Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions About Routine Childhood Vaccinations Among Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mothers Residing in Communities with Low Vaccination Coverage in the Jerusalem District
Conclusion Investigating maternal knowledge and attitudes on childhood vaccinations provides insights that may assist in planning tailored intervention programs aimed to increase both vaccination coverage and timeliness. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - January 16, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Guidance for Assessment of Poliovirus Vaccination Status and Vaccination of Children Who Have Received Poliovirus Vaccine Outside the United States.
This report summarizes current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for poliovirus vaccination and provides CDC guidance, in the context of the switch from tOPV to bOPV, regarding assessment of vaccination status and vaccination of children who might have received poliovirus vaccine outside the United States, to ensure that children living in the United States (including immigrants and refugees) are protected against all three poliovirus types. This guidance is not new policy and does not change the recommendations of ACIP for poliovirus vaccination in the United States. Children living in th...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - January 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marin M, Patel M, Oberste S, Pallansch MA Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae
This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - January 11, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Jacqueline Staring Eleonore von Castelmur Vincent A. Blomen Lisa G. van den Hengel Markus Brockmann Jim Baggen Hendrik Jan Thibaut Joppe Nieuwenhuis Hans Janssen Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld Anastassis Perrakis Jan E. Carette Thijn R. Brummelkamp Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Knowledge and perceptions of polio and polio immunization in polio high-risk areas of Pakistan
AbstractPakistan and Afghanistan remain the only countries where polio is endemic, and Pakistan reports the most cases in the world. Although the rate is lower than in previous years, the situation remains alarming. We conducted a mixed methods study in high-risk areas of Pakistan to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of target populations about polio vaccine and its eradication, and to estimate coverage of routine immunization and oral polio vaccine. We surveyed 10,685 households in Karachi, 2522 in Pishin, and 2005 in Bajaur. Some knowledge of polio is universal, but important misconceptions persist. The findin...
Source: Journal of Public Health Policy - January 11, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae
This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release. (Source: Nature)
Source: Nature - January 11, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Jacqueline Staring Eleonore von Castelmur Vincent A. Blomen Lisa G. van den Hengel Markus Brockmann Jim Baggen Hendrik Jan Thibaut Joppe Nieuwenhuis Hans Janssen Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld Anastassis Perrakis Jan E. Carette Thijn R. Brummelkamp Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Vaccination Coverage and Timelines Among Children 0 –6 Months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Prospective Cohort Study
In conclusion, the strongest predictor for incomplete and untimely immunization amon g infants in Kinshasa was the clinics in which they were enrolled. The association was likely due to the user fee for well-baby clinic visits and its varying structure by clinic. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - January 5, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Acute flaccid paralysis incidence and Zika virus surveillance, Pacific Islands.
Abstract PROBLEM: The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. APPROACH: We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 ...
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - January 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Craig AT, Butler MT, Pastore R, Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

Combined tibial lengthening and ankle arthrodesis for patients with certain type of sequelae of poliomyelitis.
CONCLUSION: The described combined techniques may be an excellent alternate for treating selected patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. The procedure is not complex but the efficiency is extremely prominent. PMID: 28117634 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery)
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery - January 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Wu CC Tags: J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) Source Type: research

Knowledge assessment regarding poliomyelitis among the caregivers of children who received oral polio vaccine reveals lack of awareness of the vaccine vial monitor (VVM): Implications extending beyond polio eradication.
Abstract Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is now commonly used for vaccines that are included in the National Immunization Schedule in India. It helps to indicate the viability of the vaccine and of the proper functioning of the cold chain. This is useful as it prevents health personnel from administering damaged vaccine. Studies have shown a lack of awareness of health workers regarding the use and interpretation of a VVM. The current study, undertaken among the caregivers of children who were immunized, showed that this lack of information about the VVM also exists among the caregivers. This deficiency in knowledge, b...
Source: Tropical Doctor - January 1, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bhilwar M, Lal P Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine (Vaxelis ® ): A Review of its Use in Primary and Booster Vaccination
AbstractVaxelis® is a fully liquid, ready-to-use, hexavalent vaccine approved in the EU for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers from the age of 6 weeks against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and invasive diseases caused byHaemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). It contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, five acellular pertussis antigens, recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen produced in the yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivated poliovirus, and the Hib polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate) conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex ofNeisseria me...
Source: Pediatric Drugs - December 29, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine (Vaxelis( ®)): A Review of its Use in Primary and Booster Vaccination.
DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine (Vaxelis(®)): A Review of its Use in Primary and Booster Vaccination. Paediatr Drugs. 2016 Dec 29;: Authors: Syed YY Abstract Vaxelis(®) is a fully liquid, ready-to-use, hexavalent vaccine approved in the EU for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers from the age of 6 weeks against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). It contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, five acellular pertussis antigens, recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen produced in the yeast...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - December 29, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Syed YY Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality? Natural experiments within a randomised controlled trial of early measles vaccine
Conclusions Bissau had no polio infection during this trial, so OPV0 and campaign-OPV may have NSEs since they modified the effect of 2-dose MV in an RCT. Different interventions may interact to a much larger effect than usually assumed. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - December 23, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Aaby, P., Andersen, A., Martins, C. L., Fisker, A. B., Rodrigues, A., Whittle, H. C., Benn, C. S. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Global health, Paediatrics, Public health Research Source Type: research

Poliomyelitis: residual hurdles to global eradication. Commentary.
Authors: Stefanelli P, Buttinelli G, Rezza G Abstract The global eradication of polio is close to achieving success. However, transmission of wild poliovirus persists in countries where the disease is endemic, and outbreaks may also occur in previously polio-free countries where population immunity is not maintained. To achieve polio eradication, several key actions are required: (1) to detect any poliovirus transmission, (2) to strengthen immunization systems and withdraw all oral polio vaccines from use, (3) to contain polioviruses and certify interruption of transmission, and (4) to sustain ongoing public health...
Source: Annali dell Istituto Superiore di Sanita - December 22, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Ann Ist Super Sanita Source Type: research

Extensive swelling of the limb and systemic symptoms after a fourth dose of acellular pertussis containing vaccines in England in children aged 3-6years.
Abstract Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling>100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or hi...
Source: Vaccine - December 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Southern J, Waight PA, Andrews N, Miller E Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Uncommon Disorders Masquerading as Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Children
AbstractThe syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a common medical emergency in children. In the era of poliomyelitis eradication, the common causes of AFP include Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis and traumatic neuritis. However, many common diseases can uncommonly present as AFP and some uncommon diseases may also masquerade like it. Uncommon causes of AFP seen at a tertiary care pediatric hospital are discussed along with relevant points in diagnosis a nd management. Also, common pitfalls in diagnosis of pediatric AFP and an approach to investigations are discussed. (Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - December 21, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Between individualism and social solidarity in vaccination policy: the case of the 2013 OPV campaign in Israel
ConclusionsWe discuss the ethical and social implications of our findings in order to better understand how persuasion was used in the current case and for its future role in similar events, within and outside Israel, when global efforts to eradicate polio are ongoing. (Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research)
Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of echovirus 13 uncovering high genetic diversity and identification of new genotypes in Pakistan.
In conclusion, the current study provides an overview of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of E-13 in the country. This study strongly suggests that enterovirus surveillance system should be established in the country to determine the temporal and geographical trends and disease pattern of different enterovirus serotypes in the community. PMID: 28011278 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 20, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shaukat S, Angez M, Mahmood T, Alam MM, Sharif S, Khurshid A, Rana MS, Zaidi SS Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Vaccine coverage and adherence to EPI schedules in eight resource poor settings in the MAL-ED cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to improve measles vaccination rates and reduce delayed vaccination to achieve EPI targets related to the establishment of herd immunity and reduction in disease transmission. PMID: 27998640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - December 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hoest C, Seidman JC, Lee G, Platts-Mills JA, Ali A, Olortegui MP, Bessong P, Chandyo R, Babji S, Mohan VR, Mondal D, Mahfuz M, Mduma ER, Nyathi E, Abreu C, Miller MA, Pan W, Mason CJ, Knobler SL, MAL-ED Network Investigators Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Closer to a polio-free Eastern Mediterranean Region.
Authors: Alwan A, Maher C PMID: 27966764 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal)
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - December 16, 2016 Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research

[Editorial] 2017: The unifying power of health
For many readers of The Lancet, 2016 will be viewed as a dark year. As highlighted elsewhere in this issue (p 2971), ongoing civil conflict has led to record numbers of displaced people (around 65 million, just under 1% of the world's population). The aftershocks of democratic political revolutions on both sides of the Atlantic still resonate, with no clear path ahead and few grounds for optimism. Yet, by contrast, 2016 has also seen some striking successes in health: polio eradication has come tantalisingly close, with only 34 cases reported this year in three countries; and 30 million people were successfully vaccinated ...
Source: LANCET - December 16, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: The Lancet Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Quality of life for post-polio syndrome: a patient derived, Rasch standard scale.
CONCLUSION: The disease-specific PP-QoL demonstrated excellent reliability, appropriate concurrent validity, and satisfied the standards of the Rasch model. It enables examination of the impact of health status upon perceived QoL, and the impact of rehabilitation interventions. The scale is freely available for academic or not-for-profit users to improve research in this neglected, disabling condition. Implications for Rehabilitation In post-polio syndrome (PPS), existing work examines aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), such as activity limitations. A disease-specific QoL measure would enable researchers to...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - December 15, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Young CA, Quincey AC, Wong SM, Tennant A Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Femur lengthening with monoplanar external fixator associated with locked intramedullary nail
Conclusion Femur lengthening with a monoplanar external fixator associated with locked intramedullary nail allowed for a shorter period of external fixation use, better protection for the regenerated bone tissue, and early rehabilitation with possible complications. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia - December 14, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A Randomized, Controlled Study of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, a Fully Liquid Hexavalent Vaccine, Administered in a 3-, 5- and 11- to 12-month Schedule
Conclusions: These study findings confirm the safety and immunogenicity and thus the suitability of this fully liquid hexavalent vaccine for administration in a 2 + 1 schedule. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - December 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

A case ‐control study on the association of pulse oral poliomyelitis vaccination and Gianotti‐Crosti syndrome
Abstract BackgroundSince 1995, the Indian government has been launching two National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually to administer oral polio vaccines (OPVs) to children under the age of 5. Our aim was to investigate the association between OPVs and Gianotti‐Crosti syndrome (GCS). MethodsA board‐certified dermatologist in solo practice conducted the examinations. The patients consulted without the need of a referral. We retrieved files of all children under the age of 5 who were diagnosed with GCS in 18 months. There were three NIDs during these months. We charted the number of children 1 month before, 1&nb...
Source: International Journal of Dermatology - December 12, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vijay Zawar, Antonio Chuh Tags: Report Source Type: research

Triumph over adversity: Pakistan's successes against polio
Publication date: January 2017 Source:The Lancet Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 1 Author(s): Hafsa Mohiuddin, Ansab Godil, Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz (Source: The Lancet Global Health)
Source: The Lancet Global Health - December 10, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Concomitant administration of a fully liquid, ready-to-use DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in infants.
Abstract DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or hexavalent vaccines are indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The present study evaluates the safety and immunogenicity of a ready-to-use hexavalent vaccine when co-administered with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenC) vaccine in infants. This was a phase III, open-label, randomised, multicentre study conducted in Finland. Healthy infants, aged 46-74days (n=350), were randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive DTa...
Source: Vaccine - December 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Vesikari T, Borrow R, Da Costa X, Richard P, Eymin C, Boisnard F, Lockhart S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012 –2015
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - December 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Laura Pellegrinelli Laura Bubba Valeria Primache Elena Pariani Andrea Battistone Roberto Delogu Stefano Fiore Sandro Binda Source Type: research

USAID: Standing By on NCD
For more than 50 years, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided steadfast and generous support and leadership for global health. USAID's leadership has contributed to dramatic reductions in maternal and child deaths, broadened the reach of family planning services, transformed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) into a chronic disease, helped to nearly eliminate polio, and delivered lifesaving innovations to millions worldwide. (Source: CVD Prevention and Control)
Source: CVD Prevention and Control - December 1, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paul Holmes Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Acute flaccid paralysis laboratorial surveillance in a polio-free country: Brazil, 2005 –2014
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - November 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ivanildo P. Sousa Fernanda M. Burlandy Silas S. Oliveira Amanda M. Nunes Cristiane Sousa Elaine M. da Silva Jaqueline G. A. Souza Valdemar A. de Paula Ivone C. M. Oliveira Fernando Neto Tavares Eliane V. da Costa Edson Elias da Silva Source Type: research

Containment of Ebola and Polio in Low-Resource Settings Using Principles and Practices of Emergency Operations Centers in Public Health
This article outlines the structure and functionality of a typical EOC in addressing public health emergencies in low-resource settings. It ascribes the successful polio and Ebola responses in Nigeria to several factors including political commitment, population willingness to engage, accountability, and operational and strategic changes made by the effective use of an EOC and Incident Management System. In countries such as Nigeria where the central or federal government does not directly hold states accountable, the EOC provides a means to improve performance and use data to hold health workers accountable by using innov...
Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice - November 29, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Polio vaccines: WHO position paper, March 2016-recommendations.
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of polio vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on polio vaccines - March 2016, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper on polio vaccines replaces the 2014 WHO position paper [2]. The position paper summarizes the WHO position on the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules as a strategy to mitigate the potential risk of re-emergence of type 2 polio following the withdrawal of Sabin type 2 strains from oral polio vaccine (OPV) [3]. Foot...
Source: Vaccine - November 25, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: World Health Organization Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

556 Performance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and incidence of poliomyelitis, 2016.
Authors: PMID: 27922012 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - November 25, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Pakistan, January 2015 –September 2016.
Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Pakistan, January 2015–September 2016. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016 Nov 25;91(47):549-56 Authors: PMID: 27921417 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - November 25, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2015-September 2016.
This report describes the activities, challenges, and progress toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2015-September 2016 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2015, a total of 54 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan, an 82% decrease from 2014. In 2016, 15 WPV1 cases had been reported as of November 1, representing a 61% decrease compared with the 38 cases reported during the same period in 2015 (Figure 1). Among the 15 WPV1 cases reported in 2016, children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - November 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Hsu CH, Mahamud A, Safdar RM, Ahmed J, Jorba J, Sharif S, Farag N, Martinez M, Tangermann RH, Ehrhardt D Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Notice to Readers: Final 2015 Reports of Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions.
Authors: Abstract The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonpara...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - November 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Human parechovirus and enterovirus initiate distinct CNS innate immune responses: pathogenic and diagnostic implications
Meningitis is one of the most common central nervous system (CNS) disorders of childhood, and when considering all etiologies of meningitis, this disease is responsible for up to 12% of deaths worldwide in children younger than 14 years of age [1,2]. The majority of the aseptic cases of meningitis are viral infections with most caused by non-polio enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) [3]. EV and HPeV are both members of the family Picornaviridae, which are small non-enveloped, positive sense, single stranded RNA viruses [4]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - November 23, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Danielle Fortuna, Ana Mar ía Cárdenas, Erin H. Graf, Larry A. Harshyne, D.Craig Hooper, Michael Prosniak, John Shields, Mark T. Curtis Source Type: research

Vaccination via Chloroplast Genetics: Affordable Protein Drugs for the Prevention and Treatment of Inherited or Infectious Human Diseases.
Abstract Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drug...
Source: Annual Review of Genetics - November 23, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Daniell H, Chan HT, Pasoreck EK Tags: Annu Rev Genet Source Type: research

Estimated Effect of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaigns, Nigeria and Pakistan, January 2014-April 2016.
Abstract In 2014, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) campaigns were implemented in Nigeria and Pakistan after clinical trials showed that IPV boosts intestinal immunity in children previously given oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We estimated the effect of these campaigns by using surveillance data collected during January 2014-April 2016. In Nigeria, campaigns with IPV and trivalent OPV (tOPV) substantially reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis caused by circulating serotype-2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.17 for 90 days after vs. 90 days before campaigns, 95% CI 0.04-0.78) and the pr...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - November 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shirreff G, Wadood MZ, Vaz RG, Sutter RW, Grassly NC Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Anesthesia and Poliomyelitis: A Matched Cohort Study
(Abstracted from Anesth Analg, 122:1894–1900, 2016) Survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infectious disease caused by 1 of the 3 strains of poliovirus, present a unique set of challenges to the anesthesiologist. Many polio survivors are unaware of the true extent of their neurologic deficits because (generally having been infected at a young age) they have naturally learned successful compensatory muscle activation patterns through childhood development that aid in the activities of daily living. (Source: Survey of Anesthesiology)
Source: Survey of Anesthesiology - November 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Miscellaneous Source Type: research

[Correspondence] New poliovirus vaccine schedules
In their randomised controlled trial, Edwin J Asturias and colleagues (July 9, p 158)1 reported a robust humoral immune response after three doses of bivalent type 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) combined with zero, one, or two doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), confirming that bOPV is highly immunogenic when administered either with or without IPV. In their study, 6-week-old full-term Latin American infants due for their first polio vaccinations were randomly assigned by permuted block randomisation to five schedules. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - November 18, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Qian Zhang, Claire Leppold, Yueqin Shao, Yuka Mura, Tetsuya Tanimoto Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] New poliovirus vaccine schedules – Authors' reply
Following on from our randomised controlled trial,1 Qian Zhang and colleagues commented on the importance of the sequence of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in infant immunisation schedules in the context of preventing rare but serious adverse events of OPV, such as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and vaccine-derived poliovirus. They noted that the recommendation was first to give IPV followed by OPV. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - November 18, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Edwin J Asturias, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Ralf Clemens, Walter Orenstein, Ricardo R üttimann Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The extent of using mobility assistive devices can partly explain fatigue among persons with late effects of polio – a retrospective registry study in Sweden
Fatigue is reported as one of the most disabling symptoms and is common among persons living with late effects of polio. Although fatigue has been studied in the context of people living with late effects of p... (Source: BMC Neurology)
Source: BMC Neurology - November 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: I. Santos Tavares Silva, K. S. Sunnerhagen, C. Will én and I. Ottenvall Hammar Source Type: research

Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016 Source:Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research Author(s): Jérôme Sales de Gauzy Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienc...
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - November 18, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2015.
Abstract In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of th...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - November 18, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Casey RM, Dumolard L, Danovaro-Holliday MC, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Hampton LM, Wallace AS Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Budget impact of polio immunization strategy for India: introduction of one dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and reductions in supplemental polio immunization
To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015 –2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. (Source: Public Health)
Source: Public Health - November 17, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: M.M. Khan, S. Sharma, B. Tripathi, F.P. Alvarez Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of gait symmetry in poliomyelitis subjects: Comparison of a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis and a new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis
Background: Compared to able-bodied subjects, subjects with post-polio syndrome and poliomyelitis demonstrate a preference for weight-bearing on the non-paretic limb, causing gait asymmetry. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait symmetry of the poliomyelitis subjects when ambulating with either a drop-locked knee–ankle–foot orthosis or a newly developed powered knee–ankle–foot orthosis. Study design: Quasi experimental study. Methods: Seven subjects with poliomyelitis who routinely wore conventional knee–ankle–foot orthoses participated in this study and recei...
Source: Prosthetics and Orthotics International - November 16, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Arazpour, M., Ahmadi, F., Bahramizadeh, M., Samadian, M., Mousavi, M. E., Bani, M. A., Hutchins, S. W. Tags: Original Research Reports Source Type: research

“Hep C, where art thou”: What are the remaining (fundable) questions in hepatitis C virus research?
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has dominated the field of hepatology for the past 25 years, and its cure in the majority of treated patients is one of the greatest achievements in all of medicine. However, the latter has led to the belief by some that HCV research should be shelved for other, more pressing areas. The mission for HCV eradication is far from accomplished. As a historical reference, we should consider that disease elimination has required vaccination with all previously controlled infections including smallpox and polio and that simple, effective treatment is not sufficient in most infections to lead to substantial ...
Source: Hepatology - November 15, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Hugo Ram ón Rosen Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Outcomes of total hip replacement in limbs affected by poliomyelitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Total hip replacement can be considered a feasible option for hip osteoarthritis in patients with limbs affected by residual poliomyelitis. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of unconstrained total hip replacement in polio patients. PMID: 27886358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hip International)
Source: Hip International - November 15, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Faldini C, De Fine M, Di Martino A, Fabbri D, Borghi R, Chehrassan M, Traina F Tags: Hip Int Source Type: research