International Journal of Infectious Diseases This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.
HIV enteropathy (HIVE) and Slim disease (SD): historical and current perspectives
The emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Africa was first reported among patients originating from Central Africa presenting with severe wasting symptoms resembling marasmus in 1983. The illness was associated commonly with chronic, and often life-threatening diarrhoea . There was no evidence of an underlying immunosuppressive disease, no history of blood-product transfusion, homosexuality, or intravenous-drug abuse and the disease appeared to affect females as frequently as males. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 3, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: MS Kapembwa, PA Batman, SC Fleming, GE Griffin Tags: Review Source Type: research
Use of elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor leads to changes in detection frequencies of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa dependent on age and lung function in people with CF
In CF lung disease, CFTR dysfunction leads to mucus stasis. Mucus stasis in turn favors chronic colonization with various bacteria, creating a microbial community, which negatively impacts pulmonary disease progression. In spite of improved symptomatic therapies, including antibiotic treatment regimens , the characteristic age-dependent sequence of initial dominance of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), detected in airway secretions from infancy to adolescence, followed by chronic colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), seen in the majority of all people with CF (pwCF) in adulthood , has remained largely unchanged, a...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 28, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anna-Maria Dittrich, Sarah Sieber, Lutz Naehrlich, Manuel Burkhart, Sylvia Hafkemeyer, Burkhard T ümmler, Registry Working Group of the German CF Registry Source Type: research
Long-term non-progression and risk factors for disease progression among children living with HIV in Botswana and Uganda: a retrospective cohort study
Africa remains the global epicenter of the HIV epidemic; more than 70% of all people living with HIV/AIDS are in Africa. In 2021, UNAIDS estimates indicated that 150,000 new HIV infections and 99,000 deaths occurred among African children . Before the initiative of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART), it was widely noted that some children would remain AIDS-free for more than ten years and could maintain normal-for-age CD4+ T-cell counts  – so-called long-term nonprogressors (LTNP). Children capable of controlling HIV infection present the opportunity for unique insights into the natural host immune responses, w...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 27, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Samuel Kyobe, Grace Kisitu, Savannah Mwesigwa, John Farirai, Eric Katagirya, Gaone Retshabile, Lesedi Williams, Angela Mirembe, Lesego Ketumile, Misaki Wayengera, John Mukisa, Gaseene Sebetso, Thabo Diphoko, Marion Amujal, Edgar Kigozi, Fred Katabazi, Ron Source Type: research
Expanded HIV testing in non-key populations – the neglected strategy for minimising late diagnosis
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set the Fast-Track strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030, with the targets of 95% of people with HIV (PLWH) aware of their HIV status, 95% of diagnosed PLWH on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and 95% of PLWH on treatment achieving viral load suppression. To achieve these targets, timely HIV testing is crucial as undiagnosed PLWH would not know their HIV status, and ongoing transmission would occur until ART is received. The risk of acquiring HIV is mainly through high-risk exposures such as multiple sexual partners, sharing of contaminated needles for drug ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 27, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ngai Sze WONG, Weiming TANG, William C. MILLER, Jason J. ONG, Shui Shan LEE Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Role of pre-existing immunity in driving the dengue virus serotype 2 genotype shift in the Philippines: A retrospective analysis of serological data
The dengue virus (DENV) consists of four distinct serotypes (DENV1-4) , with each serotype further classified into genetically distinct genotypes. Following primary infection with DENV, serotype-specific and cross-serotype antibodies provide protection from re-infection. However, only serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies are thought to provide complete protection against re-infection with the same serotype. Cross-serotype antibodies with neutralizing activity against the remaining serotypes wane over time [2,3], and may eventually enhance secondary infection with a different serotype . (Source: International Jou...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 27, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jean Claude Balingit, Mark Pierre S. Dimamay, Ryosuke Suzuki, Mami Matsuda, Dalouny Xayavong, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Ronald R. Matias, Filipinas F. Natividad, Meng Ling Moi, Yuki Takamatsu, Richard Culleton, Corazon C. Buerano, Kouichi Morita Source Type: research
Variant rs4986790 of TLR4 affects the signaling and induces cell dysfunction in severe COVID-19 patients.
COVID-19 patients display a broad clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic infections to critical [1, 2]; the pathophysiology that explains these differences between individuals needs to be clarified. Some authors focus on the innate immune response that acts as the first line of defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), sensing the virus through pattern recognition receptors (PRR) like Toll-like receptors (TLR) and activating inflammatory pathways that promote viral clearance . (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 27, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julio Flores-Gonzalez, Leslie Chavez-Galan, Ramc és Falfán-Valencia, Ivette Buendía Roldán, Ingrid Fricke-Galindo, Abigail Veronica-Aguilar, Alfonso Martínez-Morales, Rafael de Jesús Hernández-Zenteno, Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán, Gloria Pérez-Rubi Source Type: research
The appearance of anti-spike RBD IgG4 responses after repetitive immunization with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines
Although it has been reported that repeated boosting with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines has been protective , some concerns about repeated vaccination of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines have emerged. Repeated vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines back-boosts previous memory and dampens the immune response to a new antigenically related but distinct virus strain, so-called vaccine-induced immune imprinting or original antigenic sin . It has been also reported that the class switches toward noninflammatory, spike-specific IgG4 antibodies (Ab) after repeated SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-type vaccination [3-5]. (Source: International Journa...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Michinobu Yoshimura, Atsuhiko Sakamoto, Ryo Ozuru, Yusuke Kurihara, Ryota Itoh, Kazunari Ishii, Akinori Shimizu, Bin Chou, Shigeki Nabeshima, Kenji Hiromatsu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Prior immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is associated with decreased COVID-19-related hospitalizations and complications in patients with cancer: Results of a propensity-matched analysis of the OnCovid registry.
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use steadily increased since early reports describing marked efficacy . They are now a mainstay treatment of several cancer types. Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, questions persisted of whether and how immune enhancing properties of ICIs impact outcomes in cancer patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [2-4]. In particular, considering the cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) as the major event driving the deranged immune response underlying severe COVID-19, the major concerns were related to the possible exacerbating effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anahita Mostaghim, Samuel Minkove, Juan Aguilar-Company, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Simeon Eremiev-Eremiev, Gino M Dettorre, Laura Fox, Carlo Tondini, Joan Brunet, MCarmen Carmona-Garc ía, Matteo Lambertini, Mark Bower, Thomas Newsom-Davis, Rachel Sharkey, Aless Source Type: research
Infective aortitis and subacute myocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus
A 79 year-old woman on chemotherapy for lung cancer was admitted for abdominal pain and diarrhea. Blood cultures became positive for Campylobacter fetus after 4 days and imipenem was started. Despite clinical improvement, repeated blood cultures showed persistent bacteremia. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT) revealed focal hypermetabolism of the aortic arch and the left ventricule bases. Echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were unremarkable. Given the suspected myocardial involvement, intravenous gentamycin was added but interrupted after one week due to toxicity. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anaelle Lenherr, Sarah Boughdad, John O. Prior, Marie Nicod Lalonde, Paraskevas Filippidis Tags: Medical Imagery Source Type: research
Long-term efficacy of the peptide-based COVID-19 T cell activator CoVac-1 in healthy adults
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), different vaccines have been successfully developed [1-3]. Although neutralizing antibodies provide the first line of antiviral defense [4, 5], spike-specific antibody titers tend to wane quickly and show limited neutralizing activity against newly arising variants of concern (VOCs) . In contrast, T cells were shown to mediate long-term immunity that is largely conserved against VOCs after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination [4, 7]. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 25, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Tandler, Jonas S. Heitmann, Tanja M. Michel, Maddalena Marconato, Simon U. Jaeger, Christian M. Tegeler, Monika Denk, Marion Richter, Melek Tutku Oezbek, Yacine Maringer, Sarah M. Schroeder, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Karl-Heinz Wiesm üller, Mich Source Type: research
Identification of the PfK13 mutations R561H and P441L in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the DRC accounts for 12.3% of global malaria cases and 12.6% of all malaria attributable deaths; in figures this is approximately 30 million cases and almost 80,000 deaths in 2021 . The DRC has implemented a number of control efforts to combat malaria. These include the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against uncomplicated malaria (artesunate-amodiaquine [ASAQ] or artemether-lumefantrine [AL]) and intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) [...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 25, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gauthier Mesia Kahunu, Sarah Wellmann Thomsen, Louise Wellmann Thomsen, Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Patrick Mitashi Mulopo, Emma Filtenborg Hocke, Papy Mandoko Nkoli, Vito Baraka, Daniel T.R. Minja, Andria Mousa, Cally Roper, Destin Mbongi Moke, Dieudonn é Source Type: research
The global epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial pneumonia that occurs in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilation . It is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) with an incidence of 55.3% (95% CI, 0.465-0.657) . VAP may recur more than once, with an overall frequency of 26.8% . As an ICU-acquired infection, VAP comes with a significant financial burden to the health care system due to prolonged ICU length of stay . It is also associated with a high mortality rate (i.e. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 25, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yixuan Li, Jason A. Roberts, Mikaela M. Walker, Abdullah Tarik Aslan, Patrick N.A. Harris, Fekade Sime Source Type: research
Adjunctive rosiglitazone treatment for severe paediatric malaria: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in Mozambican children.
In 2021 malaria caused ∼247 million clinical episodes, 2-4 million cases of severe disease and an estimated 619,000 deaths . The highest mortality rates occur in sub-Saharan African children under the age of five. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 25, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosauro Varo, Valerie M. Crowley, Humberto Mucasse, Antonio Sitoe, Justina Bramugy, Lena Serghides, Andrea M. Weckman, Clara Erice, Rubao Bila, Pio Vitorino, Campos Mucasse, Marta Valente, Sara Ajanovic, N úria Balanza, Kathleen Zhong, Yiovanna Derpsch, Source Type: research
Eyeglasses and risk of COVID-19 transmission - analysis of the Virus Watch Community Cohort study.
Respiratory viruses infect individuals via the nose, mouth and eyes, through contact with surfaces touched by the individual or via small and larger (i.e. droplet) aerosol particles. Recommendations for the protection of the general public in most countries include social distancing, handwashing and face mask use but not eye protection. In the UK eye protection (including full face visors or goggles) is recommended in healthcare settings if blood or body fluid contamination to the eyes or face is anticipated or likely. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 24, 2023 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Annalan MD Navaratnam, Christopher O'Callaghan, Sarah Beale, Vincent Nguyen, Anna Aryee, Isobel Braithwaite, Thomas E Byrne, Wing Lam Erica Fong, Ellen Fragaszy, Cyril Geismar, Susan Hoskins, Jana Kovar, Parth Patel, Madhumita Shrotri, Sophie Weber, Alexe Source Type: research