England and New York. Given the recent establishment and proliferation of Ae. albopictus in this region and the increasing amount of international travel between the United States and endemic countries, there is a need to elucidate the public health risk posed by this mosquito species in the Northeast. Accordingly, we evaluated the competence of four Ae. albopict...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gloria-Soria A, Payne AF, Bialosuknia SM, Stout J, Mathias N, Eastwood G, Ciota AT, Kramer LD, Armstrong PM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of PBO versus Conventional Long-Lasting Insecticidal Bed Nets in Preventing Symptomatic Malaria in Nigeria: Results of a Pragmatic Randomized Trial.
Abstract Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been the major tool in halving malaria's burden since 2000, but pyrethroid insecticide resistance threatens their ongoing effectiveness. In 2017, the WHO concluded that long-lasting ITNs (LLINs) with a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), provided additional public health benefit over conventional (pyrethroid-only) LLINs alone in areas of moderate insecticide resistance and endorsed them as a new class of vector control products. We performed an economic appraisal of PBO nets compared with conventional LLINs in 2019 US$ from prevention and health systems perspectives (...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shepard DS, Odumah JU, Awolola ST Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Serologic Survey of Mosquito-Borne Viruses in Hunter-Harvested White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), New York State.
Abstract Sera from white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) hunter-harvested throughout New York State (NYS), 2007-2015, were tested by plaque reduction neutralization for antibodies against nine mosquito-borne viruses from the families Peribunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Overall, 76.1% (373/490) of sampled WTD were seropositive against at least one virus, and 38.8% were exposed to multiple viruses. The seropositivity rate in adult WTD (78.0%) was significantly greater (P
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dupuis AP, Prusinski MA, Russell A, O'Connor C, Maffei JG, Oliver J, Howard JJ, Sherwood JA, Tober K, Rochlin I, Cucura M, Backenson B, Kramer LD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Hepatitis B and C in Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan.
Abstract In Pakistan, viral hepatitis is a serious public health problem affecting millions of people. Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections are spreading rapidly in all provinces of Pakistan, including Sindh, because of lack of knowledge about routes of transmission, low literacy rate, reuse of syringes, piercing, and other factors. However, information about the prevalence and risk factors is inadequate. So, a general population-based study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate and risk factors of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Nawabshah. Healthy individuals were screened for hepatitis B and hepat...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Samo AA, Laghari ZA, Baig NM, Khoso GM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Inauguration of the Tanzania Society of Human Genetics: Biomedical Research in Tanzania with Emphasis on Human Genetics and Genomics.
This article describes the inauguration event of the TSHG, which took place in November 2019. It provides a justification for its establishment and discusses presentations from invited speakers who took part in the inauguration of the TSHG. PMID: 33350369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alimohamed MZ, Mwakilili AD, Mbwanji K, Manji ZK, Kaywang F, Mwaikono KS, Adolf I, Makani J, Hamel B, Masimirembwa C, Ishengoma DS, Nkya S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Adverse Events and Clinic Visits following a Single Dose of Oral Azithromycin among Preschool Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Group Abstract Biannual mass azithromycin distribution reduces all-cause child mortality in some settings in sub-Saharan Africa; however, adverse events and short-term infectious outcomes following treatment have not been well characterized. Children aged 0-59 months were recruited in Nouna Town, Burkina Faso, and randomized 1:1 to a single directly observed oral 20 mg/kg dose of azithromycin or placebo. At 14 days after treatment, caregivers were interviewed about adverse event symptoms their child experienced since treatment and if they had sought health care for their child. All children had tympanic temperatur...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sié A, Dah C, Bountogo M, Ouattara M, Nebie E, Coulibaly B, Brogdon JM, Godwin WW, Lebas E, Doan T, Arnold BF, Porco TC, Lietman TM, Oldenburg CE, For The Gamin Study Group Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

A Systematic Literature Review of Microscopy Methods Reported in Malaria Clinical Trials.
Abstract Microscopy of stained blood films is essential for the diagnosis of malaria, differentiation of parasite species, and estimation of parasite density performed for assessments of antimalarial drug efficacy. The accuracy and comparability of these measures over time and space are vital to discern the emergence or spread of antimalarial drug resistance. Although evidence-based guidelines for malaria microscopy methods exist, the age-old microscopy techniques for parasitological assessments are subject to considerable methodological variations. The purpose of this review was to explore critically how microsco...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Das D, Dahal P, Dhorda M, Citarella BW, Kennon K, Stepniewska K, Felger I, Chappuis F, Guerin PJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Child Undernutrition in Sudan: The Social and Economic Impact and Future Perspectives.
Abstract The nutrition situation in Sudan is one of the worst in northeast Africa and it is characterized by persistently high levels of acute and chronic malnutrition that have increased over the last two decades. The underlying causes of malnutrition are multi-sectoral and are mainly due to inequalities, inadequate food practices, and limited access to healthcare services. Based on the report The Economic and Social Impacts of Child Undernutrition in Sudan, this study assesses the impact that malnutrition has on health, education, and productivity in Sudan. The country is estimated to have lost an equivalent of ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abu-Fatima O, Abbas AAG, Racalbuto V, Smith L, Pizzol D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Nakalanga Syndrome Revisited: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Patient Living in Western Uganda, 1994-2018.
We present a follow-up over a 24-year period of a patient living in the Itwara onchocerciasis focus of western Uganda. We demonstrate the strong similarity of Nakalanga syndrome to the more recently described Nodding syndrome, and we discuss the possible causation of both disorders by onchocerciasis. We suggest that the growing knowledge about the tight interconnections between Nakalanga and nodding syndrome, other forms of epilepsy, and onchocerciasis should be taken into consideration in a revised classification system. PMID: 33350373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kaiser C, Mugisa C, Kisembo D, Gumisiriza N, Colebunders R, Tukesiga E, Kipp W, Asaba G Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Application of the Relationship-Based Model to Engagement for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Malaria Vectors.
es AA Abstract The transition of new technologies for public health from laboratory to field is accompanied by a broadening scope of engagement challenges. Recent developments of vector control strategies involving genetically engineered mosquitoes with gene drives to assist in the eradication of malaria have drawn significant attention. Notably, questions have arisen surrounding community and regulatory engagement activities and of the need for examples of models or frameworks that can be applied to guide engagement. A relationship-based model (RBM) provides a framework that places stakeholders and community memb...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kormos A, Lanzaro GC, Bier E, Dimopoulos G, Marshall JM, Pinto J, Aguiar Dos Santos A, Bacar A, Sousa Pontes Sacramento Rompão H, James AA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Chagas Disease Screening Using Point-of-Care Testing in an At-Risk Obstetric Population.
Abstract Congenital transmission is the most important mode of transmission of Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. Identifying CD in reproductive-aged women is essential to reduce the risk of transmitting the disease to their children and offer treatment to women and their children, which could cure the disease. We evaluated the use of point-of-care (POC) testing for CD in postpartum patients. In our patient population, 16.7% (23/138) tested positive by POC testing, but confirmatory testing was negative for all patients. Among those considered high risk, 30% declined participation. Our results suggest li...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zamora LE, Palacio F, Kozlowski DS, Doraivelu K, Dude CM, Jamieson DJ, Haddad LB Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Impact of Three Years of Targeted Indoor Residual Spraying with Pirimiphos-Methyl on Household Vector Abundance in a High Malaria Transmission Area of Northern Zambia.
Abstract The global malaria burden has decreased substantially, but gains have been uneven both within and between countries. In Zambia, the malaria burden remains high in northern and eastern regions of the country. To effectively reduce malaria transmission in these areas, evidence-based intervention strategies are needed. Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) in 40 high-burden districts from 2014 to 2016 using the novel organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. The Southern and Central Africa International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research condu...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hast MA, Stevenson JC, Muleba M, Chaponda M, Kabuya JB, Mulenga M, Shields T, Moss WJ, Norris DE, For The Southern And Central Africa International Centers Of Excellence In Malaria Research Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Determinants of Malaria Protective Immunity in Mice Immunized with Live Sporozoites during Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis.
Abstract HIV and malaria geographically overlap. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a drug widely used in HIV-exposed uninfected and infected children in malaria-endemic areas, and is known to have antimalarial effects. Further study in terms of antimalarial impact and effect on development of malaria-specific immunity is therefore essential. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that repeated Plasmodium exposure during TMP-SMX administration, or chemoprophylaxis vaccination (CVac), induces CD8 T-cell-dependent preerythrocytic immunity. However, humoral immune responses have been shown to be im...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hobbs CV, Sahu T, Neal J, Conteh S, Voza T, Borkowsky W, Langhorne J, Duffy PE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pragmatic Recommendations for the Management of COVID-19 Patients with Shock in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
Abstract As some patients infected with the novel coronavirus progress to critical illness, a subset will eventually develop shock. High-quality data on management of these patients are scarce, and further investigation will provide valuable information in the context of the pandemic. A group of experts identify a set of pragmatic recommendations for the care of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and shock in resource-limited environments. We define shock as life-threatening circulatory failure that results in inadequate tissue perfusion and cellular dysoxia/hypoxia, and suggest that it can be operationalized via clinical o...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Maximous S, Brotherton BJ, Achilleos A, Akrami KM, Barros LM, Cobb N, Misango D, Papali A, Park C, Shetty VU, Schultz MJ, Taran S, Lee BW, For The Covid-Lmic Task Force And The Mahidol-Oxford Research Unit Moru Bangkok Thailand Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Outcome of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) Infection in Pediatric and Adult Patients at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
ès A Abstract Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is an important cause of acute febrile illness in Lao PDR (Laos), patient outcome has not been evaluated. We prospectively followed up 123 JEV-infected patients (70 children ≤ 15 years and 53 adults ≥ 15 years) admitted at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, from 2003 to 2013. Japanese encephalitis virus infection was diagnosed by the detection of anti-JEV IgM in cerebrospinal fluid and/or IgM seroconversion. Neurological sequelae were assessed using the Liverpool Outcome Score (LOS), total (maximum score = 75), and final (maximum score = 5)....
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mayxay M, Douangdala P, Vilayhong C, Phommasone K, Chansamouth V, Vongsouvath M, Rattanavong S, Chang K, Sengvilaipaseuth O, Chanthongthip A, Thongpaseuth S, Newton PN, Dubot-Pérès A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Threats of COVID-19 to Achieving United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in Africa.
This article highlights how the COVID-19 pandemic could threaten the actualization of the SDGs in Africa. We assessed relevant published literature, observations, and current global trends. Our results suggest that although the improvement of healthcare systems has become a priority in Africa, there is a need to ensure that some SDGs are not sacrificed to achieve control of the pandemic. Despite the pandemic, African countries need to identify policies that will not compromise the implementation of the SDGs and/or jeopardize previously achieved SDG targets. PMID: 33331262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: T...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ekwebelem OC, Ofielu ES, Nnorom-Dike OV, Iweha C, Ekwebelem NC, Obi BC, Ugbede-Ojo SE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

COVID-19 Highlights the Need for Inclusive Responses to Public Health Emergencies in Africa.
Abstract COVID-19 is a global public health emergency affecting many countries around the world. Although African governments and other stakeholders are making efforts to contain the pandemic, the outbreak continues to impact human rights and exacerbates inequalities and disparities that are already in existence. The concept of inclusive health focuses on good health and well-being for everyone, and this entails health services that are equitable, affordable, and efficacious. Creating equitable access to mainstream health and healthcare services and ensuring inclusive health responses remain a means of addressing ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Adebisi YA, Ekpenyong A, Ntacyabukura B, Lowe M, Jimoh ND, Abdulkareem TO, Lucero-Prisno DE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Dengue and COVID-19 Coinfection in Thailand.
We report a 50-year-old Thai woman with recent travel to Denmark who presented with acute high-grade fever, vomiting, and myalgia for 1 day. Initial laboratory results revealed leukopenia, elevated aspartate transaminase, and elevated alanine transaminase. Chest radiograph showed no pulmonary infiltration. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) of the nasopharyngeal swab detected SARS-CoV-2, and RT-PCR of the blood detected dengue virus serotype 2. COVID-19 with dengue fever co-infection was diagnosed. Her symptoms were improved with supportive treatment. Integration of clinical manifestations, history of exposure, laboratory ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nasomsong W, Luvira V, Phiboonbanakit D Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Comparative Analyses of Historical Trends in Confirmed Dengue Illnesses Detected at Public Hospitals in Bangkok and Northern Thailand, 2002-2018.
Abstract Dengue is a re-emerging global public health problem, the most common arbovirus causing human disease in the world, and a major cause of hospitalization in endemic countries causing significant economic burden. Data were analyzed from passive surveillance of hospital-attended dengue cases from 2002 to 2018 at Phramongkutklao Hospital (PMKH) located in Bangkok, Thailand, and Kamphaeng Phet Provincial Hospital (KPPH) located in the lower northern region of Thailand. At PMKH, serotype 1 proved to be the most common strain of the virus, whereas at KPPH, serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were the most common strains from ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kerdpanich P, Kongkiatngam S, Buddhari D, Simasathien S, Klungthong C, Rodpradit P, Thaisomboonsuk B, Wongstitwilairoong T, Hunsawong T, Anderson KB, Fernandez S, Jones AR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Diarrhea in Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: A Case-Control Study on the Prevalence and Response to Antimalarial Treatment.
Abstract The role of Plasmodium in the etiology of acute diarrhea in developing countries remains controversial, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are inconsistently reported in malaria. In this observational case-control study, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for GI symptoms in hospitalized malarious children aged 1 month to 5 years in northern Uganda. Children with a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria were enrolled as cases, and feverish children in whom malaria was excluded were enrolled as controls. Among 451 malarious children, 46.1% had GI symptoms at admission. Compared with control...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lo Vecchio A, Basile FW, Bruzzese D, Di Dato F, Aol P, Omona V, Smarrazzo A, Guarino A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Previous Traditional Medicine Use for Sore Throat among Children Evaluated for Rheumatic Fever in Northern Uganda.
Abstract Timely diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) sore throat coupled with appropriate antibiotic treatment is necessary to prevent serious post-streptococcal complications, including rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Traditional medicine (TM) is a known common adjunct to formal medical care in sub-Saharan Africa. A better understanding of health-seeking behavior for sore throat both within and outside the formal medical system is critical to improving primary prevention efforts of RF and RHD. A prospective mixed-methods study on the use of TM for sore throat was embedded within a larg...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stein E, Pulle J, Zimmerman M, Otim I, Atala J, Rwebembera J, Oyella LM, Harik N, Okello E, Sable C, Beaton A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: The First Case of Genotypically Confirmed K13 Propeller Mutation in Sri Lanka and Its Implications on the Elimination Status of Malaria.
Abstract This case report discusses recrudescence of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in the presence of Kelch13 (K13) propeller mutation, in a patient diagnosed and fully treated with artemether-lumefantrine under direct observation in Sri Lanka. This patient presented with a history of 5 days of fever following his arrival from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). He had visited Rwanda 1 week before arrival to Sri Lanka. Treatment was commenced with artemisinin-based combination therapy, artemether-lumefantrine, which is the first-line drug recommended for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Blood smears...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernando D, Weerasekera CJ, Gunasekera WMKTAW, Hapuarachchi HC, Koo C, Munas M, Ranaweera P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Case Report: Emergence of Candida auris in the Indian Ocean Region.
Abstract Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause severe infections and spread easily between hospitalized patients, leading to outbreaks in hospital. Here, we report the first four cases of colonization and invasive infection with C. auris reported in the Indian Ocean region. All cases were observed in the French overseas Reunion Island, a very popular destination for European travelers. Three patients had urinary tract or skin colonization, and one had a fatal invasive infection. In three cases, including that of the infected patient, the yeast was not initially identified as C. auri...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Levy Y, Miltgen G, Rousseau A, Lugagne N, Teysseyre L, Traversier N, Desnos-Ollivier M, Allou N, Allyn J Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Outbreak of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia Bloodstream Infections at a Hemodialysis Center.
Abstract Patients undergoing hemodialysis are at an increased risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs). Infection usually occurs because of contamination of water supply, water treatment, distribution systems, or reprocessing dialyzers. Here, we report an outbreak of BSIs caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 21) and Burkholderia cepacia (n = 22) among dialyzed patients at a large hemodialysis center in Brazil. Overall, three patients died (7%), two of which had bacteremia caused by S. maltophilia and the other had a B. cepacia infection. We collected water samples from different points of the hemodialysis sys...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - December 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Diniz Rocha VF, Cavalcanti TP, Azevedo J, Leal HF, Oliveira Silva GE, Xavier Malheiros AR, Ataide LA, Lima Filho JA, Pinto Almeida AR, de Andrade Khouri N, Reis MG, Neves Reis J Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research