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Recomendaciones del VI Consenso Clinico de SIBEN para la Hipertension Pulmonar Persistente del Recien Nacido
This article summarizes the recommendations of the 6th Clinical Consensus on Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology (SIBEN). It describes the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment (including maintaining the optimal oxygenation, alveolar ventilation, optimal perfusion, and use of pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled nitric oxide and sildenafil, as well as emerging therapies). It ends with a summary of the SIBEN consensus clinical recommendations, as a practical way to keep improving the care of our newborns. Resumen La hipertensión pulmonar persistente del...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Golombek, S., Sola, A., Lemus, L., y Miembros del Consenso de SIBEN Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Newborn with a Large Exophytic Mass on the Head
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lau, S. S. M., Chandrasekaran, P. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Visual Diagnosis Source Type: news

Legal Briefs: Was the Intracardiac Thrombus Secondary to an Unnecessary Umbilical Venous Catheter?
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sims, M. E. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Strip of the Month: A Multiparous Patient with Twins Requiring Urgent Operative-assisted Vaginal Delivery
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mulla, B. M., Young, B. C. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 2: Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a Preterm Infant and Complications
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kojima, K., Schein, R., Karna, P. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 1: A Term Infant with Respiratory Distress
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Shridhar, L. C. G., Kumar, L. C. R., Sodhi, C. K. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Neonatal Genomics: Part 2--Applications
The next-generation sequencing techniques described in Part 1 of this review can be used to sequence single genes, panels of genes, whole exomes, or whole genomes. These tests can be used for both diagnostic and screening purposes in the newborn nursery and NICU. As the cost and turnaround time for genetic testing decrease, the use of sequencing data will become more prevalent and can influence the diagnostic evaluation and care of the newborn. The use of genomic data for newborn screening is more controversial but also has potential usefulness in expanding the capabilities of current, predominantly analyte-based newborn s...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wojcik, M. H., Parad, R. B. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Neonatal Genomics: Part 1--Basics and Definitions
As genomic medicine is increasingly incorporated into clinical practice across all disciplines, an understanding of basic genetic concepts is important for the neonatologist. There are many different ways in which variations in the human genetic sequence, which comprises the genome, can lead to disease. Gene sequencing through the use of Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing technology can detect disease-causing variants and can be performed across the entire human genome in whole genome sequencing or across only the coding regions of the human genome in whole exome sequencing. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wojcik, M. H., Parad, R. B. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Pumpless Extracorporeal Support of the Preterm Infant: Bridging Fetal and Postnatal Physiology
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and childhood morbidity and remains an unsolved clinical challenge despite advances in neonatal care. The preterm infant needs to be supported in an extracorporeal system physiologically analogous to the sterile fluid intrauterine environment. This would support ongoing growth and organ maturation with the potential to substantially improve survival and reduce morbidity. A physiologic system would require the ability to achieve gas exchange via the umbilical circulation, with the fetal heart acting as the pump that drives circuit flow. Previous efforts at developing such...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Partridge, E. A., Davey, M. G., Hornick, M. A., Flake, A. W. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Late Preterm and Early Term Birth: At-risk Populations and Targets for Reducing Such Early Births
The risks of late preterm (LPT) and early term (ET) birth have been recognized during the last decade. Increased awareness accompanied by efforts to reduce elective delivery before 39 weeks of gestation have led to a decline in LPT/ET births. Despite this success, strategies to identify and reduce preventable LPT/ET births using traditional and novel prevention methods are still needed. Because preterm birth is a common endpoint associated with many different preventable and nonpreventable causes, the efforts for reducing such early births must be multifaceted. For neonates born LPT/ET, there is an inverse relationship bet...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - May 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kardatzke, M. A., Rose, R. S., Engle, W. A. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Important Considerations in the Management of Newborns with Cyanosis
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hua, N., Yieh, L., Dukhovny, D., Armsby, L. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Video Corner Source Type: news

A Newborn Infant with Giant Omphalocele and Peeling Skin
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Handley, S. C., Ebbert, R. P., Edwards, T. M., Flibotte, J. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Visual Diagnosis Source Type: news

Strip of the Month: Persistent Variable Decelerations, Minimal Variability
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Druzin, M. L., Peterson, N. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 2: Umbilical Cord with Five Openings
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Singh, A., Kler, N., Thakur, A. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 1: Intramuscular Hematoma in a Neonate in the Nursery
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nanda, D., Thukral, A., Nangia, S. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Neonatal Presentations of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a variable, rapidly expanding group of genetic metabolic disorders. Glycosylation is fundamental to the processing of proteins and lipids, and as such, disorders in these pathways can cause multisystemic effects. Symptoms can be evident as early as the prenatal period and should be suspected in an infant with multisystemic disease. Biochemical screening and confirmatory molecular genetic tests are available; however, their sensitivity is imperfect and some patients are now being diagnosed by whole exome sequencing. Early diagnosis is important, because treatment options are a...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Cuddapah, S. R., Ganetzky, R. D. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Congenital Galactosemia
Before the widespread use of newborn screening programs, galactosemia often presented with Escherichia coli sepsis late in the newborn period. Although newborn screening results are often available within 1 to 2 weeks, it is important to remember the subtle clinical features that may present themselves earlier in the clinical course. Recognition of the clinical presentation and knowledge of the tests necessary to diagnose the disease can lead to early detection and immediate interventions, thereby decreasing the severity of long-term outcomes. This review focuses on galactosemia, with an emphasis on classic galactosemia: t...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Grady, N. E. G., Millard, D. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Neonatal Lactic Acidosis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach
Neonatal lactate elevation is a relatively common finding with heterogeneous causes. Understanding the reason for the lactate elevation is critical to determining the prognosis and treatment options. Lactate can be elevated spuriously, secondary to a number of common neonatal conditions or intermediary inborn errors of metabolism, or as a primary finding in mitochondrial diseases. The extent of the lactate elevation, clinical context, and simple metabolic tests can help differentiate among these causes. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ganetzky, R. D., Cuddapah, S. R. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Unique Characteristics of the X Chromosome and Related Disorders
This article reviews these unique characteristics and applies their guiding principles in a broad overview to Klinefelter syndrome, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, hemophilia, and fragile X syndrome. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Shah, K., DeRemigis, A., Hageman, J. R., Sriram, S., Waggoner, D. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Quality Improvement and Safety in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Improving the safety and quality of care provided to patients has risen to the forefront of today’s medical landscape. Applying principles of improvement and reliability in an effective manner in the NICU is paramount for improving outcomes for our patients and their families. Using quality collaboratives for benchmarking and sharing best practices, developing a robust safety culture, and involving parents in safety and quality endeavors are ways in which NICUs can achieve this goal. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - March 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Fischer, H. R., Stewart, D. L. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Correction
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Strip of the Month: Intrapartum Course of a Fetus with Anomalies
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Diaz, N., Neerhof, M. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

A Newborn with a Large Tongue
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vachharajani, A., Bindom, S. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Visual Diagnosis Source Type: news

Legal Briefs: Extreme Preterm Birth Complicated by an Intrauterine Device and Profound Hypothermia
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sims, M. E. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 2: A Neonate Affected by Maternal Pica
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Velazquez, D. M., Markowitz, M. E., Forman, K. R., Wightman, R. S., Su, M. K., Nafday, S. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 1: An Infant with Skeletal Abnormalities and Facial Dysmorphisms
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kwak, J., Grady, N., Derrick, M. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Adjunctive Therapies in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
This article focuses on the pathogenesis of BPD, the adjunctive therapies used in relation to BPD, and the mechanisms of action of these adjunctive therapies. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Maduekwe, E., DeCristofaro, J. D. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Neonates: History and Future Directions
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the neonate is a term that has been used since the 1970s for respiratory failure refractory to medical management. With its ability to increase survival, uses of ECMO have expanded and long-term morbidities continue to be under investigation. In this article, we review the history of ECMO and current methods of delivery. In addition, we explore common complications for survivors after ECMO, new technologies that may change who receives ECMO, and how we deliver this life saving treatment. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Parga, J. J., Garg, M. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Non-Delivery Room Management of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)
This article reviews the clinical presentation of the disorder, the diagnostic evaluation that should be performed, and the ventilatory and medical management of MAS. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Arora, P. K. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Apnea of Prematurity: Current Practices and Future Directions
This article reviews the definitions of AOP and the current standard of care for AOP, which includes positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy. We also explore some novel therapies, as well as address controversies in initiating treatment, length of treatment, and guidelines for discharge. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kesavan, K., Parga, J. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - February 28, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hagen, E., Chu, A., Lew, C. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Preterm Infant with Abdominal Distention, Rapid Deterioration, and Cutaneous Abdominal Blood Vessel Findings
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rios, A., Munshi, U., Chowdhry, R. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Visual Diagnosis Source Type: news

Maximum Sterile Barrier
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Trivedi, S., Vachharajani, A. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Video Corner Source Type: news

Strip of the Month: Intrapartum Course of a Fetus with Anomalies
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Verma, N., Young, B. C. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 2: Respiratory Distress and Chronic Aspiration
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Seske, L. M., Prosser, J. D., Haberman, B. E. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 1: An Unusual Case of Neonatal Hyperthyroidism
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Knight, P., Ejaz, S. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Gavage Feeding Practices in VLBW Infants: Physiological Aspects and Clinical Implications
This article reviews the physiological effects of the feeding method on gut perfusion, motility, energy expenditure, and interoceptive stress with special regard to anabolism and bioavailability of nutrients. Bolus feeding is followed by insulin surges, enhanced protein synthesis, and improved intestinal growth. Infusion feeding leads to a mature pattern of duodenal contractions and less energy expenditure but is associated with significant loss of key nutrients. An individualized approach based on physiological needs of preterm infants may improve feeding tolerance in this population. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Goswami, I., Alshaikh, B. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Ocular Complications of Congenital Infections
This article summarizes the ocular complications of the 5 infections typically represented by the acronym TORCHES (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and syphilis), as well as others, including newer pathogens such as the human immunodeficiency, West Nile, and Zika viruses. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Khazaeni, L. M. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Challenges and Future Directions in the Detection and Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity
Multicenter studies addressing screening and intervention for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) inform the management guidelines jointly recommended by American pediatric and ophthalmology academies. Current research focuses on improvements in the identification of ROP and in the treatment of high-risk disease. The development of digital image technology may address various challenges in the diagnosis of ROP, including availability of pediatric ophthalmologic expertise, interobserver variation in diagnosis, and inherent limitations in visual diagnosis. Improved clinical prediction models based on nonophthalmologic data may ...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Quinn, G. E. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Identification and Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity: Update 2017
With increased survival of very premature infants in the United States and across the world, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of preventable childhood visual impairment and blindness. Premature birth requires that retinal maturation take place in a physiologically abnormal environment, leading to retinal injury and dysregulated growth and development. Although the pathophysiology of ROP is understood to involve exposure to extrauterine hypoxia and hyperoxia, multiple international studies have failed to identify the optimal approach to preventing ROP. Clinical efforts therefore center on optimizing ...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 31, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sharma, M., VanderVeen, D. K. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Strip of the Month: January 2017
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Druzin, M. L., Peterson, N. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Sudden Onset of Neurologic Dysfunction in a Preterm Infant
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bhargava, V., Dasgupta, S., Huff, M., Jain, S. K. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Visual Diagnosis Source Type: news

Case 2: The Inconsolable Newborn
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Migliore, M. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Case 1: Seizures and Rashes Do Run in the Family
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hochberg, A., Foldi, S., Nadir, E., Shreter, R., Mahajnah, M., Feldman, M. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Index of Suspicion in the Nursery Source Type: news

Legal Briefs: Did Vacuum Extraction Use Cause Brain Injury?
(Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sims, M. E. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Seizures in the Preterm Neonate
Preterm infants are at high risk for central nervous system injury, with seizures occurring in 6% to 48% of this population. Seizures are more likely to contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. Preterm infants are also more likely to have subclinical seizures; therefore, electrographic detection is essential for their diagnosis. Once identified, seizures are traditionally treated with phenobarbital, but newer-generation antiepileptic medications have growing evidence for safety and efficacy. The treatment of seizures may also affect neurodevelopmental outcome. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rao, L. M., Marcuccilli, C. J. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Primer on Microcephaly
Microcephaly can present in the newborn period, either at birth or postnatally. In large cohorts, genetic factors and perinatal brain damage secondary to maternal exposures and prenatally acquired infections are the leading causative factors. However, in up to ~40% of children with microcephaly, no etiology is identified. Although many classifications exist, it is important to remember that both congenital microcephaly and postnatal-onset microcephaly can be due to genetic or "acquired" causes. Careful history and physical examination is the initial step in evaluating a neonate with microcephaly. Diagnostic evalu...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chu, A., Heald-Sargent, T., Hageman, J. R. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy
Gestational and pregestational diabetes make up the most common maternal metabolic disorder of pregnancy. Suboptimal control of blood glucose has the potential for serious maternal and neonatal adverse effects. Neonates of diabetic mothers are at risk for congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, preeclampsia, preterm birth, increased birthweight, neonatal hypoglycemia and respiratory distress. The nature and severity of risks depend on the timing and duration of hyperglycemia. Through glycemic control and proper prenatal care, many of these risks can be mitigated. Pediatric providers must be sensitive to the associat...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sutton, D. M., Han, C. S., Werner, E. F. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

What--and Why--the Neonatologist Should Know About Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome results from unbalanced vascular anastomoses in monochorionic twin gestations. This condition, affecting 2,500 pregnancies each year in the United States, is most commonly identified with ultrasonography on the basis of unequal amniotic fluid volumes in a monochorionic, diamniotic pregnancy. Hemodynamic alterations in the syndrome lead to oligohydramnios, intrauterine growth restriction, and frequently, anemia in the "donor" twin while the "recipient" has polyhydramnios and polycythemia. In severe cases, both twins are at risk of developing hydrops fetalis and death. Th...
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bliss, J. M., Carr, S. R., De Paepe, M. E., Luks, F. I. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news

The Status of US Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Education in 2015-2016
We describe the status of these programs in 2015, along with challenges and barriers identified. We offer some strategies and responses to sustain the future of this important specialty nursing practice. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)
Source: NeoReviews recent issues - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sheldon, R. E., Bissinger, R., Kenner, C., Staebler, S. Tags: Pediatric Drug Labeling Update Articles Source Type: news