Gamma Irradiation Influences the Survival and Regrowth of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic-Resistance Genes on Romaine Lettuce

The objective of this research was to determine changes to lettuce phyllosphere microbiota, inoculated ARB, and the resistome (profile of ARGs) following washing with a sanitizer, gamma irradiation, and cold storage. To simulate potential sources of pre-harvest contamination, romaine lettuce leaves were inoculated with compost slurry containing antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic (Escherichia coli O157:H7) and representative of spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Various combinations of washing with sodium hypochlorite (50 ppm free chlorine), packaging under modified atmosphere (98% nitrogen), irradiating (1.0 kGy) and storing at 4°C for 1 day versus 14 days were compared. Effects of post-harvest treatments on the resistome were profiled by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed to determine changes to the phyllosphere microbiota. Survival and regrowth of inoculated ARB were evaluated by enumeration on selective media. Washing lettuce in water containing sanitizer was associated with reduced abundance of ARG classes that confer resistance to glycopeptides, β-lactams, phenicols, and sulfonamides (Wilcoxon, p
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang W, Xu JZ, Lu XH, Li H, Wang D, Wang JG Abstract PURPOSE: We hypothesise that dietary sodium intake interacts with serum uric acid to influence blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. In the present study, we investigated ambulatory BP in relation to hyperuricaemia, dietary sodium intake and their interaction in children and adolescents with hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A total of 616 study participants were 10-24 years old and had primary hypertension diagnosed after admission in a specialised inpatient ward. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed during hospitalisat...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry seems to be a promising option not only in clinical recognition, but also in the selection and monitoring of treatment effects. However, these methods have not yet recommended for routine clinical use. PMID: 33032462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The proposed PHARMAC criteria will give access to these important drugs to those people with T2DM who will likely benefit the most. PMID: 33032305 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Conclusions: The study ’s findings support the efficacy of tube weaning based on the published “Graz model of tube weaning” for children born with EA/TEF and indicate the necessity of specialized tube weaning programs for these patients.What is Known:• Children with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula often suffer from feeding problems and tube dependency.• Different tube weaning programs and outcomes have been published, but not specifically for children with EA.What is New:• Evaluation of a large sample of children referred for tube weaning after EA repair.• Most children wi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Conclusions: (1) Data at our center suggests at least a regional implementation gap in GBS screening and IAP. (2) The decline in the resistance rate ofE. coli for all antimicrobial substances might indicate that the reduction of prenatal antibiotics use is beneficial and that neonatal antibiotic stewardship programs should include pregnant women as well.What is Known:• GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis led to a 32%-reduction in GBS disease in Germany with a 0.75 (92:122) ratio of early-onset disease to late-onset disease in 2009–2010.• Prenatal antibiotic use might increase the risk of E....
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Conclusion: The incidence of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome in the Czech paediatric population corresponds to the reported incidence in Europe. We detected the unusually high rate ofCFHR1/CFHR3 deletions associated with anti-complement factor H antibodies in Czech paediatric patients. Treatment by eculizumab led to superior outcomes and prevention of the disease relapses compared with plasma exchange therapy. Our results may help to understand the polygenic nature of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome as a disease that results from a combination of various risk factors.What is Known:•Atypical haemolytic uraemi...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that preschool children with a higher score in effortful control had less screen time. Because effortful control reflects general self-regulatory abilities, promoting these skills may be effective in reducing screen time in young children.What is Known:•Screen time has increased rapidly during the last decades, and higher screen time has been linked with numerous adverse health consequences in children.•There are no previous studies investigating associations of long-term stress and temperament with screen time in young children.What is New:•Of the temperament dimensions, ef...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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