Fetal Hepatomegaly
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - December 1, 2022 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: news

What Are Potential Physical Examination Findings for Patients with Atrioventricular Canal Defects?
Discussion Atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD) are a heterogeneous range of congenital heart defects (CHD) arising from malformations of intracardiac septal development. Essentially the location where the 4 corners of the 2 atria and 2 ventricula meet is abnormally formed. There is partial or complete fusion of the mitral and tricuspid valves along with atrial (ASD) and ventricular septal defects (VSD). Fusion of the endocardial cushions occurs around 4-5 weeks gestation. The anatomy for an individual is bespoke as the variations of the valve leaflets, chordal attachments and variations in ASD and VSD are numerous. This ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - March 21, 2022 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

How COVID Has Affected the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. (Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health)
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - March 14, 2022 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: External Source Tags: Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Source Type: news

Glycogenic hepatopathy following attempted suicide by long-acting insulin overdose in patient with type 1 diabetes - Fujisaki N, Kosaki Y, Nojima T, Higaki T, Yamada T, Koga H, Gochi A, Naito H, Nakao A.
Patients with poorly controlled insulin-dependent type 1 or type 2 diabetes rarely present with glycogenic hepatopathy, which is characterized by hepatomegaly and liver enzyme abnormalities. Glycogenic hepatopathy occurs as a consequence of excessive accum... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - November 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

What Are the Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Syphilis?
Discussion Syphilis is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. It is a very old disease that despite understanding the organism and readily available treatment, still causes disease. Syphilis is transmitted sexually. According to the Centers for Disease Control, “[i]n 2018, a total of 35,063 cases of [Primary and Secondary] syphilis were reported in the United States, yielding a rate of 10.8 cases per 100,000 population …. This rate represents a 14.9% increase compared with 2017 (9.4 cases per 100,000 population), and a 71.4% increase compared with 2014 (6.3 cases per 100,000 population).” The increa...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - September 28, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

What Are the Main Acyanotic Congenital Heart Diseases?
Discussion Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are malformations of the heart and great vessels. It occurs in about 5-8/1000 live births. Cyanotic congenital heart disease is often noted perinatally because of cyanosis, respiratory distress and/or poor feeding or other distress type problems. A review can be found here. Acyanotic congenital heart disease (ACHD) can present at birth but often is seen in older children or adults unless the lesions are severe, especially obstructive lesions. Severe lesions may also cause cyanosis and distress type problems in patients also. Shunting lesions cause problems by diverting blood flo...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - August 17, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

What Are Common Fatty Acid Oxidation Metabolic Disorders?
Discussion All cells and particularly their mitochondria need an energy source. Glucose is one of the most common ones, but also fatty acids, lactate, pyruvate, ketones, and amino acids. Fatty acids are formed with a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic carbon chain usually with even numbers of carbon atoms (usually 4-28 most commonly). Most are unbranched and in foods are usually found in the form of esters. Fatty acids are important energy sources for the heart (50-70%) but also skeletal muscle where resting muscle uses both glucose and fatty acids. During fasting or increased stress fatty acids become a major source o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 27, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

U.S. FDA Approves New Pediatric Formulation of SIRTURO ® (bedaquiline) as Part of Combination Therapy to Treat Children with Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
NEW BRUNSWICK, NJ, May 27, 2020 — The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted approval for a new pediatric formulation of SIRTURO® (bedaquiline). SIRTURO® is now indicated for use as part of combination therapy in the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (5 years and older and weighing at least 15 kg) with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR‑TB). In the U.S., the medicine should be reserved for use when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be provided. This indication received accelerated appro...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - May 27, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news

What Causes Tachycardia?
Discussion Tachycardia is a rapid heart rate that is above normal for age and level of exertion. Tachycardia is common, particularly sinus tachycardia due to normally encountered circumstances such as pain, fever or exercise. It is usually a normal physiologic process but sustained tachycardia often indicates a potentially abnormal underlying cause. Sinus tachycardia has a rapid heart rate with normal P waves and P-R intervals and variations from moment to moment and respiration. Generally it is not over 200 beats/minute. Vagal stimulation can slow the heart rate; this is a gradual slowing, not an abrupt slowing seen in ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - March 23, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

What Is the Classic Clinical Presentation of Pericarditis?
Discussion The pericardium is a bi-layered membrane that envelops the heart and provides a barrier to prevent disease and also decreases friction as the heart moves. Pericarditis is the inflammation of pericardium. The incidence is underreported as asymptomatic or mild disease may go unrecognized. From hospitalized patient data, 0.2-5% of patients with various cardiac disease had pericarditis. An incidence rate for hospitalizations of 3.32 per 100,000 person years has been cited. Percarditis occurs more often in adolescent males. Treatment of the underlying cause or suspected cause is important, along with close monitorin...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - January 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

How Does Gaucher Disease Present?
Discussion Gaucher disease (GD) was first described by Philippe Gaucher in 1882. It was the first lysosomal storage disease (LSD) described and is the comparison prototype for many variations and their treatment. There are about 50 LSD and more well-known ones include Fabry, Niemann-Pick and Pompe diseases. LSDs currently have more than 300 different enzymes or membrane proteins affected which cause central nervous system and visceral disease. Overall the frequency of LSDs in aggregate is 1:3000 – 7000 live births. GD has an estimated prevalence of 1:57,000 – 111,000. It is higher within the Ashkenazi Jewish po...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - December 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Yellow fever – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
On 13 November 2019, the Venezuela International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point (NFP) and the Venezuela PAHO/WHO Country Office shared information about a confirmed case of yellow fever in Bolivar State. The case-patient is a 46-year-old male resident of the municipality of Gran Sabana, Bolivar State. He was in the locality of Uriman municipality of Gran Sabana within the 19 days prior to the onset of symptoms. Symptom onset was on 14 September 2019, and included fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, epistaxis, petechiae, and diarrhoea. On 26 September 2019, he visited a public hospital in the municipality of Her...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - November 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news

The Dengue Dance?
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

What Are Common Presentations for Budd-Chairi in Adolescents?
Discussion Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare liver disease caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOTO). The obstruction can be anywhere from the small intrahepatic veins up to the inferior vena cava junction with the right atrium. The liver parenchyma itself is not directly affected but becomes compromised because of the increased hepatic sinusoidal pressure over time. The causes include: prothrombic events (35% of cases such as Protein C or Protein S deficiency, Factor V Leiden or antithrombin deficiency), myeloproliferative conditions, oral contraceptive use, and local factors. BCS can occur in any age but i...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 8, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

What Does the Liver Do?
Discussion The liver is one of the largest organs in the body, weighing just over 3 pounds in an adult. It is found in the upper right abdomen, under the right dome of the diaphragm. Grossly, it has asymmetric lobes with the right being larger than the left. The lobes are separated by a fibrous connective tissue band that also anchors the liver in the abdominal cavity. The gallbladder is located on the inferior surface of the liver and stores bile, which is then released into the duodenum. Microscopically, the liver cells are arranged in lobules with canals carrying blood vessels and bile ducts. At any moment about 10-13% ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - April 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news