What are Potential Health Problems Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

DiscussionPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-8% of reproductive-age women making it the most common endocrinopathy in this age group. There is no consensus on the specific diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents as many of the characteristics overlap with normal adolescent physiology. However, patients should have evidence of hyperandrogenism, oligo- or amenorrhea, and potentially polycystic ovaries. PCOS has a genetic component although a specific gene has not been identified. Incidence of PCOS is 20-40% for a woman with a family history. Hyperandrogenism Androgen levels change during puberty therefore actual measurement and interpretation can make the diagnosis more difficult. Obesity increases androgens. Puberty is associated with a 25-50% decrease in insulin sensitivity. Therefore evidence of hyperandrogenism can be difficult to document. Acne and hirsutism are common presentations. Hirsutism is the presence of terminal hairs in androgen dependent areas (i.e.male pattern) and is evidence of hyperandrogenism. Hypertrichosis is increase in vellus hair in non-male patterned areas such as forearms and lower legs and needs to be distinguished from hirsutism. Hypertrichosis is not evidence of hyperandrogenism. Patients may also have an increase in muscle mass or voice deepening. Oligo- or amenorrhea Anovulatory cycles are normal in pubertal girls so oligomenorrhea ( 2 years or have amenorrhea past the normal menarche should be considered for evaluation. This is ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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In this study, the effect of plating temperature on mechanically agitated and ultrasonic assisted electroless nickel-boron deposition was investigated: deposition was performed in two different configurations: one with a classical mechanical agitation at 300 rpm and the other employing ultrasound at a frequency of 35 kHz. In addition, different temperatures in the 80-95 °C range were tested. The increase of plating rate previously observed was confirmed and it was possible to lower slightly plating temperature while conserving plating efficiency, which decreases evaporation of the solution. Morphological, mechani...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract A simple and facile ultrasound based sonochemical method to incorporate Perovskite-type barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles inside the layered and reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGOs) is reported. BaTiO3@rGOs nanocomposite was characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, EDX, mapping, XRD, XPS and EIS. The results show that the decoration and also incorporation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the multi-layered and ultrasound reduced graphene oxide matrix. Non-enzymatic and differential pulse voltammetric sensor of ractopamine (food toxic) based on the BaTiO3@rGOs nanocomposite modified screen printed carbon electrode is ...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract A novel ferrocene-functionalized silver cluster (FcAgCs) has been designed and synthesized with the assistant of ultrasound treatment and fully characterized by single crystal spectroscopy, IR, UV-Vis, XRD, TGA, NMR, CV and elemental analyses. Ultrasound synthesis method facilitates and accelerates synthesis of this amazing structure and plays a vital role in the synthesis of this special cluster. Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveal that the cluster can be described as a cationic [(dppf)2Ag4(CCtBu)2(CH3OH)2]2+ (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) species consisted of four rhombic silver atom...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract The nanostructure of metal oxides attracts great attention in the field of supercapacitors because of fast charge transport process. The hydrothermal method is used for development of NiCo2O4nanostructure on carbon cloth as current collector backbone. The stepwise study of various structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of NiCo2O4electrode is studied. The ultrasonic treatment is used to obtain nanowire-like morphology of NiCo2O4 which exhibits hierarchical nanostructure, which provides surface properties such as high surface area and appropriate pore capacity. NiCo2O4 nanostructure with s...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract In recent year, sonochemistry has fascinated some interest in the fabrication of nanostructured materials and functional nanoparticles because the chemical activity of ultrasound may cause different effects such as the generation of heat, mass transfer or intimate contact between materials, distribution of contaminated layers of chemicals and generation of free chemical radicals. In this work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) photocatalyst is prepared by simple, cost effective, sonochemical method and used for photocatalytic degradation of phthalic acid. The ultrasonic treatment affects the structural, morphological, opt...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract This work investigates the ultrasound propagation within a liquid-solid fluidized bed. The acoustic mapping of the reactor is achieved by means of a hydrophone. A spectral analysis is carried out on the measured signals to quantify the cavitation activity. The effects of several parameters on the spectral power distribution is appraised - including emitted ultrasound power, liquid superficial velocity and solid hold-up. Results show that increasing US power promotes a higher energy transfer from the driving frequency toward the broad-band noise - which is the signature of transient cavitation - and yields...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract In this work, a cylindrical multi-probe continuous flow system with different injection strategies was exploited to study ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization process. The effects of nozzle number, nozzle diameter, ultrasonic power and volumetric flow rate (residence time) on the desulfurization efficiency of the diesel fuel were investigated. It was found that the sulfur removal increases by increasing the nozzle diameter when the flow rate is fixed. Sulfur removal was increased by increasing the residence time, for all types of the nozzles. Injection of the aqueous phase below the horn tip in t...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract An effective hybrid system was applied as a first report for successful treatment of recalcitrant petrochemical wastewater (PCW). In this regards, magnetic powdered activated carbon (MPAC), as a heterogeneous catalyst, was coupled with ultrasound (US) and UV irradiations for activation of H2O2 (marked as MPAC/US/UV/H2O2). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ratio was evaluated with various influencing operating factors including solution pH, MPAC and H2O2 concentrations, US power and quenchers. A possible mechanism for catalytic degradation and generation of reactive species was proposed. To evaluate the...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Abstract In considering the adverse nutritional and flavor consequences of thermal pasteurization on fruit juices, freshly squeezed and unpasteurized fruit juices, commonly called raw juices, are of increasing demand as they are served in bars, restaurants and at home. Apparently, due to lack of controlled processing regime as did in a juice factory, the raw juice often undergoes a rapid phase separation and is at the risk of microbial unsafety. To this end, an attempt of cold ultrasound treatment (CUT, 87.52 W/cm2, 10 °C) was implemented to a raw tomato juice up to 30 min. Appreciatively, the physical s...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
Ultrasound-promoted covalent functionalization of CNFs with thermo-sensitive PNIPAM via "grafting-from" strategy for on/off switchable electrochemical determination of clothianidin. Ultrason Sonochem. 2019 Sep;56:200-212 Authors: Mutharani B, Ranganathan P, Chen SM, Kannan RS Abstract A thermo-sensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) covalently grafted carbon nanofibers (CNFs-g-PNIPAM) was designed and synthesized via ultrasonic "grafting-from" strategy for the first time. CNFs-g-PNIPAM could well perform the reversible regulation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic states in aqueous solution...
Source: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Ultrason Sonochem Source Type: research
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