Corrigendum to “Tuberculosis among children and adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – Focus on extrapulmonary disease” [Int J Infect Dis 105 (2021) 105-112]
The authors regret to inform that there are 3 mistakes in the above article as described below: (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M árcia Cortez Bellotti de Oliveira, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna, Ronir Luiz Raggio, Afrânio Lineu Kritski Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Effect of Non-lockdown Social Distancing and Testing-Contact Tracing During a COVID-19 Outbreak in Daegu, South Korea, February to April 2020: A Modeling Study
By July 19, 2021, there are more than 188 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 4 million deaths globally (World Health Organization 2021). Strict lockdown (confining people at home or shelter) has been widely enforced to limit the spread of its etiological agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Kraemer et al., 2020), but remains highly controversial due to the profound negative impacts on the society (The Great Barrington Declaration 2021). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yi-Hsuan Chen, Chi-Tai Fang, Yu-Ling Huang Source Type: research

DimachkieSpectrum of Acute Neuropathy Associated with Covid-19: Clinical and electrophysiological study of 13 patients from a single center
Acute neuropathy in Covid-19 disease is a well-recognized association. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), Acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN)and other varieties of Covid-19 associated Guillain-Barre  syndrome (GBS)have been summarized in systematic reviews (Abu-Rumeileh et al., 2021; Sriwastava et al., 2021). Though previous authors have described electrophysiological characteristics of Covid 19 related neuropathy, they are limited to specific neuropathy types such as AIDP (Uncini et al, 2021) or critical illness neuropathy (Frithiof et al, 2021). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sai Deepak Yaranagula, Venkata Krishna Chaitanya Koduri Source Type: research

Long term Survival of Treated Tuberculosis patients in comparison to General Population in South India – a Matched Cohort study
We aimed to measure the mortality rate, potential years of life lost, and excess general mortality among individuals treated for pulmonary TB in a TB endemic country. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sriram Selvaraju, Kannan Thiruvengadam, Basilea Watson, Nataraj Thirumalai, Muniyandi Malaiswamy, Chandrasekaran Vedachalam, Soumya Swaminathan, Chandrasekaran Padmapriyadarsini Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 in transit: characterization of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Venezuelan migrants in Colombia
The socioeconomic, political and healthcare crisis of the last two decades has resulted in violence, poverty and the massive migration of Venezuelans to neighboring countries (Daniels 2020), driving further economic and social instability and catalyzing the overflow of infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, tuberculosis, HIV, and most recently, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Grillet et al. 2019; Rodr íguez-Morales et al. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luz H. Pati ño, Nathalia Ballesteros, Marina Muñoz, Sergio Castañeda, Carolina Hernández, Sergio Gomez, Carolina Florez, Angelica Rico, Liseth Pardo, Carlos E. Hernandez-Pereira, Lourdes Delgado-Noguera, Maria E. Grillet, Matthew M. Hernandez, Zenab K Source Type: research

Symptomatic Bradycardia in Covid-19 Hospitalized Patients: a Case Series
The novel human coronavirus (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has become the fifth documented pandemic which has spread worldwide and is currently a global threat. (Yu et al., 2006) Arrhythmic events have become a part of cardiac manifestations related to Covid-19 infection that has been reported in multiple publications. (Xiong, Redwood, Prendergast, and Chen, 2020, Bansal, 2020, Ulhaq and Soraya, 2020) Bradycardia as a possible clinical feature in Covid-19 hospitalized patients is not well understood but studies suggest this condition to be due to multiple factors which include direct myocardial damage, ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muzakkir Amir, Hendry Yoseph, Aulia Thufael Al Farisi, James Klemens Phieter Phie, Andi Tiara Salengke Adam Source Type: research

Association of public health interventions and COVID-19 incidence in Vietnam, January to December 2020
As of June 2021, more than 182 million COVID-19 cases and nearly 3.9 million deaths related to COVID-19 have been reported globally (World Health Organization 2021). Various public health measures were implemented at different stages across the world, with varying success (Liu et al., 2021, Flaxman et al., 2020, Li et al., 2021). China successfully contained the outbreak through strict lockdown measures (Pan et al., 2020, Tu et al., 2020). High-income countries like New Zealand, Australia or Taiwan came close to elimination of community transmission for several months during 2020 through strict border control and extensive...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ha-Linh Quach, Khanh Cong Nguyen, Ngoc-Anh Hoang, Thai Quang Pham, Duong Nhu Tran, Mai Thi Quynh Le, Hung Thai Do, Chien Chinh Vien, Lan Trong Phan, Nghia Duy Ngu, Tu Anh Tran, Dinh Cong Phung, Quang Dai Tran, Tan Quang Dang, Duc-Anh Dang, Florian Vogt Source Type: research

Tuberculosis recurrence over 7-year follow-up period in successfully treated patients in a routine programme setting in China: a prospective longitudinal study
Although the estimated tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate fell by 42% globally between 2000 and 2019, it is still a major public health problem worldwide. (World Health Organization 2020) In 2019, there were an estimated 10 million new TB cases and 1.5 million people died from the disease. (World Health Organization 2020) Despite the reported treatment success rate for new cases reaching over 85% in more than half of the high TB burden countries, for some countries, a significant proportion of people who completed anti-TB treatment have a recurrence of TB. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yan Lin, Haoxiang Lin, Lixin Xiao, Yongming Chen, Xu Meng, Xianglin Zeng, Chun Chang, Grania Brigden Source Type: research

Influence of HIV infection on the distribution of high-risk HPV types among women with cervical precancerous lesions in Yaounde, Cameroon
Cervical cancer is most often caused by infection of the cervix by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) (He and He, 2019), a sexually transmitted virus that mostly infects women during their reproductive years (Kim et al., 2019). Approximately 90% of HPV infections are asymptomatic, controlled by the immune system, and cleared within two years. However, the remaining 10% may persist and progress to dysplasia and invasive carcinoma through a mechanism involving oncoproteins E6 and E7 and other co-carcinogens, and eventually a compromised immune system (Matovelo et al., 2012). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Richard TAGNE SIMO, Fonyuy B. KIAFON, Charlette NANGUE, Andr é P. GOURA, Jackson L. EBUNE, Moki C. USANI, Armel H. NWABO KAMDJE, Paul F. SEKE ETET, Phélix B. TELEFO Source Type: research

The toll of COVID-19 on African children: A descriptive analysis on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population in Sub-Saharan Africa
Since its emergence in December 2019 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people around the world and caused over 3.9 million officially registered deaths (WHO, 2021). From the onset of this pandemic, the pathogenic aspects in the pediatric population have remained less clear, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where specialists ’ initial projections estimated a high number of cases and deaths (Cabore et al., 2020). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sabina Rodriguez Vel ásquez, Léa Jacques, Jyoti Dalal, Paolo Sestito, Zahra Habibi, Akarsh Venkatasubramanian, Benedict Nguimbis, Sara Botero Mesa, Cleophas Chimbetete, Olivia Keiser, Benido Impouma, Franck Mboussou, George Sie William, Nsenga Ngoy, Amb Source Type: research

The negative impact of increasing age and underlying cirrhosis on sensitivity of adenosine deaminase in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis: a cross-sectional study in eastern China
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health concern and the leading killer infectious disease worldwide (Furin et al., 2019). In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the number of TB cases to be 10.0 million, and the number of death caused by TB to be 1.4 million (World Health Organization, 2020). Tuberculous peritonitis (TBP), a type of diffuse peritoneal metastasis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), accounts for 3.1 –6.1% of extrapulmonary TB cases (Guirat et al., 2011, Prevention, 2019, Sandgren et al., 2013, Vaid and Kane, 2017). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jian Sun, Huatang Zhang, Zhiwei Song, Lei Jin, Jian Yang, Jun Gu, Dan Ye, Xueping Yu, Jianghua Yang Source Type: research

Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Relapse with Remdesivir and Neutralizing Antibodies Cocktail in a Patient with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia
During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, patients with humoral immunodeficiency are at higher risk of developing chronic infection and having negative outcome. Little data are available on therapeutic options for this population. We discuss the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 relapse with remdesivir and monoclonal antibodies in an adult patient with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emanuele Palomba, Maria Carrabba, Gianluca Zuglian, Laura Alagna, Paola Saltini, Valeria Fortina, Cinzia Hu, Alessandra Bandera, Giovanna Fabio, Andrea Gori, Antonio Muscatello Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Risk factors for hospitalization and mortality due to dengue fever in a Mexican population: a retrospective cohort study.
Dengue is one of the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in the world, transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. It is a tropical illness caused by a single-stranded RNA virus from the flavivirus family (Guzman and Harris, 2015a). There are four known serotypes of the virus (DENV 1-4), each one antigenically different. Infection with one of the serotypes will confer long-term immune protection against that precise serotype (Guzman and Harris, 2015b; Uno and Ross, 2018). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodrigo Fonseca-Portilla, Mercedes Mart ínez-Gil, Dan Morgenstern-Kaplan Source Type: research

Initial SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response can predict booster response for BNT162b2 but not for AZD1222
Vaccines against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have now been available for several months (Zaqout et al., 2021). Determination of spike-protein specific antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, although not unrestrictedly recommended (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021), is commonly performed. The post-vaccination antibody levels, even when measured with standardized commercially available CE-certified quantitative test systems, differ significantly (Kristiansen et al., 2021, Perkmann et al., 2021a). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thomas Perkmann, Nicole Perkmann-Nagele, Patrick Mucher, Astrid Radakovics, Manuela Repl, Thomas Koller, Galateja Jordakieva, Oswald F Wagner, Christoph J Binder, Helmuth Haslacher Source Type: research

Group B Streptococcus Awareness Month: Vaccine and Challenges Underway
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, being associated with 3.5 million preterm births, 319,000 neonatal infections and 147,000 neonatal deaths annually (Seale et al., 2017; Steer et al., 2020). Asymptomatic anovaginal colonization of pregnant women is the main risk factor for neonatal GBS infections, which are usually derived from vertical transmission. An estimated 18% of pregnant women worldwide are asymptomatically colonized by GBS (Seale et al., 2017), but this rate varies from 10 to 40% according to the country. (Source: International Journal...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto, Laura Maria Andrade Oliveira, Nat ália Silva da Costa, Amanda de Assis Rocha, André Rio Tinto de Matos Freire, Carollina Moreira Franquelino Gutierrez, Crislaine Mateus dos Santos, Danielle Cristina dos Santos Silva Alvim, D Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Influenza immunization and COVID-19 – can viral structure be responsible for the effect?
I would like to express gratitude for reader's interest in previously published manuscript entitled “Pneumonia in medical professionals during COVID-19 outbreak in cardiovascular hospital” in International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Ilic et al., 2021). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 26, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ivan Ilic, Dragana Unic Stojanovic, Goran Loncar Tags: A letter to the editor Source Type: research

A Five-day Course of Ivermectin may Reduce the Duration of COVID-19 Illness
Dear Sir (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sabeena Ahmed, Wasif Ali Khan Tags: Type: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Covid-19: An extra-terrestrial disease?
Although the threat of a pandemic had been expected for years, Covid-19 triggered frantic and uncoordinated reactions worldwide (Independent Panel for Pandemic and Preparedness and Response, 2021; Paul et al., 2020b). Since being declared a public health emergency in January 2020, Covid-19 has been regarded as an exceptional disease, as if it came from outer space. For the first time in history, billions of people were locked down, denied the right to go to school or to earn their living, and/or to see their loved ones, while an unprecedented race for treatment and vaccine discovery was launched. (Source: International Jou...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Elisabeth Paul, Garrett W. Brown, M élanie Dechamps, Andreas Kalk, Pierre-François Laterre, Bernard Rentier, Valéry Ridde, Martin Zizi Source Type: research

Can seasonal influenza vaccine for 2019/2020 has cross reactivity with some of SARS-CoV-2 proteins?
Dear editor, (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Milad Zandi, Emad Behboudi, Saber Soltani Source Type: research

Validation and implementation of a direct RT-qPCR method for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection by using non-invasive saliva samples
Objective: To validate and implement an optimised screening method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA combining use of self-collected raw saliva samples, single-step heat-treated virus inactivation and RNA extraction, and direct RT-qPCR.Methods: 3-phased study conducted in Barcelona (Spain) in June-October, 2020, including: i) analytical validation against standard RT-qPCR in saliva samples; ii) diagnostic validation against standard RT-qPCR using paired saliva-nasopharyngeal samples obtained from asymptomatic teenagers and adults in a sports academy; and iii) pilot screening of asymptomatic health workers in a tertiary hospi...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pedro Brotons, Amaresh Perez-Arg üello, Cristian Launes, Francesc Torrents, Maria Pilar Subirats, Jesica Saucedo, Joana Claverol, Juan Jose Garcia-Garcia, Gil Rodas, Vicky Fumado, Iolanda Jordan, Eduard Gratacos, Quique Bassat, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro Source Type: research

Safety and Reactogenicity of the ChAdOx1 (AZD1222) COVID-19 vaccine in Vaccinee in Saudi Arabia
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had caused the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The pandemic had resulted in a significant disruption of social live and had a major economic impact. Countries around the globe had taken extra-ordinary measures to combat the disease. The results from phase III clinical trials showed that both Pfizer-BioNTech messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine (BNT162b2) and the Oxford-AstraZeneca adenovirus vector vaccine, ChAdOx1-S, also known as Ad26.COV2.S, vaccines very effective in decreasing disease and mortality with a planned two-dose schedule (Polack e...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salma AlBahrani, Ali AlBarraK, Othman Ali Alghamdi, Mesfer Abdullah alghamdi, Fatimah H. Hakami, Asmaa K. Al Abaadi, Sausan A. Alkhrashi, Mansour Y. Alghamdi, Meshael M. Almershad, Mansour Moklif Alenazi, Mohamed Hany ElGezery, Arulanantham Zechariah Jeba Source Type: research

ABC2-SPH risk score for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients: development, external validation and comparison with other available scores
The majority of available scores to assess mortality risk of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients in the emergency department have high risk of bias. Therefore, our aim was to develop and validate a score at hospital admission for predicting in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, and to compare this score with other existing ones. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 23, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Milena S. Marcolino, Magda C. Pires, Lucas Emanuel F. Ramos, Rafael T. Silva, Luana M. Oliveira, Rafael L.R. Carvalho, Rodolfo Lucas S. Mourato, Adri án Sánchez-Montalvá, Berta Raventós, Fernando Anschau, José Miguel Chatkin, Matheus C.A. Nogueira, M Source Type: research

Evaluating COVID-19 reporting data in the context of testing strategies across 31 LMICs
’2D (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ph.D. Mollie M. Van Gordon, Ph.D. Kevin A. McCarthy, Ph.D. Joshua L. Proctor, MBA Brittany L. Hagedorn Source Type: research

Characteristics, complications and mortality of respiratory syncytial virus compared to influenza infections in hospitalized adult patients in Thailand
Influenza virus is an important cause of adult hospitalization while respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is increasingly recognized, especially in older adults with co-morbidities (Falsey et al. 2014; Lee et al. 2013; Olsen et al. 2010; Walker and Ison 2014). In studies from America, Europe, and Asia, RSV infection represented 2.3% to 13.0% of adult hospitalizations (Falsey et al. 2005; Falsey et al. 2014; Lee et al. 2013; Loubet et al. 2017; Malosh et al. 2017; Naorat et al. 2013; Olsen et al. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benjamas Chuaychoo, Kanokwan Rattanasaengloet, Run Banlengchit, Navin Horthongkham, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Kanyarat Totanarungroj, Nisa Muangman Source Type: research

Performance of a SARS CoV-2 antigen rapid immunoassay in patients admitted to the Emergency Department
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and has four main structural proteins: spike, envelope, membrane protein and nucleocapsid protein (Naqvi et al., 2020) and is a member of the human coronavirus family (HCoV) of which, six were already known to cause disease (Yin and Wunderink, 2018). Among these, four are known as human endemic coronaviruses: HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 causing acute self-limiting common cold symptoms (Yin and Wunderink, 2018), while the other two, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, were cause of outbreaks of severe lower re...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christian Leli, Luigi Di Matteo, Franca Gotta, Elisa Cornaglia, Daria Vay, Iacopo Megna, Rosalia Emanuela Pensato, Riccardo Boverio, Andrea Rocchetti Source Type: research

BCG vaccination induces enhanced frequencies of dendritic cells and altered plasma levels of type I and type III interferons in elderly individuals
Bacillus Calmette –Guérin (BCG) is a live-attenuated vaccine largely established to protect against childhood meningitis and disseminated tuberculosis (TB) (Foster et al., 2021) Several epidemiological findings suggest that BCG may increase the capacity of the immune system to fight against pathogens other than TB (Leentjens et al., 2015) and such non-specific responses augment both T cell–mediated adaptive and innate immune memory in a process called trained immunity and this could have important implications for improving vaccination strategies. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nathella Pavan Kumar, Chandrasekaran Padmapriyadarsini, Anuradha Rajamanickam, Perumal Kannabiran Bhavani, Arul Nancy, Bharathi Jayadeepa, Nandhini Selvaraj, Dinesh Ashokan, Rachel Mariam Renji, Vijayalakshmi Venkataramani, Srikanth Tripathy, Subash Babu Source Type: research

Self-collected oral, nasal and saliva samples yield sensitivity comparable to professional-collected oro-nasopharyngeal swabs in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis among symptomatic outpatients
Containment of the current COVID-19 pandemic(Lu et al., 2020, Zhu et al., 2020) requires broad-scale testing capacities(Zhu and Wong, 2020) for patients, potentially contagious persons and groups at risk of infection. Laboratory capacities for real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) have been significantly increased in many countries, and are complemented by novel rapid test devices based on antigen detection(Rai et al., 2021). Still, professional-collected (oro-)nasopharyngeal samples are considered the gold standard(Marty et al., 2020, Pan et al., 2020). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maximilian Gertler, Eva Krause, Welmoed van Loon, Niklas Krug, Franka Kausch, Chiara Rohardt, Heike R össig, Janine Michel, Andreas Nitsche, Marcus A. Mall, Olga Nikolai, Franziska Hommes, Susen Burock, Andreas K. Lindner, Frank P. Mockenhaupt, Ulrich Pi Source Type: research

Successful management of post-covid-19 acanthamoebic encephalitis
Acanthamoebae are free living amoebae ubiquitously present in the environment. Human exposure to this organism is quite frequent, as reflected by its high seroprevalence of more than 80% in the general population ([4]Brindley et al., 2009). Both trophozoites and cysts can enter the body via contact lens use, skin wounds, or inhalation and can hematogenously disseminate to the central nervous system (Acanthamoeba - Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE); Keratitis |Acanthamoeba |Parasites |CDC, n.d. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Govinda Siripurapu, Sameer Abdul Samad, Saman Fatima, Naveet Wig, M.V. Padma Srivastava Source Type: research

Evaluation of immature platelet fraction as a marker of dengue fever progression
Dengue is the most rapidly spreading arboviral infection of major public health concern. Best estimates indicate a worldwide annual incidence of 390 million dengue infections of which around 96 million episodes manifest varying levels of clinical severity (Bhatt et al., 2013). Additionally, the Global Burden of Dengue study in 2013 reported 60 million symptomatic dengue infections per year resulting in about 10 000 deaths (Stanaway et al., 2016). As yet, neither safe, effective and affordable dengue vaccines nor specific therapies are widely available in the tropical regions which bear the highest burden of dengue disease....
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kah Wai Looi, Yukari Matsui, Mari Kono, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Nozomi Kojima, Jin Xu Ong, Chin Aun Tan, Chong Siang Ang, Peter Hao Yuan Tan, Hemalatha Shamnugam, Shamala Devi A/P K.C Sekaran, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Lucy Chai See Lum Source Type: research

Patient understanding of and participation in infection-related care across surgical pathways: a scoping review
Infection prevention and control (IPC) is an area within healthcare where concerted efforts to include patient involvement and participation is critical to positive outcomes. Available policies and guidelines, mostly from high-income countries, provide strategies to engage patients in infection-related care, including antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2011; NICE, 2015; NICE, 2019a; Wellcome Trust, 2019; World Health Organization (WHO, 2015). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oluchi Mbamalu, Candice Bonaconsa, Vrinda Nampoothiri, Surya Surendran, Pranav Veepanattu, Sanjeev Singh, Puneet Dhar, Vanessa Carter, Adam Boutall, Timothy Pennel, Mark Hampton, Alison Holmes, Marc Mendelson, Esmita Charani Tags: Review Source Type: research

Population seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Anambra state, South-East, Nigeria
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the SARS-COV-2 virus infection a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on the 30th of January 2020 (Eurosurveillance Editorial Team, 2020). About a month later, on the 27th of February 2020, Nigeria diagnosed her first case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an international immigrant (Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, 2020a). This first case of COVID-19 triggered a massive nationwide response led by the Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) to restrict the disease to the point source, as close as possible. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: OgoChukwu Vincent Okpala, Cyril Chukwudi Dim, Chukwuebuka Immanuel Ugwu, Simeon Onyemaechi, Obiageli Uchebo, Ugochukwu Chukwulobelu, Chuma Emembolu, Ben Okoye, Chukwumuanya Igboekwu, Uchenna Benedict Okoye, Nelly Chibuzor Dike, Anastasia Obiageli Odumegwu Source Type: research

Safety, efficacy, and serum concentration monitoring of bedaquiline in Chinese patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
Tuberculosis  (TB) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. According to the Global TB Report (2020), there were about 7.1 million new cases of TB worldwide and 206,030 with drug-resistant TB (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020). Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tu berculosis resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most critical anti-TB drugs (Mase et al., 2020). The treatment for MDR-TB lasts longer, is more expensive, and is less effective than drug-susceptible TB (Cox et al., 2018). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jinmeng Li, Gaoyi Yang, Qingshan Cai, Yu Wang, Yingying Xu, Ruoying Zhang, Yazhen Lang, Xinjun Cai Source Type: research

Re-infection with different SARS-CoV-2 clade and prolonged viral shedding in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
We describe a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and lymphoma with protracted illness requiring 3 consecutive hospital admissions. Whole genome sequencing confirmed two different SARS-CoV-2 clades. Clinical management issues, and unanswered questions arising are discussed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abeer N Alshukairi, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Ashraf Dada, Mohamed Yasir, Amani H Yamani, Mohammed F Saeedi, Ahmed Aljohaney, Naif I AlJohani, Husam A Bahaudden, Intikhab Alam, Takashi Gojobori, Aleksandar Radovanovic, Thamir A Alandijany, Norah A. Othman, Tag Tags: Case Report - Fastrack submission to International Journal of Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ANTERIOR UVEITIS ONSET AFTER BNT162b2 VACCINATION: IS THIS JUST A COINCIDENCE?
Vaccine-related uveitis is a rare adverse event. However, several cases have been reported with almost all the vaccines currently employed (Al-Dhibi et al., 2014; Benage and Fraunfelder, 2016; Moorthy et al., 2018; Holt et al., 2014; Fraunfelder et al., 2010; Escott et al., 2013). Mean age of uveitis cases was 30 years (age range: 2 months to 86 years) and median time from vaccination to uveitis onset was 16 days (range 1 day to 6 years). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Giulia Renisi, Andrea Lombardi, Stanzione Massimo, Invernizzi Alessandro, Alessandra Bandera, Andrea Gori Source Type: research

Circulating IgA/IgG memory B cell against Mycobacterium tuberculosis dormancy-associated antigens Rv2659c and Rv3128c in active and latent tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a major public health problem, listed in Sustainable Development Goal 3. There were an estimated 10 million new cases, as well as 1.2 million deaths, in 2019 (WHO, 2020). Importantly, latent infections are estimated to be present in a quarter of the global population (WHO, 2020). From this stage, approximately 5-10% of people progress to active TB during their lifetime. Thus, not only do latent tuberculosis individuals (LTBIs) become reservoirs of active TB, but they also stand as a key challenge for global TB control (Raviglione and Sulis, 2016). (Source: Int...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Phyu Thwe Soe, Jariya Hanthamrongwit, Chutiphon Saelee, Soe Paing Kyaw, Prasong Khaenam, Saradee Warit, Nusara Satproedprai, Surakameth Mahasirimongkol, Hideki Yanai, Patchanee Chootong, Chaniya Leepiyasakulchai Source Type: research

Associations Between Malaria in Pregnancy and Neonatal Neurological Outcomes
During pregnancy, naturally acquired immunity to malaria is compromised and pregnant women in endemic regions are at higher risk of malaria infection than their nonpregnant peers (Doolan et al., 2009). It is well-established that malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (including miscarriage and stillbirth) (Saito et al., 2020) and maternal and fetal/neonatal complications including malarial anemia, fetal growth restriction, preterm birth, and low birthweight (Rogerson, 2017). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harriet L.S. Lawford, Mercy A. Nuamah, Helen G. Liley, Alison Griffin, Cecilia E. Lekpor, Felix Botchway, Samuel A. Oppong, Ali Samba, Ebenezer V. Badoe, Sailesh Kumar, Anne CC Lee, Richard K. Gyasi, Andrew A. Adjei, Samudragupta Bora Source Type: research

Nocardia infection causing non-healing surgical wounds:A case series from Bangladesh
Nocardiae spp. are weakly acid fast, filamentous, branching, Gram positive bacilli (Brown-Elliott et al., 2006; Queipo-Zaragoz á et al., 2004). They are found especially in tropical and subtropical environments and are ubiquitous(Murray et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2008). There are more than 100 identified species of Nocardia, of which 54 species of Nocardia are pathogenic to humans (Baio et al., 2013; Conville et al., 201 8; Murray et al., 2013). Diagnosis can be done from microscopy by Gram stain and modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining as well as from growth. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Afzalunnessa Binte, Samira Afroz, Asif Mujtaba Mahmud, Tasmiah Selim, Taskina Akhter, Tamanna Sultana, Sadia Taskeen Source Type: research

Propensity-Score Analysis Reveals that Sex is Not a Prognosis Factor for Mortality in Intensive Care Unit-Admitted Patients with Septic Bacteremia
Intensive Care Unit (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manuel Ponce-Alonso, Borja M. Fern ández-Félix, Ana Halperin, Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez, Ana M Sánchez-Díaz, Rafael Cantón, Alfonso Muriel, Javier Zamora, Rosa del Campo Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B and C in two populations: blood donors and patients with suspected hepatic cirrhosis in Kwilu province, Democratic Republic of Congo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in the developing world due to the risk of developing cirrhosis, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death (McMahon, 2009). According to the Global Hepatitis Report by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, an estimated 257 million people worldwide were infected with HBV and 71 million people with HCV, causing about 1.34 million deaths annually (The Lancet GBD 2017, 2018). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Junior Mudji, Justice Malala, Yves Horsmans Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology and drug susceptibility profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Northern Ghana
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of infectious diseases; the World Health Organisation estimates 10 million individuals comprising 5.6 million men, 3.2 million women and 1.2 million children less than 15 years fell ill with TB in 2019 (WHO, 2020). About 1.2 million individuals died from TB in 2019 making it the leading cause of adult mortality from a single infectious agent globally (WHO, 2020). Several factors including the emergence of drug resistant (DR) strains of the causative pathogen, the HIV/AIDS syndemic and urbanization have been implicated for the persistence of TB in developing countries (Corbett et al...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Samuel Kobina Ekuban Acquah, Prince Asare, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Portia Morgan, Theophilus Afum, Diana Asema Asandem, Emelia Konadu Danso, Isaac Darko Otchere, Linda Aurelia Ofori, Kwasi Obiri-Danso, Richard Kock, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu Source Type: research

Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR Ct values vis- à-vis anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from a high incidence region
We previously reported data concerning anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients from a high-incidence region in northern Spain (Markewitz et al., 2021). In short, we were able to show that neither the presence nor the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies served as prognostic markers in our cohort but that they correlated with the amount of time since onset of symptoms. Recently, there has been much debate on the diagnostic value of the na ïve (i.e. without reference to a standard curve) threshold cycle (Ct) results of the reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) that is the gold standard in the...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Robert Markewitz, Antje Torge, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Daniela Pauli, Justina Dargvainiene, Andre Franke, Luis Bujanda, Jos é Maria Marimón, Jesus M. Banales, María A. Gutierrez-Stampa, Beatriz Nafría, Ralf Junker Source Type: research

Immunity against seasonal human coronavirus OC43 mitigates fatal deterioration of COVID-19
An important characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2) is its variations. During the ongoing pandemic, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths are starkly different among countries, with rates more than 10 times higher in North America and in Europe than in East Asia as of March 2021 (WHO, 2021, Wiersinga et al., 2020). The severity of COVID-19 also varies considerably. Most infected cases have no symptoms or recover with mild, self-limiting symptoms, while around 5 percent of infected patients suffer from deadly pneumonia (Wiersinga et al., 2020). (Source: International Journal ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tomoyuki YAMAGUCHI, Toshie SHINAGAWA, Hisanobu KOBATA, Hidemitsu NAKAGAWA Source Type: research

Long-term clinical follow up of patients suffering from moderate to severe COVID-19 infection: A monocentric prospective observational cohort study
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2) was detected in Wuhan, China, and identified as the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical manifestations range from the absence of symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sometimes multi-organ failure (1 –4). For most patients, the infection is mild with low-grade fever and cough, but 15% of patients experience respiratory impairment, combined with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), pulmonary (hyper)inflammatory infiltrates and microvascular thrombosis associated to elevated ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gilles Darcis, Antoine Bouquegneau, Nathalie Maes, Marie thys, Monique Henket, Florence Labye, Anne-Fran çoise Rousseau, Perrine Canivet, Colin Desir, Doriane Calmes, Raphael Schils, Sophie De Worm, Philippe Léonard, Paul Meunier, Michel Moutschen, Rena Source Type: research

Prospective cohort study of children exposed to Hepatitis C virus through a pregnancy screening program
In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated chronic hepatitis C (HCV) affects about 1% of the world population (World Health Organization, 2018). The Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 384,284 HCV cases between 1999 and 2019 (Bras ília. DF. Ministry of Health, 2020). Positive infections were identified using one of the following markers: HCV antibodies or HCV RNA. A greater distribution of positive HCV cases was notable in both southeastern (57.7%) and southern (26.7%) regions of Brazil, and rates of HCV among 10 Brazilian c apitals exceeded the national average in 2019 (10.8/100,000) (Ministéri...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Raquel Borges Pinto, Ana Regina L. Ramos, Leidy Tovar Padua, Emma Jane Swayze, Mary Catherine Cambou, Maristela Fiorini, Marineide Melo, Breno Riegel Santos, Ivete Cristina Teixeira Canti, Mara Liane Rieck Silveira, Maria In ês Gonzalez Solari, Juliana F Source Type: research

Long-term weight gain after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment-na ïve Asian people living with human immunodeficiency virus
The development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has substantially improved the morbidity and mortality of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) (Samji et al. 2013; Oka et al. 2020). With an increase in the life expectancy of PLWH, long-term complications of ART have also been highlighted. PLWH gain weight after starting ART, owing to the “return to health” effect or adverse effects from the therapeutic drugs (Kumar and Samaras 2018). Such weight gain increases the chances of PLWH being overweight and obese; this leads to complications such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neur...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Naokatsu Ando, Takeshi Nishijima, Daisuke Mizushima, Yosuke Inaba, Yohei Kawasaki, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka, Hiroyuki Gatanaga Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and associated factors in Manaus, Brazil: baseline results from the DETECTCoV-19 cohort study
Infectious diseases are remarkable for their ability to have a profound impact on humans, particularly vulnerable populations (Fauci and Morens, 2012). The emergence of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a lack of effective treatment and non-pharmaceutical interventions to curb transmission have led to an exponential increase in the burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide (Bo et al., 2021, Hsiang et al., 2020, Kraemer et al., 2020). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pritesh Lalwani, B árbara Batista Salgado, Ivanildo Vieira Pereira Filho, Danielle Severino Sena da Silva, Thiago Barros do Nascimento de Morais, Maele Ferreira Jordão, Aguyda Rayany Cavalcante Barbosa, Isabelle Bezerra Cordeiro, Júlio Nino de Souza Ne Source Type: research

Tocilizumab and Systemic Corticosteroids in the Management of COVID-19 Patients:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
A severe pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome caused by a new strain coronavirus was identified in December 2019 (COVID-19) and found to be caused by a novel enveloped beta-corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) (Fu et al., 2020; Guan et al., 2020). The disease severity ranged from asymptomatic to severe (Mehta et al., 2020). Presently, there are no effective therapies for COVID-19 supported by high-level evidence (Hossen et al., 2020; Sanders et al., 2020). Current treatment options include 1) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (e.g., remdesivir), 2) protease inhibitors (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir), 3) blockade of virus-cell ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hadeel Alkofide, Abdullah Almohaizeie, Sara Almuhaini, Bashayer Alotaibi, Khalid M. Alkharfy Source Type: research

High variability in model performance of Google relative search volume in spatially clustered COVID-19 areas of the United States
Spatial spread is one of the most important aspects in understanding disease epidemics (Franch-Pardo et al., 2020), including in the case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. During the outbreak, multiple studies have discussed COVID-19 spatial patterns in the United States (US) using both state- (Cordes and Castro, 2020, Maroko et al., 2020, Ram írez and Lee, 2020) and county-level analyses (Andersen et al., 2021, CDC COVID-19 Response Team, 2020, Dasgupta et al., 2020, Desjardins et al., 2020, Mollalo et al., 2020, Oster et al., 2020a, Oster et al., 2020b, Snyder and Parks, 2020, Wang et al., 2020)...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Atina Husnayain, Ting-Wu Chuang, Anis Fuad, Emily Chia-Yu Su Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Autochthonous leprosy in Europe: a case report and literature review
We report on an autochthonous case of borderline lepromatous leprosy in a 71 year-old Portuguese woman. The case was complicated by a reversal reaction and then by erythema nodosum leprosum. A review of the literature identified 18 reported cases of European autochthonous leprosy since 2000, all but one were observed in Mediterranean countries. Active clusters of leprosy therefore persist in Europe particularly in Spain, Greece, Portugal and Italy. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Quentin Beauvillain, Catherine Lok, Camille Joachim, Farida Hamdad, Eva Lafabregue, Christophe Attencourt, Henri Sevestre, Guillaume Chaby Source Type: research

Assessment of Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein 10 mRNA Release Assay for Detection of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Egyptian Pediatric Household Contacts
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are about 10.4 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths from Tuberculosis (TB) each year (WHO, 2020). An estimated 2 billion people demonstrate an immune response against TB In the absence of active infection. Latent TB infection (LTBI) is defined by the presence of an adaptive immune response against TB antigens in the absence of disease activity and increased risk of progression to active TB (O'Garra et al., 2013). Progression of LTBI to active TB is influenced by multiple factors including age young, TB strain virulence, inoculum size, host immune status and comor...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nabila El-Sheikh, Nahla O. Mousa, Ahmed Osman, Amany M. Tawfeik, Bothiana A. Taha, Hazem Mahran, Alaa M. Saleh, Iman El-shiekh, Wagdy, Mohamed Elrefaei Source Type: research