What are Potential Health Problems Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?
DiscussionPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-8% of reproductive-age women making it the most common endocrinopathy in this age group. There is no consensus on the specific diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents as many of the characteristics overlap with normal adolescent physiology. However, patients should have evidence of hyperandrogenism, oligo- or amenorrhea, and potentially polycystic ovaries. PCOS has a genetic component although a specific gene has not been identified. Incidence of PCOS is 20-40% for a woman with a family history. Hyperandrogenism Androgen levels change during puberty therefore actual measurement and interpretation can make the diagnosis more difficult. Obesity increases androgens. Puberty is associated with a 25-50% decrease in insulin sensitivity. Therefore evidence of hyperandrogenism can be difficult to document. Acne and hirsutism are common presentations. Hirsutism is the presence of terminal hairs in androgen dependent areas (i.e.male pattern) and is evidence of hyperandrogenism. Hypertrichosis is increase in vellus hair in non-male patterned areas such as forearms and lower legs and needs to be distinguished from hirsutism. Hypertrichosis is not evidence of hyperandrogenism. Patients may also have an increase in muscle mass or voice deepening. Oligo- or amenorrhea Anovulatory cycles are normal in pubertal girls so oligomenorrhea ( 2 years or have amenorrhea past the normal menarche should be considered for evaluation. This is ...
Conclusions: Dapivirine use in the periconception period does not seem to be associated with adverse effects on pregnancy or infant outcomes. Our findings provide support for additional safety studies of the dapivirine ring throughout pregnancy.
Conclusions: CIN2 progression is uncommon in this population, regardless of CIN2 treatment. Additional studies are needed to identify factors to differentiate women at highest risk of CIN2 progression.
Conclusions: PrEP delivery within MCH used co-delivery or sequential approaches. The moderate additional time burden for PrEP initiation in MCH would likely decline with community awareness and innovations such as group/peer counseling or expedited dispensing.
Objective: To investigate the association between total, direct, and indirect bilirubin and the presence of carotid lesions in a large sample of HIV-1–infected patients on virological suppression. Design: Retrospective study on adult HIV-1–infected patients, with a carotid ultrasound (CUS) examination performed between January 2008 and August 2016, with HIV-RNA
Conclusions: Hyposplenia is a rare pathologic finding and often associated with hematological/oncological and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, altered B-mode US appearance and a pathological CEUS pattern are frequently found. However, the clinical implication, especially regarding splenic function remains obscure to date.Digestion
Conclusion: Although exploratory in nature and with a pilot character, this study highlights the potential role of microbiota manipulations in IBS and describes a novel association of intestinalAkkermansia and pain modulation.Digestion
Conclusion: The assessment of demarcation of EGC using M-NBI was excellent in well-differentiated (WD) adenocarcinoma and lesions below 20 mm in size. However, histopathological confirmation is needed to assess the demarcation of non-WD adenocarcinomas and EGC over 20 mm in size.Digestion
Abdulmohsen Al-Terki, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Irina AlKhairi, Preethi T. Cherian, Devarajan Sriraman, Ambika Shyamsundar, Shamsha Ali, Fahd Almulla, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Jehad A. Abubaker
PANCREATIC cancer is the deadliest common cancer in the UK. In order to catch the disease early and make treatment easier, it ’s imperative to know what symptoms to look out for.
Caiyun Li, Hongyan Liu, Yunqing Yang, Xixi Xu, Tongtong Lv, Huidan Zhang, Kehang Liu, Shuangquan Zhang, Yuqing Chen
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