New vaccine introductions in Africa before and during the decade of vaccines - Are we making progress?
Abstract Vaccines are excellent investments with far-reaching rewards beyond individual and population health, but their introduction into national programs has been historically slow in Africa. We provide an overview of the introduction of new and underutilized vaccines in countries of the WHO African Region by 2017, using data from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. By 2017, all 47 countries had introduced vaccines containing hepatitis B (compared to 11% in 2000 and 98% in 2010) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (compared to 4% in 2000 and 91% in 2010). The proportion of countries that had introduced oth...
Source: Vaccine - May 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sambala EZ, Wiyeh AB, Ngcobo N, Machingaidze S, Wiysonge CS Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Vaccination Status in Pediatric Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Their Household Members.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that most pediatric solid-organ transplant recipients to be appropriately vaccinated. However, vaccination status in household members, especially in parents, was disappointing. PMID: 31050613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - May 2, 2019 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Cortina G, Ojinaga V, Zlamy M, Giner T, Riedl M, Rauchenzauner M, Entenmann A, Müller T Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research

A Pertussis Outer Membrane Vesicle-Based Vaccine Induces Lung-Resident Memory CD4 T Cells and Protection Against Bordetella pertussis, Including Pertactin Deficient Strains
In this study we have evaluated whether our OMVs vaccine is capable of overcoming the deficiencies of commercial vaccines in both controlling infections caused by PRN(-) isolate/strain and inducing memory immunity. We found that our OMVs-based formulation has a higher protective capacity against the PRN(-) bacteria than that induced with a commercial aP vaccine. We found that CD4 T cells with a tissue-resident memory (TRM) cell phenotype (CD44+CD62LlowCD69+ and/or CD103+) accumulated in the lungs of mice after the second OMVs vaccine immunization. CD4 TRM cells were also detected in mice immunized with wP vaccine, but not ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - April 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cytokine profile in a patient with enterovirus D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an uncommon neurological disease with acute polio-like paralysis (1). Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in AFM patients revealed longitudinal, anterior horn-specific lesions in spinal cord suggestive of anterior myelitis (1). The frequent occurrence of AFM patients coincided with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreaks during 2014 in the US (2), or during 2015 (3) and 2018 in Japan. The identification of EV-D68 in respiratory specimens from AFM patients worldwide further supports the association (1). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ippei Hidaka, Takeshi Matsushige, Hirofumi Inoue, Madoka Hoshide, Komei Shirabe, Shunji Hasegawa Tags: Clinical Letter Source Type: research

Childhood Health Shocks, Comparative Advantage, and Long-Term Outcomes: Evidence from the Last Danish Polio Epidemic
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Journal of Health EconomicsAuthor(s): Miriam Gensowski, Torben Heien Nielsen, Nete Munk Nielsen, Maya Rossin-Slater, Miriam WüstAbstractThis paper examines the long-term effects of childhood disability on individuals’ educational and occupational choices, late-career labor market participation, and mortality. We merge medical records on children hospitalized with poliomyelitis during the 1952 Danish epidemic to census and administrative data, and exploit quasi-random variation in paralysis incidence in this population. While childhood disability increases t...
Source: Journal of Health Economics - April 25, 2019 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Genetic landscape and macro-evolution of co-circulating Coxsackieviruses A and Vaccine-derived Polioviruses in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2008-2013
This study was carried to i) investigate the circulation and genetic diversity of NPEV and polio vaccine isolates recovered from healthy children and Acute Flaccid Paralysis ( AFP) patients, ii) evaluate the occurrence of genetic recombination among EVs belonging to theEnterovirus C species (including PVs) and iii) identify the virological factors favoring multiple emergences of cVDPVs in DR Congo. The biological material considered in this study included i) a collection of 91 Sabin-like PVs, 54 cVDPVs and 150 NPEVs isolated from AFP patients between 2008 and 2012 in DR Congo and iii) a collection of 330 stool specimens co...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibodies point to Achilles ’ heel in picornavirus capsid
by Mihnea Bostina Picornaviruses are small, icosahedral, nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that form one of the largest and most important viral families. Numerous Picornaviridae members pose serious health or agricultural threats, causing diseases such as poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, or foot -and-mouth disease. The antigenic characterization of picornavirus capsids plays an important role in understanding the mechanism of viral neutralization and the conformational changes associated with genome release, and it can point to regions which can be targeted by small-molecule compounds to be developed a...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: Mihnea Bostina Source Type: research

Replicating Adenovirus-SIV Immunization of Rhesus Macaques Induces Mucosal Dendritic Cell Activation and Function Leading to Rectal Immune Responses
Eun-Ju Ko, Sabrina Helmold Hait, Gospel Enyindah-Asonye, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Tanya Hoang and Marjorie Robert-Guroff* Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States Inducing strong mucosal immune responses by vaccination is important for providing protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant vector (Ad5hr) expressing SIV proteins induced mucosal immune responses in rectal tissue associated with delayed SIV acquisition in female rhesus macaques, but the initial mechanisms leading to the induced immu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

B Cell Reconstitution and Influencing Factors After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children
Nicolaas G. van der Maas, Dagmar Berghuis, Mirjam van der Burg and Arjan C. Lankester* Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Laboratory for Pediatric Immunology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands B cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is variable and influenced by different patient, donor, and treatment related factors. In this review we describe B cell reconstitution after pediatric allogeneic HST, including the kinetics of reconstitution of the different B cell subsets and the development of the B cell repertoire, and d...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic HIV-1 Infection Alters the Cellular Distribution of Fc γRIIIa and the Functional Consequence of the FcγRIIIa-F158V Variant
In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in the presence of an HIV-1 infection, the cellular distribution of FcγRIIIa is altered and that the functional consequence of FcγRIIIa variant is affected. Importantly, it underscores the need to characterize FcγR expression, cellular distribution and functional consequences of FcγR genetic variants within a specific environment or disease state. Introduction Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG), so called Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), link the specificity of IgG with potent effector functions of the innate immune system. Fc&ga...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exploitation of Neisseria meningitidis Group B OMV Vaccines Against N. gonorrhoeae to Inform the Development and Deployment of Effective Gonorrhea Vaccines
In this study it was assumed that there was no immunity following resolution of natural infection. The modeling demonstrated that a vaccine of moderate efficacy could have a significant impact on the prevalence of gonorrhea if strategically implemented (23). While encouraging it does, of course, depend on the availability of a vaccine. From Ecological Data to Evidence The epidemiological evidence from Cuba, Brazil, and New Zealand demonstrates that N. meningitidis OMV vaccines are possibly able to provide some broader protection against meningococcal disease (17, 24), particularly in older children and adults (25). These...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations containing pneumococcal proteins, and immunogenicity and reactogenicity of co-administered routine vaccines - A phase II, randomised, observer-blind study in Gambian infants.
CONCLUSION: Immune responses to the 10 PHiD-CV polysaccharide conjugates and co-administered vaccines were not altered by addition of dPly and PhtD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01262872. PMID: 30975570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - April 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Odutola A, Ota MOC, Antonio M, Ogundare EO, Saidu Y, Owiafe PK, Worwui A, Idoko OT, Owolabi O, Kampmann B, Greenwood BM, Alderson M, Traskine M, Swinnen K, Verlant V, Dobbelaere K, Borys D Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2017-2018.
Abstract When the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began in 1988, cases of poliomyelitis were reported from 125 countries. Since then, only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have experienced uninterrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus is through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - April 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Patel JC, Diop OM, Gardner T, Chavan S, Jorba J, Wassilak SGF, Ahmed J, Snider CJ Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Anti-poliovirus activity of Nerium oleander aqueous extract.
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of hot and cold extract of NO against six different viruses such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), polio virus type 1 (Sb-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), reovirus type-1 (Reo-1), human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), and yellow fever virus (YFV). Interestingly the results of plaque reduction assay demonstrated that both, hot extract and cold extract (breastin) of NO inhibited Sb-1 viral infection. In order to identify the mechanism by which NO exerts its antiviral activity, the virucidal effect, the time of addition and the adsorption assay were carried ...
Source: Natural Product Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sanna G, Madeddu S, Serra A, Collu D, Efferth T, Hakkim FL, Rashan L Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research

Virus-like particle vaccines for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with enhanced thermostability expressed in insect cells.
In this study, PV1, PV2, and PV3 virus-like particles with enhanced thermostability (PV-sVLPs) were produced in large quantities by using a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). Mice immunized with PV-sVLPs generated antibodies with strong PV-neutralizing response. In addition, splenocytes collected from immunized mice expressed high levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-5, and IL-10 upon PV-sVLPs stimulation. These data suggest that PV-sVLPs can serve as vaccines against PV infection. PMID: 30922699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - March 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xu Y, Ma S, Huang Y, Chen F, Chen L, Ding D, Zheng Y, Li H, Xiao J, Feng J, Peng T Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Self-perceived mobility in immigrants in Sweden living with the late effects of polio.
CONCLUSIONS: Many respondents reported having difficulties with transport mobility, but a large proportion, 57%, were independent and active drivers. It is important to consider outdoor mobility when planning rehabilitation for patients with late effects of polio and foreign backgrounds. In addition to psychosocial factors, dependence on mobility-related activities can lead to dependency and isolation. Implications for rehabilitation Outdoor mobility and access to transport modes are important for independence and an active life and need to be included in the rehabilitation process. Both personal and environmental factors,...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - March 23, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Selander H, Kjellgren F, Sunnerhagen KS Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

University of Alberta Hospital Acute and Convalescent Polio Care and the Reintegration of Polio Patients into Albertan Communities, 1953-80.
Abstract Following Canada's largest polio epidemic in 1953, Station 67 at the University of Alberta Hospital (UAH) in Edmonton became home to patients who contracted the virus. As young as nine years old, some of these patients lived at the UAH for more than three decades. Akin to wartime services, the epidemic banded together families, patients, doctors, nurses, community members, and later respiratory, physical, and occupational therapists. The nature of the disease, the government response, and the social and economic climate dramatically affected the lived experiences of patients in Alberta's fight against pol...
Source: Medical History - March 22, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Huynh G Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Enough With Polio: It ’s Measles’ Turn Now in Pakistan
LetterInayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan,Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness,Volume 10 Issue 04, pp 539-540Abstract (Source: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness)
Source: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness - March 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Environmental Surveillance of Human Enteroviruses in C órdoba City, Argentina: Prevalence and Detection of Serotypes from 2009 to 2014
AbstractEnvironmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. EVs excreted by patients who present diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 6-year (2009 –2014) surveillance study was conducted to detect non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Cordoba city, Argentina. Echovirus 6 (E-6) was the most prevalent (28%), followed by E-14 (17%), E-16 (14%), Coxsackievirus (CV) A9 (11%), E-20 (9%), and CVA24 (6%). Other mino...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

FOB vs modified Irwin: What are we doing?
We present and defend the view that the behavioral screening assay developed by Irwin is, for all intents and purposes, a functional observational battery (FOB). We take the position that in standardizing nomenclature without “surnames” the FOB is simply the contemporary name for the data collection system in use under the harmonized safety pharmacology guidelines. (Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods)
Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods - March 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Benefit of a Flexible Ankle-Foot Orthosis on Balance and Walking Ability in Persons With Late Effects of Polio: A Mixed-Methods Study
Introduction Many persons with late effects of polio (LEoP) have muscle weakness in the lower limbs, which affects their balance and walking ability. Although an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is commonly prescribed for these persons, there is limited knowledge if an AFO improves their balance and walking ability in terms of speed, distance, and perceived safety. The aims of this study were 1) to assess if a flexible AFO improves dynamic balance as well as indoor and outdoor walking in persons with mild to moderate LEoP and 2) to describe the participants' own perceptions of walking ability and safety, as well as advantages a...
Source: JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics - March 15, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES Source Type: research

Integrated Safety Profile of a New Approved, Fully Liquid DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine
Background: DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component, approved since 2016 in Europe [Vaxelis; DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine: Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (5 acellular components: pertussis toxoid [PT], filamentous haemagglutinin [FHA], pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae Types 2 and 3 [FIM]), hepatitis B (recombinant DNA: rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed); MCM Vaccine B.V., The Netherlands] for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyel...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - March 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Update on Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks - Democratic Republic of the Congo and Horn of Africa, 2017-2018.
This report updates (as of February 26, 2019) previous reports on circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks during 2017-2018 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and in Somalia, which experienced a concurrent cVDPV type 3 (cVDPV3) outbreak* (2,3). In DRC, 42 cases have been reported in four cVDPV2 outbreaks; paralysis onset in the most recent case was October 7, 2018 (2). Challenges to interrupting transmission have included delays in outbreak-response supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) and difficulty reaching children in all areas. In Somalia, cVDPV2 and cVDPV3 were detected in sewage before the detect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - March 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mbaeyi C, Alleman MM, Ehrhardt D, Wiesen E, Burns CC, Liu H, Ewetola R, Seakamela L, Mdodo R, Ndoutabe M, Wenye PK, Riziki Y, Borus P, Kamugisha C, Wassilak SGF Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Neurological Symptoms in Danes with a History of Poliomyelitis: Lifelong Follow-Up of Late Symptoms, their Association with Initial Symptoms of Polio, and Presence of Postpolio Syndrome
Conclusion: Our data indicate that individuals with a history of PM late in life experience a variety of symptoms that cannot be attributed to lesions of the anterior horn. Furthermore, late symptoms do not seem to be related to initial symptoms of the acute stage of PM but to reported PPS. The last finding supports the perception that the cause of PPS is not just normal ageing.Eur Neurol 2018;80:295 –303 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Combination of Dimorphandra gardneriana Galactomannan and Mangiferin Inhibits Herpes Simplex and Poliovirus.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the DgGmM inhibited HSV-1 and PV-1 replication, with low cytotoxicity and high selectivity and, therefore, represents a potential candidate for further studies on the control of herpes and polio infections. PMID: 30848197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Herpes)
Source: Herpes - March 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rechenchoski DZ, Samensari NL, Faccin-Galhardi LC, de Almeida RR, Cunha AP, Ricardo NMPS, Nozawa C, Linhares REC Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Polio's Precarious Future A Review of Polio: The Odyssey of Eradication and an Interview with Dr. T. Jacob John.
PMID: 30843507 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Panosian Dunavan C Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Polio vaccination coverage and seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccines for routine immunization in Japan.
Abstract In Japan, the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was changed to 2 types of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), the standalone conventional IPV (cIPV) and the Sabin-derived IPV combined with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP-sIPV), for routine immunization in 2012. We evaluated polio vaccination coverage and the seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies using data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (NESVPD) from 2011 to 2015. Several years before the introduction of IPV in 2012, OPV administration for children was refused by some parents because of ...
Source: Vaccine - February 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Satoh H, Tanaka-Taya K, Shimizu H, Goto A, Tanaka S, Nakano T, Hotta C, Okazaki T, Itamochi M, Ito M, Okamoto-Nakagawa R, Yamashita Y, Arai S, Okuno H, Morino S, Oishi K Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Arthus Reaction
A 6-year-old boy presented to the emergency department (ED) with fever and skin rash (Figure  1) over his left thigh. He had just received a combination vaccine with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis (DTaP-IPV) on his left thigh 12 h prior to his visit to the ED. His vital signs were body temperature of 36.6°C, respiratory rate of 20 breaths/min, blood pressure of 104/83  mm Hg, and heart rate of 100 beats/min. The results of laboratory examinations showed a white blood cell count of 11,500/μL, with neutrophils and eosinophils of 61.9% (reference value 45–70%) and 6.6% (reference...
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 27, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Mei-Hua Wang, Alvin Hu, Yei-Soon Lee, Chih-Cheng Lai Tags: Visual Diagnosis in Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Completeness and timeliness of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, measles-mumps-rubella, and polio vaccines in young children with chronic health conditions: A systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of studies reporting coverage and timeliness of routine immunizations in special populations of children. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Our review suggests a need for improved surveillance of immunization status in special populations of infants, as wellas aneed for standardization of reporting practices. PMID: 30814030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - February 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Walker EJ, MacDonald NE, Islam N, Le Saux N, Top KA, Fell DB Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Distal Femoral Flexion Closing Wedge Osteotomy for Treatment of Failed Chronic Distal Femoral Extension Osteotomy in a Patient With Poliomyelitis.
This report describes the successful use of a posterior closing wedge flexion osteotomy with plate fixation to correct a hyperextension deformity caused by a failed or overcorrected extension osteotomy in a 40-year-old man. In this patient, this flexion osteotomy led to complete deformity correction, resolution of symptoms, functional improvement, and return to work without restrictions. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 27(4):329-334, 2018). PMID: 30777837 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances)
Source: Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances - February 21, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Surg Orthop Adv Source Type: research

Poliovirus immunity among children under five years-old in accessible areas of Afghanistan, 2013.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Afghanistan remains among the three countries with endemic wild poliovirus transmission, and high population immunity levels are required to interrupt transmission and prevent outbreaks. Surveillance and vaccination of children in Afghanistan have been challenging due to security issues limiting accessibility in certain areas. METHODS: A serosurvey was conducted in 2013 within accessible enumeration areas (EAs) among children aged
Source: Vaccine - February 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hsu CH, Wannemuehler KA, Soofi S, Mashal M, Hussain I, Bhutta ZA, McDuffie L, Weldon W, Farag NH Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Measles and the Modern History of Vaccination.
This article follows the history of measles to explore immunization successes and challenges in this modern era, because measles was the first of the mild and moderate diseases to become the target of a federally supported eradication-through-vaccination campaign, one that relied heavily on the preemptive, required vaccination of children. Its story thus epitomizes the range of political, epidemiological, cultural, and communications challenges to mass immunization in the modern era of vaccination. PMID: 30763141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Public Health Reports)
Source: Public Health Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research

Adults with polio are at risk of hip fracture from middle age: A nationwide population-based cohort study
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a common cause of early-onset physical disabilities. An epidemic of polio occurred in Taiwan during the 1950s and 1960s [1]. Subjects with sequelae of polio often contracted the illness before the age of 3 years, and it was the spinal type in Taiwan [2]. Most of them have abnormal gait patterns and require aids for walking because of motor impairments, such as muscular atrophy and weakness of the legs. Falling often occurs in persons who require aids for walking and have moderate gait impairment [3]. (Source: Injury)
Source: Injury - February 14, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Chien-Hua Wu, Shih-Wei Huang, Yen-Nung Lin, Chyan-Yeong Wang, Tsan-Hon Liou, Kwang-Hwa Chang Source Type: research

Iterative Excretion of Human Cosaviruses from Different Genotypes Associated with Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder
Conclusions: This study describes excretion kinetics and genetic characteristics of HCoSVs in a patient with combined immunodeficiency due to MHC class II expression defect. The patient did not have concomitant symptoms related to the HCoSV infection.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - February 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Monitoring drug pharmacokinetics and immunologic biomarkers in dermal interstitial fluid using a microneedle patch.
In this study, we assessed the utility of a microneedle patch to sample microliter volumes of ISF in a simple and minimally invasive manner. We demonstrated the use of ISF collected in this way for therapeutic drug monitoring by showing similar vancomycin pharmacokinetic profiles in ISF and serum from rats. We also measured polio-specific neutralizing antibodies and anti-polio IgG in ISF similar to serum in rats immunized with polio vaccine. These studies demonstrate the potential utility of ISF collected by microneedle patch in therapeutic drug monitoring and immunodiagnostic applications. PMID: 30725230 [PubMed - in...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - February 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Kolluru C, Williams M, Yeh JS, Noel RK, Knaack J, Prausnitz MR Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccinations in young children residing in a district with recurrent vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, Jerusalem, Israel.
ConclusionsConsiderable vaccination delay should be addressed within the vaccine hesitancy spectrum. Delays may induce susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks; tailored programmes to improve timeliness are required. PMID: 30755293 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - February 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stein-Zamir C, Israeli A Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Efficacy of Oral Care Provided by Interprofessional Collaboration for a Patient with Esophageal Cancer Associated with Post-polio Syndrome during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Abstract Preoperative oral care is helpful to prevent postoperative complications in patients who are undergoing esophagectomy. Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old Japanese man with an upper limb disability caused by post-polio syndrome who was receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer. He had poor oral health status and developed oral complications as a side effect of chemotherapy. He could not brush his teeth by himself. However, infection control by oral care provided by an interprofessional collaboration successfully improved his oral hygiene, and his follow-up involved no severe complica...
Source: Acta Med Okayama - February 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Takahashi-Arimasa K, Kohno-Yamanaka R, Soga Y, Miura R, Morita M Tags: Acta Med Okayama Source Type: research

Molecular detection of enteroviruses from hand-foot-and-mouth disease surveillance cases in the Philippines, 2012 to 2017
Purpose: Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease (HFMD) surveillance began in the Philippines in 2012 with the National Reference Laboratory for Polio and other Enterovirus providing laboratory support for the surveillance. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M.M.A. Jiao, L.N.G. Apostol Tags: 20.153 Source Type: research

Allergic reactions to cow's milk proteins in medications in childhood.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest caution in administration of pharmaceuticals containing milk allergens in children allergic to milk. PMID: 30830066 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis)
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - January 29, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Santoro A, Andreozzi L, Ricci G, Mastrorilli C, Caffarelli C Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Myelitis: An Ongoing Investigation.
Abstract This polio-like illness typically affects children. PMID: 30681481 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Nursing)
Source: The American Journal of Nursing - January 27, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Todd B Tags: Am J Nurs Source Type: research

2018 international meeting of the Global Virus Network
This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including strategies for the eradication of smallpox, measles, polio, SARS and vector-borne or zoonotic infections, emergence and intervention strategies for retroviruses and arboviruses, preparedness for outbreaks of Filo- and other hemophilic viruses, pathogenesis, impact and prevention of respiratory viruses, as well as, viruses affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Also threats in crisis settings like refugee camps were presented. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - January 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Myelitis: An Ongoing Investigation
This polio-like illness typically affects children. (Source: AJN)
Source: AJN - January 25, 2019 Category: Nursing Tags: Emerging Infections Source Type: research

2018 international meeting of the Global Virus Network.
This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including strategies for the eradication of smallpox, measles, polio, SARS and vector-borne or zoonotic infections, emergence and intervention strategies for retroviruses and arboviruses, preparedness for outbreaks of Filo- and other hemophilic viruses, pathogenesis, impact and prevention of respiratory viruses, as well as, viruses affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Also threats in crisis settings like refugee camps were presented. PMID: 30690044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (So...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Brechot C, Bryant J, Endtz H, Garry RF, Griffin DE, Lewing S, Mercer N, Osterhaus A, Picot V, Vahlne A, Verjans GMGM, Weaver S Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Mandatory vaccination of infants in France: Is that the way forward?
Authors: Partouche H, Gilberg S, Renard V, Saint-Lary O Abstract In this opinion paper, the authors argue that the extension of mandatory immunization of infants up to two years of age from three diseases (diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis) to 11 diseases, introduced in France in January 2018, is not a sustainable response to the challenge of controlling vaccine-preventable diseases. In France in 2017, infant immunization coverage (IC) rates were sufficiently high or increasing (hepatitis B), except for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) and meningococcus C disease. Even if vaccination obligation makes it possible t...
Source: European Journal of General Practice - January 24, 2019 Category: Primary Care Tags: Eur J Gen Pract Source Type: research

Principles of artificial ventilation
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Anaesthesia & Intensive Care MedicineAuthor(s): Ben Brown, Justin RobertsAbstractThe application of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) during the 1952 Copenhagen polio epidemic led to the development of the world's first intensive care unit. The requirement for ventilatory support is the most common indication for intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and is a defining feature of the specialty. Ventilator technology continues to develop and there are many ways to deliver IPPV. The variety of modes of ventilation is increasingly complex and expand...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 24, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with post-polio syndrome
Background: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome consisting of new muscle weakness, fatigue, and pain in poliomyelitis survivors. In PPS, there is no definitively validated treatment option, although Acler M et al. reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over pre-motor cortex for 15 days improved sleep and fatigue symptoms in patients with PPS. tDCS may be a valuable, non-invasive new tool for managing patients with PPS. (Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation)
Source: BRAIN STIMULATION: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Y. Matsushima, A. Hachisuka, H. Itoh, K. Sugimoto, S. Saeki Source Type: research

Achieving the end game: employing “vaccine diplomacy” to eradicate polio in Pakistan
On April 28, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared polio a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” (PHIC) under the authority of the International Health Regulations. Although polio has... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - January 17, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Shahella Idrees Shakeel, Matthew Brown, Shakeel Sethi and Tim K. Mackey Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Outcome of femoral fractures in poliomyelitis patients
ConclusionsPolio patients with femoral fractures have a guarded prognosis for regaining their pre-injury ambulatory capacity. A higher re-operation rate than that with “normal” osteoporotic fractures is expected. (Source: International Orthopaedics)
Source: International Orthopaedics - January 15, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Two Randomized Trials of the Effect of the Russian Strain of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Alone or With Oral Polio Vaccine on Neonatal Mortality in Infants Weighing
Background: In randomized trials in Guinea-Bissau, the Danish strain of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) reduces neonatal mortality, primarily by reducing deaths from pneumonia and sepsis. Because World Health Organization–prequalified BCG-Denmark was not available in India, we conducted 2 randomized trials to test whether BCG-Russia alone or with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has similar effects to BCG-Denmark. Methods: We randomized neonates weighing (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - January 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Timeliness of routine immunization in non-preterm children less than 2 years old using electronic data capture in an ambulatory setting in France in the context of vaccine hesitancy.
CONCLUSION: This large study shows that the proportion of children with delayed vaccination in France was globally high and substantial for Men-C and the first MMR vaccination. Risk of a delayed second and third dose was increased with a delayed first dose, which may reflect vaccine hesitancy. PMID: 30638762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives de Pediatrie)
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - January 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Rybak A, Vié le Sage F, Béchet S, Werner A, Thiebault G, Bakhache P, Virey B, Caulin E, Cohen R, Levy C Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research