Ebola Outbreak amid COVID-19 in the Republic of Guinea: Priorities for Achieving Control
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd210228. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn February 2021, a new Ebola outbreak occurred amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. Technical committees and Ebola mitigation mechanisms used during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemics, have been redeployed by the public health organizations and African health organizations. As the burden on the local healthcare system is rising, fears of socioeconomic disruption are growing as well. Strategies used during the previous epidemic need to be reactivated, and new measures taken during the ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Christos Tsagkaris Shubhika Jain Shoaib Ahmad Mohammad Yasir Essar Emmanuel Adebowale Fajemisin Irem Adanur Olivier Uwishema Source Type: research

Major General (Ret) Philip King Russell
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd211932. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33852429 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Donald S Burke Scott Halstead Thomas P Monath Source Type: research

Ebola Outbreak amid COVID-19 in the Republic of Guinea: Priorities for Achieving Control
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd210228. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0228. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn February 2021, a new Ebola outbreak occurred amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Republic of Guinea. Technical committees and Ebola mitigation mechanisms used during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemics, have been redeployed by the public health organizations and African health organizations. As the burden on the local healthcare system is rising, fears of socioeconomic disruption are growing as well. Strategies used during the previous epidemic need to be reactivated, and new measures taken during the ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abdullahi Tunde Aborode Christos Tsagkaris Shubhika Jain Shoaib Ahmad Mohammad Yasir Essar Emmanuel Adebowale Fajemisin Irem Adanur Olivier Uwishema Source Type: research

Major General (Ret) Philip King Russell
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 14:tpmd211932. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33852429 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-1932 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 14, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Donald S Burke Scott Halstead Thomas P Monath Source Type: research

Analytical and Clinical Evaluation of Two RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic Tests with Emergency Use Authorization in Ecuador
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 5:tpmd201439. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1439. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDozens of RT-qPCR kits are available in the market for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, some of them with Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or at least by a responsible agency of their country of origin, but many of them lack proper evaluation studies because of COVID-19 pandemic emergency. We evaluated the clinical performance of two commercially available kits in South America, the 2019-nCoV kit (Da An Gene, Guangzhou, China) and GenomeCoV19 kit (ABM, Richmond, Canada), for RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel Alfredo Bruno Alberto Orlando Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain Source Type: research

Ensuring COVID-19 Vaccines for Migrant and Immigrant Farmworkers
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 13:tpmd210199. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0199. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMigrant and immigrant farmworkers are cornerstones to food security and production in many nations. In the United States, farmworkers have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Because they are considered essential workers, vaccines may be made imminently available to them and offer an opportunity to reduce these COVID-19-related impacts. It is essential for a successful vaccination campaign to address the unique challenges arising from this workforce's inherently mobile nature and limited access to healthcare. Prop...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Christine M Thomas Amy K Liebman Alma Galv án Jonathan D Kirsch William M Stauffer Source Type: research

Analytical and Clinical Evaluation of Two RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic Tests with Emergency Use Authorization in Ecuador
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 5:1-8. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1439. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDozens of RT-qPCR kits are available in the market for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, some of them with Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or at least by a responsible agency of their country of origin, but many of them lack proper evaluation studies because of COVID-19 pandemic emergency. We evaluated the clinical performance of two commercially available kits in South America, the 2019-nCoV kit (Da An Gene, Guangzhou, China) and GenomeCoV19 kit (ABM, Richmond, Canada), for RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 diagno...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel Alfredo Bruno Alberto Orlando Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain Source Type: research

Ensuring COVID-19 Vaccines for Migrant and Immigrant Farmworkers
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 13:tpmd210199. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0199. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMigrant and immigrant farmworkers are cornerstones to food security and production in many nations. In the United States, farmworkers have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Because they are considered essential workers, vaccines may be made imminently available to them and offer an opportunity to reduce these COVID-19-related impacts. It is essential for a successful vaccination campaign to address the unique challenges arising from this workforce's inherently mobile nature and limited access to healthcare. Prop...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 13, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Christine M Thomas Amy K Liebman Alma Galv án Jonathan D Kirsch William M Stauffer Source Type: research

Case Report: Atypical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Two Cases from Northwest Ethiopia
We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. The first case was an HIV-infected patient with scrotal and penile involvement. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen and the scrotum. The second case was an immunocompetent individual with esophageal, laryngeal, and pharyngeal involvement and facial lesions. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen, skin, and esophageal biopsies. Current evidence suggests atypical presentation can occur in patients irrespective of their ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rezika Mohammed Helina Fikre Tigist Mekonnen Bewketu Abebe Arega Yeshanew Ermias Diro Johan van Griensven Source Type: research

Statistical Regression Model of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene; Treatment Coverage; and Environmental Influences on School-Level Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosome Prevalence in Kenya: Secondary Analysis of the National Deworming Program Data
In this study, we aimed to determine the factors associated with the 5-year school-level infection prevalence and relative reduction (RR) in prevalence in Kenya following the implementation of the program. Multiple variables related to treatment, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors were assembled and included in mixed-effects linear regression models to identify key determinants of the school location STH and schistosomiasis prevalence and RR. Reduced prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with low (
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Collins Okoyo Suzy J Campbell Chrispin Owaga Nelson Owuor Graham Medley Charles Mwandawiro Source Type: research

Diphyllobothriasis from Eating Sushi
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd210105. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33844646 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yuya Ando Yosuke Ono Sachiko Ono Source Type: research

Cyclone Idai as a Trigger for Pellagra Outbreak in Nhamatanda, Mozambique: A Case-Control Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201321. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1321. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mid-June 2019, 3 months after cyclone Idai landfall in Mozambique, health authorities of Nhamatanda district reported an outbreak of Pellagra. Applying a mixed-method protocol, we carried out an investigation to characterize cases of pellagra, identify the associated factors for the outbreak using a case-control study, and explore the perceived impact on food security (availability, access, and usage) before and after Idai. We collected data from 121 cases and 121 controls and conducted in-depth interviews with 69 heads ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: V ánio André Mugabe Arlete Mahumane Cynthia Sem á Érika Valeska Rossetto Cresc êncio Sequeira Nhabomba Neusa Fataha Unicia Nyamula Ang élica Sotomane Wilson Irugula Benigno Canze Osvaldo Frederico Inlamea Uriel Kitron Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro Eduardo Source Type: research

Mobilizing a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Workforce at Warp Speed: A Framework for Successful Program Implementation
We describe the early experience in the City and County of San Francisco, where contact tracing capability was rapidly expanded to respond to COVID-19. Important prerequisites to scale up included rapid expansion of the COVID-19 contact tracing workforce, a comprehensive training and onboarding program, and the institution of effective performance management metrics. The San Francisco model for contact tracing, including focusing on rigorous training, recruiting, and partnering with community-based organizations from diverse, affected communities, is an inclusive approach relevant to other jurisdictions and settings.PMID:3...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jessica Celentano Darpun Sachdev Mivic Hirose Alexandra Ernst Michael Reid Source Type: research

Candidatus Dirofilaria Hongkongensis Infections in Humans During 2005 to 2020, in Kerala, India
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201521. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1521. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe tried to determine the epidemiology and species of human dirofilariasis observed at two tertiary care hospitals in Kerala. We searched the hospital database to identify cases of dirofilariosis from January 2005 to March 2020. Along with human isolates, one dog Dirofilaria isolate was also subjected to PCR and sequencing of pan filarial primers cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 12S rDNA. We documented 78 cases of human dirofilariosis. The orbit, eyelid, and conjunctiva were the most commonly affected sites. Molecular char...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anil Kumar Ani Sreedhar Lalitha Biswas Sarga Prabhat Parasmal Suresh Anisha Asokan Rita Mary Tomy Vivek Vinod Bindu Lakshmanan Ajit Nambiar Raja Biswas Source Type: research

House Structure Is Associated with Malaria among Febrile Patients in a High-Transmission Region of Zambia
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201378. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1378. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSince the late nineteenth century, the importance of house structure as a determinant of malaria risk has been recognized. Few studies to date have examined the association of housing and malaria in clinical populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of febrile patients (n = 282) at two rural health clinics in a high malaria-transmission area of northern Zambia. Participants underwent testing for Plasmodium falciparum infection by PCR. Demographic and other risk factors including house structure, indoor residual spra...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jay Sikalima Jessica L Schue Sarah E Hill Modest Mulenga Ray Handema Victor Daka Justin Chileshe Webster Kasongo Mike Chaponda Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya William J Moss Matthew M Ippolito Southern and Central Africa International Centers of Excellence for Source Type: research

Case Report: Atypical Presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Two Cases from Northwest Ethiopia
We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. The first case was an HIV-infected patient with scrotal and penile involvement. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen and the scrotum. The second case was an immunocompetent individual with esophageal, laryngeal, and pharyngeal involvement and facial lesions. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen, skin, and esophageal biopsies. Current evidence suggests atypical presentation can occur in patients irrespective of their ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rezika Mohammed Helina Fikre Tigist Mekonnen Bewketu Abebe Arega Yeshanew Ermias Diro Johan van Griensven Source Type: research

Statistical Regression Model of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene; Treatment Coverage; and Environmental Influences on School-Level Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosome Prevalence in Kenya: Secondary Analysis of the National Deworming Program Data
In this study, we aimed to determine the factors associated with the 5-year school-level infection prevalence and relative reduction (RR) in prevalence in Kenya following the implementation of the program. Multiple variables related to treatment, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors were assembled and included in mixed-effects linear regression models to identify key determinants of the school location STH and schistosomiasis prevalence and RR. Reduced prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with low (
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Collins Okoyo Suzy J Campbell Chrispin Owaga Nelson Owuor Graham Medley Charles Mwandawiro Source Type: research

Diphyllobothriasis from Eating Sushi
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd210105. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33844646 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0105 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yuya Ando Yosuke Ono Sachiko Ono Source Type: research

Cyclone Idai as a Trigger for Pellagra Outbreak in Nhamatanda, Mozambique: A Case-Control Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201321. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1321. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mid-June 2019, 3 months after cyclone Idai landfall in Mozambique, health authorities of Nhamatanda district reported an outbreak of Pellagra. Applying a mixed-method protocol, we carried out an investigation to characterize cases of pellagra, identify the associated factors for the outbreak using a case-control study, and explore the perceived impact on food security (availability, access, and usage) before and after Idai. We collected data from 121 cases and 121 controls and conducted in-depth interviews with 69 heads ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: V ánio André Mugabe Arlete Mahumane Cynthia Sem á Érika Valeska Rossetto Cresc êncio Sequeira Nhabomba Neusa Fataha Unicia Nyamula Ang élica Sotomane Wilson Irugula Benigno Canze Osvaldo Frederico Inlamea Uriel Kitron Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro Eduardo Source Type: research

Mobilizing a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Workforce at Warp Speed: A Framework for Successful Program Implementation
We describe the early experience in the City and County of San Francisco, where contact tracing capability was rapidly expanded to respond to COVID-19. Important prerequisites to scale up included rapid expansion of the COVID-19 contact tracing workforce, a comprehensive training and onboarding program, and the institution of effective performance management metrics. The San Francisco model for contact tracing, including focusing on rigorous training, recruiting, and partnering with community-based organizations from diverse, affected communities, is an inclusive approach relevant to other jurisdictions and settings.PMID:3...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jessica Celentano Darpun Sachdev Mivic Hirose Alexandra Ernst Michael Reid Source Type: research

Candidatus Dirofilaria Hongkongensis Infections in Humans During 2005 to 2020, in Kerala, India
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201521. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1521. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe tried to determine the epidemiology and species of human dirofilariasis observed at two tertiary care hospitals in Kerala. We searched the hospital database to identify cases of dirofilariosis from January 2005 to March 2020. Along with human isolates, one dog Dirofilaria isolate was also subjected to PCR and sequencing of pan filarial primers cytochrome oxidase subunits 1 and 12S rDNA. We documented 78 cases of human dirofilariosis. The orbit, eyelid, and conjunctiva were the most commonly affected sites. Molecular char...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anil Kumar Ani Sreedhar Lalitha Biswas Sarga Prabhat Parasmal Suresh Anisha Asokan Rita Mary Tomy Vivek Vinod Bindu Lakshmanan Ajit Nambiar Raja Biswas Source Type: research

House Structure Is Associated with Malaria among Febrile Patients in a High-Transmission Region of Zambia
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12:tpmd201378. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1378. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSince the late nineteenth century, the importance of house structure as a determinant of malaria risk has been recognized. Few studies to date have examined the association of housing and malaria in clinical populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of febrile patients (n = 282) at two rural health clinics in a high malaria-transmission area of northern Zambia. Participants underwent testing for Plasmodium falciparum infection by PCR. Demographic and other risk factors including house structure, indoor residual spra...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 12, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jay Sikalima Jessica L Schue Sarah E Hill Modest Mulenga Ray Handema Victor Daka Justin Chileshe Webster Kasongo Mike Chaponda Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya William J Moss Matthew M Ippolito Southern and Central Africa International Centers of Excellence for Source Type: research

The Heavy Toll of COVID-19 in Bolivia: A Tale of Distrust, Despair, and Health Inequalities
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 9:tpmd210097. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33835944 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 9, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: V íctor Villarroel Saavedra M ónica Arebalo López Nicol ás Dauby Source Type: research

The Heavy Toll of COVID-19 in Bolivia: A Tale of Distrust, Despair, and Health Inequalities
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 9:tpmd210097. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33835944 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 9, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: V íctor Villarroel Saavedra M ónica Arebalo López Nicol ás Dauby Source Type: research

The Heavy Toll of COVID-19 in Bolivia: A Tale of Distrust, Despair, and Health Inequalities
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 9:tpmd210097. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33835944 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0097 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 9, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: V íctor Villarroel Saavedra M ónica Arebalo López Nicol ás Dauby Source Type: research

Mosquito Net Ownership, Utilization, and Preferences among Mobile and Migrant Populations Sleeping in Forests and Farms in Central Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200711. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0711. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStrengthening vector control measures among mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) is crucial to malaria elimination, particularly in areas with multidrug-resistant malaria. Although a global priority, providing access and ensuring high coverage of available tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among these vulnerable groups remains a significant challenge. We assessed mosquito net ownership, utilization, and preference among individuals who slept in a forest and/or on a farm against those residing only in vill...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sara E Canavati Gerard C Kelly Thuan Huu Vo Long Khanh Tran Thang Duc Ngo Duong Thanh Tran Kimberly A Edgel Nicholas J Martin Source Type: research

Enhanced IL-6 and IL-12B Gene Expression After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Leprosy Patients May Increase the Risk of Neural Damage
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210034. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0034. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExperts have called attention to the possible negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related cytokine storm syndrome on the progression of leprosy-related disabilities. We assessed the frequency of reactional states in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium leprae and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We consecutively included patients during the first peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and analyzed the expressions of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gilberto Santos Morais Junior Patr ícia Shu Kurizky Selma Regina Penha Silva Cerqueira Daniel Holanda Barroso Heidi Luise Schulte Cleandro Pires de Albuquerque Eliana Teles de Gois Laila Salmen Espindola Jaime Martins Santana Izabela Marques Dourado Bast Source Type: research

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Crystal VC-O1 Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201280. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1280. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholera is a severe acute, highly transmissible diarrheal disease which affects many low- and middle-income countries. Outbreaks of cholera are confirmed using microbiological culture, and additional cases during the outbreak are generally identified based on clinical case definitions, rather than laboratory confirmation. Many low-resource areas where cholera occurs lack the capacity to perform culture in an expeditious manner. A simple, reliable, and low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) would improve identification of cases...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Amanda K Debes Kelsey N Murt Ethyl Waswa Gerald Githinji Mama Umuro Caroline Mbogori Mellisa Roskosky Malathi Ram Allison Shaffer David A Sack Waqo Boru Source Type: research

Impact of Testing on Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Brothel Sex Workers in Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200942. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0942. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPast studies that have designed interventions to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have typically provided onsite treatment to sex workers who tested positive, which were expensive and difficult to implement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention which tested for STIs and provided information on the closest treatment facility on reducing the prevalence of STIs among female brothel-based sex workers (BSWs) in Bangladesh. The study adopted a pre-post interventional...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Asad Islam HongQi Alexis Tan Claire C Bristow Md Golam Hasnain Russell Smyth Liang Choon Wang Source Type: research

Case Report: A New Mycobacterium ulcerans Genotype Causing Buruli Ulcer in C ôte d'Ivoire
We report one case of Buruli ulcer in a peri-urban area in Côte d'Ivoire, confirmed by whole genome sequencing which indicated a M. ulcerans genotype previously unreported in Côte d'Ivoire.PMID:33819173 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1307 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Philippe Bahadoran Nassim Hammoudi Alice Gaudart Jamal Saad Yoan Di Filippo Michel Drancourt Raymond Ruimy Source Type: research

Case Report: Recent Case Reports of Levant Blunt-Nosed Viper Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snakebites in Iran
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201640. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1640. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEnvenomation and death resulting from snakebites represent a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The WHO has defined snakebite as a neglected tropical health concern. Bites from Macrovipera lebetina obtusa usually cause life-threatening systemic hemodynamic disturbances, reduced functionality of the kidneys, and other serious symptoms, including hypotension shock, edema, and tissue necrosis, at the bite site. Herein, we highlight five cases of M. l. obtusa envenomati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Seyed Mahdi Kazemi Ahmed Al-Sabi Chengbo Long Mahmoud I Shoulkamy Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz Source Type: research

Nonparametric Binary Classification to Distinguish Closely Related versus Unrelated P. Falciparum Parasites
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210117. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0117. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAssessing genetic relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum genotypes is a key component of antimalarial efficacy trials. Previous methods have focused on determining a priori definitions of the level of genetic similarity sufficient to classify two infections as sharing the same strain. However, factors such as mixed-strain infections, allelic suppression, imprecise typing methods, and heterozygosity complicate comparisons of apicomplexan genotypes. Here, we introduce a novel method for nonparametric statistical testing of relat...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mateusz M Plucinski Joel L N Barratt Source Type: research

Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia Complicated by Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, and Pneumoperitoneum
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210092. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0092. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33819176 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0092 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ashraf O E Ahmed Mouhand F H Mohamed Khalid Ahmed Source Type: research

Rapid Screening for Non-falciparum Malaria in Elimination Settings Using Multiplex Antigen and Antibody Detection: Post Hoc Identification of Plasmodium malariae in an Infant in Haiti
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201450. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1450. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHaiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk fact...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lotus L van den Hoogen Camelia Herman Jacquelin Pr ésumé Ithamare Romilus Gina Mond élus Tamara Elism é Alexandre Existe Jacques Boncy Vena Joseph Gillian Stresman Kevin K A Tetteh Chris Drakeley Michelle A Chang Jean F Lemoine Thomas P Eisele Eric Ro Source Type: research

Long-Term Immunogenicity of Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR in Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years in the United States
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201576. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1576. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs part of a phase 4, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of PXVX0200 in children and adolescents aged 2-17 years, a subset of 73 adolescent subjects aged 12-17 years was followed up for 2 years after vaccination and had blood collected for antibody assays on days 1, 11, 29, 91, 181, 365, 547, and 730. Endpoints included serum vibriocidal antibody (SVA) seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold or greater rise in antibody titer over baseline; geometric mean titers (GMTs); and ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: James M McCarty David Cassie Lisa Bedell Michael D Lock Sean Bennett Source Type: research

Effect of Temperature on Host Preference in Two Lineages of the Brown Dog Tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201376. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1376. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRhipicephalus sanguineus is a species complex of ticks that vector disease worldwide. Feeding primarily on dogs, members of the complex also feed incidentally on humans, potentially transmitting disease agents such as Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii, and Ehrlichia species. There are two genetic Rh. sanguineus lineages in North America, designated as the temperate and tropical lineages, which had occurred in discrete locations, although there is now range overlap in parts of California and Arizona. Rh. sanguineus in Europe ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Laura H Backus Andr és M López Pérez Janet E Foley Source Type: research

Mosquito Net Ownership, Utilization, and Preferences among Mobile and Migrant Populations Sleeping in Forests and Farms in Central Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200711. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0711. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStrengthening vector control measures among mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) is crucial to malaria elimination, particularly in areas with multidrug-resistant malaria. Although a global priority, providing access and ensuring high coverage of available tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among these vulnerable groups remains a significant challenge. We assessed mosquito net ownership, utilization, and preference among individuals who slept in a forest and/or on a farm against those residing only in vill...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sara E Canavati Gerard C Kelly Thuan Huu Vo Long Khanh Tran Thang Duc Ngo Duong Thanh Tran Kimberly A Edgel Nicholas J Martin Source Type: research

Enhanced IL-6 and IL-12B Gene Expression After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Leprosy Patients May Increase the Risk of Neural Damage
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210034. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0034. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExperts have called attention to the possible negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related cytokine storm syndrome on the progression of leprosy-related disabilities. We assessed the frequency of reactional states in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium leprae and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We consecutively included patients during the first peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and analyzed the expressions of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gilberto Santos Morais Junior Patr ícia Shu Kurizky Selma Regina Penha Silva Cerqueira Daniel Holanda Barroso Heidi Luise Schulte Cleandro Pires de Albuquerque Eliana Teles de Gois Laila Salmen Espindola Jaime Martins Santana Izabela Marques Dourado Bast Source Type: research

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Crystal VC-O1 Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201280. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1280. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholera is a severe acute, highly transmissible diarrheal disease which affects many low- and middle-income countries. Outbreaks of cholera are confirmed using microbiological culture, and additional cases during the outbreak are generally identified based on clinical case definitions, rather than laboratory confirmation. Many low-resource areas where cholera occurs lack the capacity to perform culture in an expeditious manner. A simple, reliable, and low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) would improve identification of cases...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Amanda K Debes Kelsey N Murt Ethyl Waswa Gerald Githinji Mama Umuro Caroline Mbogori Mellisa Roskosky Malathi Ram Allison Shaffer David A Sack Waqo Boru Source Type: research

Impact of Testing on Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Brothel Sex Workers in Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200942. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0942. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPast studies that have designed interventions to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have typically provided onsite treatment to sex workers who tested positive, which were expensive and difficult to implement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention which tested for STIs and provided information on the closest treatment facility on reducing the prevalence of STIs among female brothel-based sex workers (BSWs) in Bangladesh. The study adopted a pre-post interventional...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Asad Islam HongQi Alexis Tan Claire C Bristow Md Golam Hasnain Russell Smyth Liang Choon Wang Source Type: research

Case Report: A New Mycobacterium ulcerans Genotype Causing Buruli Ulcer in C ôte d'Ivoire
We report one case of Buruli ulcer in a peri-urban area in Côte d'Ivoire, confirmed by whole genome sequencing which indicated a M. ulcerans genotype previously unreported in Côte d'Ivoire.PMID:33819173 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1307 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Philippe Bahadoran Nassim Hammoudi Alice Gaudart Jamal Saad Yoan Di Filippo Michel Drancourt Raymond Ruimy Source Type: research

Case Report: Recent Case Reports of Levant Blunt-Nosed Viper Macrovipera lebetina obtusa Snakebites in Iran
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201640. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1640. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEnvenomation and death resulting from snakebites represent a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The WHO has defined snakebite as a neglected tropical health concern. Bites from Macrovipera lebetina obtusa usually cause life-threatening systemic hemodynamic disturbances, reduced functionality of the kidneys, and other serious symptoms, including hypotension shock, edema, and tissue necrosis, at the bite site. Herein, we highlight five cases of M. l. obtusa envenomati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Seyed Mahdi Kazemi Ahmed Al-Sabi Chengbo Long Mahmoud I Shoulkamy Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz Source Type: research

Nonparametric Binary Classification to Distinguish Closely Related versus Unrelated P. Falciparum Parasites
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210117. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0117. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAssessing genetic relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum genotypes is a key component of antimalarial efficacy trials. Previous methods have focused on determining a priori definitions of the level of genetic similarity sufficient to classify two infections as sharing the same strain. However, factors such as mixed-strain infections, allelic suppression, imprecise typing methods, and heterozygosity complicate comparisons of apicomplexan genotypes. Here, we introduce a novel method for nonparametric statistical testing of relat...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mateusz M Plucinski Joel L N Barratt Source Type: research

Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia Complicated by Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, and Pneumoperitoneum
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210092. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0092. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33819176 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0092 (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ashraf O E Ahmed Mouhand F H Mohamed Khalid Ahmed Source Type: research

Rapid Screening for Non-falciparum Malaria in Elimination Settings Using Multiplex Antigen and Antibody Detection: Post Hoc Identification of Plasmodium malariae in an Infant in Haiti
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201450. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1450. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHaiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk fact...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lotus L van den Hoogen Camelia Herman Jacquelin Pr ésumé Ithamare Romilus Gina Mond élus Tamara Elism é Alexandre Existe Jacques Boncy Vena Joseph Gillian Stresman Kevin K A Tetteh Chris Drakeley Michelle A Chang Jean F Lemoine Thomas P Eisele Eric Ro Source Type: research

Long-Term Immunogenicity of Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR in Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years in the United States
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201576. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1576. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs part of a phase 4, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of PXVX0200 in children and adolescents aged 2-17 years, a subset of 73 adolescent subjects aged 12-17 years was followed up for 2 years after vaccination and had blood collected for antibody assays on days 1, 11, 29, 91, 181, 365, 547, and 730. Endpoints included serum vibriocidal antibody (SVA) seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold or greater rise in antibody titer over baseline; geometric mean titers (GMTs); and ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: James M McCarty David Cassie Lisa Bedell Michael D Lock Sean Bennett Source Type: research

Effect of Temperature on Host Preference in Two Lineages of the Brown Dog Tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201376. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1376. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRhipicephalus sanguineus is a species complex of ticks that vector disease worldwide. Feeding primarily on dogs, members of the complex also feed incidentally on humans, potentially transmitting disease agents such as Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii, and Ehrlichia species. There are two genetic Rh. sanguineus lineages in North America, designated as the temperate and tropical lineages, which had occurred in discrete locations, although there is now range overlap in parts of California and Arizona. Rh. sanguineus in Europe ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Laura H Backus Andr és M López Pérez Janet E Foley Source Type: research

Mosquito Net Ownership, Utilization, and Preferences among Mobile and Migrant Populations Sleeping in Forests and Farms in Central Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd200711. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0711. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStrengthening vector control measures among mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) is crucial to malaria elimination, particularly in areas with multidrug-resistant malaria. Although a global priority, providing access and ensuring high coverage of available tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among these vulnerable groups remains a significant challenge. We assessed mosquito net ownership, utilization, and preference among individuals who slept in a forest and/or on a farm against those residing only in vill...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sara E Canavati Gerard C Kelly Thuan Huu Vo Long Khanh Tran Thang Duc Ngo Duong Thanh Tran Kimberly A Edgel Nicholas J Martin Source Type: research

Enhanced IL-6 and IL-12B Gene Expression After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Leprosy Patients May Increase the Risk of Neural Damage
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd210034. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0034. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExperts have called attention to the possible negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related cytokine storm syndrome on the progression of leprosy-related disabilities. We assessed the frequency of reactional states in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium leprae and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We consecutively included patients during the first peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and analyzed the expressions of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gilberto Santos Morais Junior Patr ícia Shu Kurizky Selma Regina Penha Silva Cerqueira Daniel Holanda Barroso Heidi Luise Schulte Cleandro Pires de Albuquerque Eliana Teles de Gois Laila Salmen Espindola Jaime Martins Santana Izabela Marques Dourado Bast Source Type: research

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Crystal VC-O1 Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201280. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1280. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCholera is a severe acute, highly transmissible diarrheal disease which affects many low- and middle-income countries. Outbreaks of cholera are confirmed using microbiological culture, and additional cases during the outbreak are generally identified based on clinical case definitions, rather than laboratory confirmation. Many low-resource areas where cholera occurs lack the capacity to perform culture in an expeditious manner. A simple, reliable, and low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) would improve identification of cases...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - April 5, 2021 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Amanda K Debes Kelsey N Murt Ethyl Waswa Gerald Githinji Mama Umuro Caroline Mbogori Mellisa Roskosky Malathi Ram Allison Shaffer David A Sack Waqo Boru Source Type: research