What Are Toxin-Mediated Diseases?

Discussion A poison is a generic term for “a substance with an inherent property that tends to destroy life or impair health.” A toxin is more specific and is “any poison produced by an organism, characterized by antigenicity in certain animals and high molecular weight, and including the bacterial toxins that are the causative agents of tetanus, diphtheria, etc., and such plant and animal toxins as ricin and snake venom.” A toxin does not include those substances that are made synthetically produced. Venom is also a toxin that is used by animals and insects for predation or defense which can cause disease in humans such as snake venom, bee venom, etc. Toxins can be cell associated (i.e. endotoxin) or secreted (i.e. exotoxin). Other terminology describes the action of the toxin such as leukocidin, enterotoxin or neurotoxin. Some toxins enter cells directly or some are receptor-mediated. Exposure to a toxin does not necessarily cause disease as the exposure may not allow penetration into the body, the concentration of the toxin is not high enough, or the body’s defense systems counteract/neutralize the threat. Vaccines can help the immune system prevent some toxin-mediated diseases. Learning Point Common toxin-mediated diseases in humans include: Bacteria Anthrax – Bacillus anthracis, enters body through inhalation, disrupts cellular defense Bacillus fragilis – is part of gut microbiome, enters through gut, can cause sepsis or other ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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ConclusionsTrabectedin, in combination with PLD, may have clinical benefits in Japanese patients with relapsed advanced ovarian cancer. The recommended dosage of trabectedin for further study in this population is 1.1  mg/m2 once every 21  days.Clinical trial registration number: JapicCTI-163164
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between clinicopathologic features and serum zinc levels in patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer.MethodsThe study enrolled 617 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at the Kochi Medical School. Clinical data were obtained to investigate associations between clinicopathological features, including nutritional indicators and serum zinc levels. Serum zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level  
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundA significant number of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients develop osteogenic metastases (OMs) and/or brain metastases (BMs) after surgery, however, routine chest computed tomography (CT) sometimes fails to diagnose these recurrences. We investigated the incidence of BMs and OMs after pulmonary resection and aimed to identify candidates who can benefit from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in addition to CT.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed medical records of 1099 NSCLC patients who underwent pulmonary resection between 2002 ...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThe prognosis of patients with recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy and the efficacy of local salvage therapy for recurrence were evaluated.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 110 patients who were treated with definitive radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer between 2008 and 2017 at our institution. Local salvage therapy was defined as any surgery or radiotherapy described in the medical record as intended for local control or cure.ResultsWe identified 25 patients who developed recurrence after definitive radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. The median follow...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionWhile the real-world overall survival in Japanese patients with mRCC in the targeted therapy era improved compared to that previously reported in the cytokine era, there was no clear difference in the survival of poor risk patients between these eras. There were no differences in the superiority among the models.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere was no difference in OS between irinotecan and paclitaxel no in OS prolongation of S-1 combination therapy in second-line chemotherapy.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Four editions of the Brain Trauma Foundation’s (BTF) evidence-based guidelines have been published to guide clinical management after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and increase TBI research. We reviewed the association between published clinical severe TBI research and BTF guideline year of publication and guideline chapter topics. Using PubMed, we searched for peer-reviewed articles on severe TBI research published between 1975 and 2019. The frequency and study design of publications on chapter topics included in all 4 BTF guideline editions was collected and the relationship with published TBI research examin...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
Source: OncoTargets and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: OncoTargets and Therapy Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
We report a case of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis after COVID-19 vaccination, related to the unintentional injection of vaccine solution into the bursa resulting in a robust immune-mediated inflammatory reaction.
Source: Skeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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