President Trump Called Hydroxychloroquine a ‘Game Changer,’ But Experts Warn Against Self-Medicating With the Drug. Here’s What You Need to Know

After President Trump, late last week, expressed great confidence in the promise of a new COVID-19 therapy that combines two existing prescription medications, supplies of these two drugs rapidly began disappearing from pharmacy shelves. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed an Indian company previously restricted from importing drug products into the US to now start manufacturing one of the drugs. And U.S. plants began gearing up to produce enough to meet the surge in demand. But in those few days, a few people who began self medicating with the drugs in an effort to prevent COVID-19 have died, and others have been hospitalized. These tragedies have raised questions about the safety of the drug combo, and how valid they are as a possible solution to treating COVID-19. The combination Trump mentioned includes two drugs: azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine. Azithromycin is an antibiotic, usually prescribed for a range of bacterial infections, including bacterial pneumonia. Hydroxychloroquine is a slightly different version of chloroquine, a drug discovered to fight malaria during a massive war-time drug discovery effort in the 1940s. Since then, resistance to chloroquine has made it unusable in many parts of the world, so scientists developed hydroxychloroquine as its next generation replacement, and designed it with slightly fewer side effects. Today, it is used to treat malaria, but in the US, it’s mainly prescribed to treat the inflammation related to autoimm...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 23 May 2020Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Jhon A. Serna-Duque, M. Ángeles Esteban
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2020Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Zhizhen Hu, Hailing Du, Gang Lin, Kun Han, Xining Cheng, Zhiqing Feng, Huiling Mao, Chengyu Hu
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Luo Y, Xiao R Abstract Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc) is a complex and highly heterogeneous multisystem rheumatic disease characterized by vascular abnormality, immunologic derangement, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To date, the etiology of this life-threatening disorder remains not fully clear. More and more studies show epigenetic modifications play a vital role. The aberrant epigenetic status of certain molecules such as Fli-1, BMPRII, NRP1, CD70, CD40L, CD11A, FOXP3, KLF5, DKK1, SFRP1, and so on contributes to the pathogenesis of progressive vasculopathy, autoi...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Chan VS Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an aggravating autoimmune disease that cripples young patients slowly with physical, sensory and cognitive deficits. The break of self-tolerance to neuronal antigens is the key to the pathogenesis of MS, with autoreactive T cells causing demyelination that subsequently leads to inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative events in the central nervous system. The exact etiology of MS remains elusive; however, the interplay of genetic and environmental factors contributes to disease development and progression. Given that genetic variation only accounts for a fraction ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Epigenetics in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1253:285-308 Authors: Bordron A, Devauchelle-Pensec V, Le Dantec C, Capdeville A, Brooks WH, Renaudineau Y Abstract Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune epithelitis with predominant female incidence, which is characterized by exocrine gland dysfunction. Incompletely understood, the etiology of SjS is multi-factorial and evidence is growing to consider that epigenetic factors are playing a crucial role in its development. Independent from DNA sequence mutations, epigenetics is described as inheri...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Xie Z, Chang C, Huang G, Zhou Z Abstract Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the interaction between genetic alterations and environmental factors. More than 60 susceptible genes or loci of T1D have been identified. Among them, HLA regions are reported to contribute about 50% of genetic susceptibility in Caucasians. There are many environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. Environmental factors may change the expression of genes through epigenetic mechanisms, thus inducing individuals with susceptible genes to develop T1D; however, the underlying mechanisms remain ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Shao S, Gudjonsson JE Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease, involving the rapid proliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes and activation of T cells. It is generally accepted that the central pathogenesis of psoriasis is a T cell-dominant immune disorder affected by multiple factors including genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, innate and adaptive immune responses, etc. However, the exact etiology is largely unknown. In recent years, epigenetic involvements, such as the DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation are ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Wu H, Chang C, Lu Q Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a life-threatening autoimmune disease that is characterized by dysregulated dendritic cells, T and B cells, and abundant autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of lupus remains unclear. However, increasing evidence has shown that environment factors, genetic susceptibilities, and epigenetic regulation contribute to abnormalities in the immune system. In the past decades, several risk gene loci have been identified, such as MHC and C1q. However, genetics cannot explain the high discordance of lupus incidence in homozygous twins. Environmental fact...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Chang C, Wu H, Lu Q Abstract Food allergy is a global health problem, particularly in developed countries. It is mainly mediated by Th2 cell and IgE produced by B cells. While the pathogenesis of IgE-mediated food allergy is quite straightforward, the factors that lead to the development of food allergies at any age in children and adults are unclear. Recent studies have revealed that genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures contribute to the development of atopy. In this chapter, we discuss the interplay between these three key elements, reveal how epigenetic modifications may mediate genetic su...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Ceribelli A, Selmi C Abstract Genomic predisposition fails to fully explain the onset of complex diseases, which is well illustrated by the largely incomplete concordance among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA, are the link between environmental stimuli and disease onset on a permissive genetic background in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Autoimmune diseases now include almost 100 conditions and are estimated to cumulatively affect up to 5% of the world population with a healthcare expenditure superior to cancer wor...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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