Progress Toward Poliovirus Containment Implementation - Worldwide, 2019-2020.
Abstract Since 1988, when World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and partners launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined from 350,000 in 125 countries to 176 in only two countries in 2019 (1). The Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) declared two of the three WPV types, type 2 (WPV2) and type 3 (WPV3), eradicated globally in 2015 and 2019, respectively (1). Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) remains endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Containment under strict biorisk management measures is vital to prevent re...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - September 18, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moffett DB, Llewellyn A, Singh H, Saxentoff E, Partridge J, Boualam L, Pallansch M, Wassilak S, Asghar H, Roesel S, Grabovac V, Rey-Benito G, Barnor J, Theo A, Swan J, Iakovenko M, Baig N, Gurung S, Pandel E, Zaffran M Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Contemporary circulating enterovirus D68 strains have acquired the capacity for viral entry and replication in human neuronal cells
Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornaviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. EV-D68 infection has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses in humans. However, in the summers of 2014, 2016, and 2018 EV-D68 outbreaks coincided with a spike in polio-like acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases. This raised concerns that EV-D68 could be the causative agent of AFM during these recent outbreaks. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: D. Brown, L. Oldfield, Y. Zhang, R. Scheuermann Tags: 0578 Source Type: research

Supporting polio outbreak response through mathematical modelling
Background: Whilst wild polio outbreaks are becoming a distant memory, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) outbreaks are increasing in incidence. For many countries currently experiencing VDPV outbreaks (Philippines, Ghana, Indonesia, etc.) it has been many years since polio has been observed and the optimal location of vaccination campaigns are uncertain. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: K. O ’reilly Tags: 0567 Source Type: research

Expected Implications of Globally Coordinated Cessation of Serotype 3 Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) Before Serotype 1 OPV
AbstractGlobally coordinated cessation of all three serotypes of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) represents a critical part of a successful polio endgame, which the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) plans to conduct in phases, with serotype 2 OPV cessation completed in mid 2016. Although in 2016 the GPEI expected to globally coordinate cessation of the remaining OPV serotypes (1 and 3) by 2021, continuing transmission of serotype 1 wild polioviruses to date makes those plans obsolete. With increasing time since the last reported polio case caused by serotype 3 wild poliovirus (in November 2012) leading to high confi...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dominika A. Kalkowska, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

The sixth revolution in pediatric vaccinology: immunoengineering and delivery systems.
Abstract Infection is the predominant cause of mortality in early life, and immunization is the most promising biomedical intervention to reduce this burden. However, very young infants fail to respond optimally to most vaccines currently in use, especially neonates. In 2005, Stanley Plotkin proposed that new delivery systems would spur a new revolution in pediatric vaccinology, just as attenuation, inactivation, cell culture of viruses, genetic engineering, and adjuvantation had done in preceding decades. Recent advances in the field of immunoengineering, which is evolving alongside vaccinology, have begun to inc...
Source: Pediatric Research - September 14, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Soni D, Bobbala S, Li S, Scott EA, Dowling DJ Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research

Final frontiers of the polio eradication endgame
Purpose of review Focusing on the key developments since January 2019, this review aims to inform policymakers and clinical practitioners on the latest on evolving global polio epidemiology and scientific advancements to guide strategies for eradication. Recent findings An upsurge in wild poliovirus type 1 cases in Pakistan and Afghanistan and an expansion of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus transmission in multiple countries threaten the remarkable progress made over past several decades by the global eradication program. These challenges have also spurred innovation on multiple fronts, including earlier...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by James A. Platts-Mills Source Type: research

Epidemics and outbreaks of peripheral nervous system disorders: I. infectious and immune-mediated causes
We describe here the three main infectious causes of epidemics that affect the peripheral nervous system: leprosy, poliomyelitis and diphtheria. We then discuss the main epidemics of immune-mediated origin. (Source: Journal of Neurology)
Source: Journal of Neurology - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Certifying the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission in the WHO African region on the turbulent journey to a polio-free world
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2020Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Rose Gana Fomban Leke, Arlene King, Mark A Pallansch, Rudolf H Tangermann, Pascal Mkanda, Supamit Chunsuttiwat, Abdoulie Jack, B Jean Kaboré, Ibrahima Kane, Ngokoana Esther Khomo, Raul Jorge Lopes-Feio, Zakaria Mahamadine Maiga, William Bahati Pungu Matuja, Naddumba Edward Kironde, Beugré Kouassi, Bijan Sadrizadeh, Oyewale Tomori (Source: The Lancet Global Health)
Source: The Lancet Global Health - September 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

[Acute Flaccid Paralysis Secondary to Poliomyelitis: 11 Years of Monitoring in Guinea (2005-2015)].
Authors: Sylla K, Sow MS, Diallo MOS, Sy MM, Sako FB, Traoré FA, Bah I, Cissé MO, Sow DC, Baldé MS, Diallo AM Abstract The sustained worldwide use of the two available types of polio vaccines has significantly reduced the incidence of this disease. Our main objective is to report a 11-year monitoring period for acute flaccid paralysis secondary to poliovirus in Guinea. It was a retrospective descriptive study for all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in which poliovirus was isolated by stool examination. During 11 years, 768 cases of AFP, including 8 cases of acute anterior poliomyelitis w...
Source: Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique - September 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Source Type: research

Poliomyelitis in Brazil: from recognition of the disease to the end of transmission.
PMID: 32876101 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica)
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - September 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Verani JFS Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 970: Case of Poliomyelitis Caused by Significantly Diverged Derivative of the Poliovirus Type 3 Vaccine Sabin Strain Circulating in the Orphanage
Olga E. Ivanova Significantly divergent polioviruses (VDPV) derived from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains, like wild polioviruses, are capable of prolonged transmission and neuropathology. This is mainly shown for VDPV type 2. Here we describe a molecular-epidemiological investigation of a case of VDPV type 3 circulation leading to paralytic poliomyelitis in a child in an orphanage, where OPV has not been used. Samples of feces and blood serum from the patient and 52 contacts from the same orphanage were collected twice and investigated. The complete genome sequencing was performed for five poliov...
Source: Viruses - September 1, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ekaterina A. Korotkova Maria A. Prostova Anatoly P. Gmyl Liubov I. Kozlovskaya Tatiana P. Eremeeva Olga Y. Baikova Alexandr Y. Krasota Nadezhda S. Morozova Olga E. Ivanova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Parent reported outcomes to measure satisfaction, acceptability, and daily life impact after vaccination with whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccine in Chile.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, satisfaction, intention for future vaccination, and lower impact on the family daily routine were significantly better in the group receiving the hexavalent vaccine. We also found that health care providers' recommendations to vaccinate and participants' access to health services were important factors favoring immunization. PMID: 32888742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - September 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: O'Ryan M, Calvo AE, Espinoza M, Vega N, Lagomarcino AJ, López Castillo H, Puentes E, Macina D Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Notes from the Field: CDC Polio Surge Response to Expanding Outbreaks of Type 2 Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus - Africa and Philippines, September 2019-March 2020.
PMID: 32853189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - August 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Meyer E, Sikka N, Durry E, Datta D Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Positive Cytosolic 5-Nucleotidase 1A Antibodies in Motor Neuron Disease
Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common acquired myopathy in adults older than 50 years. Muscle biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Recently described serum antibodies against cytosolic 5-nucleotidase 1A (cN1A) are considered highly specific for IBM. However, positive cN1A antibodies in diseases other than IBM are recently reported. We review 2 cases in which serum antibodies were positive but ancillary testing revealed motor neuron disease. A 68-year-old man presented with asymmetric quadriceps and handgrip weakness prompting concern for IBM. However, electromyography showed purely chronic neurogenic ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease - August 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Short Report Source Type: research

Polio in Afghanistan: The Current Situation amid COVID-19.
Abstract Polio is a deadly viral disease that has been paralyzing many children in Afghanistan. Despite fundamental efforts, primarily vaccination, to reduce the number of cases in Afghanistan, there are still many children who are deprived of the vaccine every year. Afghanistan is one of the two remaining countries endemic for polio, and the country has undergone various challenges that have hampered the eradication of this disease. The underlying challenges include inaccessibility of unsecured areas, illiteracy, refusal, and, most recently, COVID-19. The country is in the midst of a battle against COVID-19, and ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - August 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ahmadi A, Essar MY, Lin X, Adebisi YA, Lucero-Prisno DE Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Characterizing mothers and children at risk of being under-immunized in India: a latent class analysis approach
Vaccines have played a pivotal role in improving child health in India. In recent years, India has achieved several significant immunization-related landmarks, including being certified polio-free in 2014 and the eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus in 2015 (Ministry of Health& Family Welfare, 2014, World Health Organization, 2016). first introduced routine immunization in 1978 as the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) and later expanded in 1985 as the Universal Immunization Program (UIP), India ’s immunization program is the largest in the world in terms of geographic and population coverage. (Source:...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Taylor A. Holroyd, Brian Wahl, Madhu Gupta, Molly Sauer, Madeleine Blunt, Amelia Gerste, Daniel J. Erchick, Mathuram Santosham, Rupali J. Limaye Source Type: research

[Travel vaccinations in rheumatic diseases : Specific considerations in children and adults].
r U Abstract Children and adults with rheumatic diseases (RD) have a higher risk to contract infections due to the underlying disease and the frequently necessary immunosuppressive treatment (IT). The quality of life of the majority of patients with RD has remarkably improved due to IT-related reduction of inflammation. Therefore, RD patients usually have an international travel behavior similar to healthy individuals. An investigation indicated that patients with RD and IT have lower travel vaccination rates and are often less well-prepared for their trip in comparison to healthy travelers, even when visitin...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - August 26, 2020 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Welzel T, Wörner A, Heininger U Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research

Self-reported functional ambulation is related to physical mobility status in polio survivors; a cross-sectional observational study
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2020Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation MedicineAuthor(s): Merel-Anne Brehm, Hilde E. Ploeger, Frans Nollet (Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - August 23, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Disease Surveillance Investments and Administration: Limits to Information Value in Pakistan Polio Eradication
AbstractIn Pakistan, annual poliovirus investment decisions drive quantities of supplemental immunization campaigns districts receive. In this article, we assess whether increased spending on poliovirus surveillance is associated with greater likelihood of correctly identifying districts at high risk of polio with assignment of an elevated “risk ranking.” We reviewed programmatic documents from Pakistan for the period from 2012–2017, recording whether districts had been classified as “high risk” or “low risk” in each year. Through document review, we developed a decision tree to de...
Source: Risk Analysis - August 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ryan P. Scott, Alison C. Cullen, Guillaume Chabot ‐Couture Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite solutions for poliovirus.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that a high level of virus reduction (>10 log10) can be achieved with sodium hypochlorite solutions with poliovirus in suspension and dried on surfaces. PMID: 32807609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization)
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - August 14, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Orel I, Graf H, Riou P Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life and multidimensional fitness profile in polio survivors.
CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with PP had lower scores for the physical component of the HRQoL questionnaire, reduced physical fitness, increased fatigue, less mobility, and a higher fall risk than controls. The outcomes of the study can be useful to the design of future programs tailored specifically to improve the assessment of the physical fitness of subjects with paralytic polio and to facilitate interventions based on appropriate physical exercise regimens. Implications for rehabilitation Post-polio syndrome is a disabling disease that impacts in fitness, physical and psychological health-related quality of life of polio surv...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - August 13, 2020 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Gusi N, Madruga M, González-González MLÁ, Pérez-Gómez J, Prieto-Prieto J Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

What can over 30  years of efforts to eradicate polio teach us about global health?
(Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - August 12, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Olakunle Alonge Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Safety of Pentavalent DTaP-IPV/Hib Combination Vaccine in Post-marketing Surveillance in Guangzhou, China, from 2011 to 2017
Infectious diseases, such as diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and poliomyelitis (polio), are seriously harmful to children's health. Vaccination is the most effective way to control these diseases. In 2010, the State Food and Drug Administration approved the DTaP-IPV/Hib combination vaccine (from now on referred to as the pentavalent vaccine) for cell-free pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type B (combination), and children started to be vaccinated with this pentavalent vaccine on May 11, 2011, in China. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhiqun Li, Xu Jianxiong, Huifeng Tan, Chunhuan Zhang, Jian Chen, LiHong Ni, Xuexia Yun, Yong Huang, Wen Wang Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac injury from the perspective of the virus
The association between infection and cardiovascular disease has long been recognized in the form of Chagas Disease, Diptheria, tuberculous pericarditis, viral myocarditis, and others. Almost any infectious pathogen can cause myocarditis or heart disease [1]. Viral infection has been and is a predominant cause of myocarditis in the developed world. During the influenza pandemic of 1918, a large number of patients had evidence of heart damage on autopsy [2]. Myocarditis was found in over 50% of patients who died of poliomyelitis infection during the years 1942 –1951 [3,4]. (Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology)
Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - August 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Kirk U. Knowlton Source Type: research

Post-COVID-19 precautions based on lessons learned from past pandemics: a review
ConclusionsCOVID-19 has become an everyday topic of discussion throughout the world, indicating the increasing number of COVID-19 cases, deaths and recoveries. The lessons learned from past pandemics such as social distancing, wearing masks, avoiding public gatherings and adherence to guidelines, along with personal hygiene, are the key measures that must be taken in order to live with COVID-19. Precautions for the elderly and pregnant women advised by medical authorities are to be strictly adhered to. These will help in reducing COVID-19 cases and in turn will reduce the pressure on hospitals to serve those in need. India...
Source: Journal of Public Health - August 4, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

EVAR with aortic placement of a single JOTEC E-iliac Stent Graft System in a patient with poliomyelitis aorto-iliac deformities
Small size vessels can represent a contraindication to standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and, more specifically, aortoiliac deformities resulting from poliomyelitis may add an adjunctive challenge for total endovascular repair. Herein we report a case of a 62-year old man with a 55 mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and a history of poliomyelitis. More specifically, a computed-tomography angiogram (CTA) showed a very narrow infrarenal aortic neck, measuring 13 mm in maximum diameter, and severely atrophic external iliac and common femoral arteries. (Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery)
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - August 4, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Matteo Orrico, Mario Marino, Alessio Vona, Antonio Lorido, Maria Lucia Mangialardi, Fabrizio Nesi, Nicola Mangialard Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

EVAR with Aortic Placement of a Single JOTEC E-iliac Stent-graft System in a Patient with Poliomyelitis Aortoiliac Deformities
Small-sized vessels can represent a contraindication to standard endovascular aortic repair (EVAR), and more specifically, aortoiliac deformities resulting from poliomyelitis may add an adjunctive challenge for total endovascular repair. Herein we report a case of a 62-year-old man with a 55  mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and a history of poliomyelitis. More specifically, a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) showed a very narrow infrarenal aortic neck, measuring 13 mm in maximum diameter, and severely atrophic external iliac and common femoral arteries. (Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery)
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - August 4, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Matteo Orrico, Mario Marino, Alessio Vona, Antonio Lorido, Maria Lucia Mangialardi, Fabrizio Nesi, Nicola Mangialardi Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Sero-survey of polio antibodies and quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Chongqing, China: A cross-sectional study
Serums were collected from people to assess whether polio immunity level was high enough to satisfy the polio vaccine immunization switch in Chongqing. People in 7 age groups ( (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - July 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

The evolution of nerve transfers for spinal cord injury.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in devastating effects on function and quality of life. The majority of SCIs occur in the cervical region with restoration of arm and hand function being the highest priority by patients. Current restoration strategies rely on maximizing and optimally redistributing residual muscle functions that remain under volitional control. The polio epidemic and World Wars led to the development and refinement of tendon transfers, which has long been the standard reconstructive approach for the upper extremity following SCI. However, the past few decades has seen the emergence ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bazarek S, Brown JM Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies before and after polio vaccine switch in 2012 and 2017 in Beijing
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - July 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Juan Li Zhujiazi Zhang Herun Zhang Maozhong Li Xiaomei Li Li Lu Fang Huang Jiang Wu Source Type: research

Update on Immunodeficiency-Associated Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, July 2018-December 2019.
This report updates previous reports and includes details of iVDPV cases detected during July 2018-December 2019 (3). During this time, 16 new iVDPV cases were reported from five countries (Argentina, Egypt, Iran, Philippines, and Tunisia). Alongside acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance (4), surveillance for poliovirus infections among patients with PID has identified an increased number of persons excreting iVDPVs (5). Expansion of PID surveillance will facilitate early detection and follow-up of iVDPV excretion among patients with PID to mitigate the risk for iVDPV spread. This will be critical to help identify all...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - July 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Macklin G, Diop OM, Humayun A, Shahmahmoodi S, El-Sayed ZA, Triki H, Rey G, Avagyan T, Grabovac V, Jorba J, Farag N, Mach O Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus: a menace to the end game of polio eradication
The World Health Organisation Western Pacific Region countries were declared free of polio in 2000 until a polio outbreak involving 305 cases occurred in Indonesia in 2006. It was not until 2014 that the World... (Source: Globalization and Health)
Source: Globalization and Health - July 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Long Chiau Ming, Zahid Hussain, Siang Fei Yeoh, David Koh and Kah Seng Lee Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Myelitis: Current Status and Diagnostic Challenges.
This article provides a concise overview of our current understanding of AFM and the clinical features that distinguish AFM from AFP and similar other neurological infectious and autoimmune diseases or disorders. We also discuss the diagnosis, clinical pathology, possible pathogenetic mechanisms, and currently available therapies. PMID: 32657057 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research

Surveillance of vaccination coverage in 5-6- and 13-14-years-old schoolchildren in Geneva.
The objectives of this study were to assess the immunization coverage of children aged 5-6 years and 13-14 years during the 2017-2018 school year, and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with full immunization in these children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional school-based study was carried out. The population under study was a sample of schoolchildren aged 5-6 years and 13-14 years attending the second and 10th grades of primary and middle schools, respectively, located in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. The data extracted from the vaccination cards included dates of administration...
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - July 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Merle T, Jeannot E Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research

The role of the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program in developing countries: the experience of Kenya
In 1988, the 41st World Health Assembly (WHA) marked the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for the eradication of polio. A key component of the GPEI has been the development and deployment ... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - July 14, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Brook Tesfaye, Jeevan K. Makam, Kibet Sergon, Iheoma Onuekwusi, Charles Muitherero and Alieu Sowe Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Iron Deficiency Anemia at Time of Vaccination Predicts Decreased Vaccine Response and Iron Supplementation at Time of Vaccination Increases Humoral Vaccine Response: A Birth Cohort Study and a Randomized Trial Follow-Up Study in Kenyan Infants
Background: Iron deficiency may impair adaptive immunity and is common among African infants at time of vaccination. Whether iron deficiency impairs vaccine response and whether iron supplementation improves humoral vaccine response is uncertain.Methods: We performed two studies in southern coastal Kenya. In a birth cohort study, we followed infants to age 18 mo and assessed whether anemia or iron deficiency at time of vaccination predicted vaccine response to three-valent oral polio, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, ten-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine and measles vaccine...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Potential Future Use, Costs, and Value of Poliovirus Vaccines
AbstractCountries face different poliovirus risks, which imply different benefits associated with continued and future use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). With the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continuing to extend its timeline for ending the transmission of all wild polioviruses and to introduce new poliovirus vaccines, the polio vaccine supply chain continues to expand in complexity. The increased complexity leads to significant uncertainty about supply and costs. Notably, the strategy of phased OPV cessation of all three serotypes to stop all future incidence of...
Source: Risk Analysis - July 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kimberly M. Thompson, Dominika A. Kalkowska Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Updated Characterization of Post ‐OPV Cessation Risks: Lessons from 2019 Serotype 2 Outbreaks and Implications for the Probability of OPV Restart
AbstractAfter the globally coordinated cessation of any serotype of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), some risks remain from undetected, existing homotypic OPV ‐related transmission and/or restarting transmission due to several possible reintroduction risks. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) coordinated global cessation of serotype 2‐containing OPV (OPV2) in 2016. Following OPV2 cessation, the GPEI and countries implemented activities to w ithdraw all the remaining trivalent OPV, which contains all three poliovirus serotypes (i.e., 1, 2, and 3), from the supply chain and replace it with bivalent OPV (containi...
Source: Risk Analysis - July 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dominika A. Kalkowska, Mark A. Pallansch, Stephen L. Cochi, Stephanie D. Kovacs, Steven G. F. Wassilak, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

The risks of medical complacency towards poliomyelitis.
Authors: May M, Durrheim D, Roberts JA, Owen R PMID: 32602115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical Journal of Australia)
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - July 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Does Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Have a Role in UK Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma? No Role is Identified in a Sensitive RNA In Situ Hybridization Study on Potentially Affected Birth Cohorts
Conclusion: The complete absence of SV40 Tag mRNA in this large series of cases contradicts experimental evidence suggestive of SV40 link with asbestos-exposed malignant pleural mesotheliomas in the UK population. Alternative explanations of the negative findings are discussed to exclude possible confounding factors. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2020 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Thoracolumbar curve and Cobb angle in determining spread of spinal anesthesia in Scoliosis. An observational prospective pilot study
Conclusions: The study showed that there was a strong correlation between right-sided thoracolumbar curve and the spread of spinal anesthesia (Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia - July 1, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Girija K Ballarapu Srinivasa R Nallam Aloka Samantaray V A Kiran Kumar Aditya P Reddy Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 706: Recombination Analysis of Non-Poliovirus Members of the Enterovirus C Species; Restriction of Recombination Events to Members of the Same 3DPol Cluster
a C. Wolthers Enteroviruses (EVs) are highly prevalent viruses worldwide. Recombination is known to occur frequently in EVs belonging to species Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, and Enterovirus C. Although many recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) strains have been reported, our knowledge on recombination in non-polio EVs in the species Enterovirus C is limited. Here, we combined a dataset consisting of 11 newly generated full-length Enterovirus C sequences and 180 publicly available sequences to study recombination dynamics in non-polio EVs. To identify recombination patterns, maximum likelihood phylogenetic tre...
Source: Viruses - June 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lieke Brouwer Kimberley S.M. Benschop Dung Nguyen Everlyn Kamau Dasja Pajkrt Peter Simmonds Katja C. Wolthers Tags: Article Source Type: research

Vaccination rates for Syrian population under temporary protection in Turkey.
CONCLUSION: It is important to increase the immunization rates of Syrian children under temporary protection and establish regular vaccination procedures. PMID: 32592558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Central European Journal of Public Health)
Source: Central European Journal of Public Health - June 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Cent Eur J Public Health Source Type: research

Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, January 2018-March 2020.
This report summarizes progress toward global polio eradication during January 1, 2018-March 31, 2020 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2019, Afghanistan and Pakistan reported the highest number of WPV1 cases (176) since 2014. During January 1-March 31, 2020 (as of June 19), 54 WPV1 cases were reported, an approximate fourfold increase from 12 cases during the corresponding period in 2019. Paralytic poliomyelitis can also be caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), which emerges when attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) virus reverts to neurovirulence following prolonged circulation in underimmuni...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 26, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Chard AN, Datta SD, Tallis G, Burns CC, Wassilak SGF, Vertefeuille JF, Zaffran M Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

The risk of bone fractures in post-poliomyelitis patients transitioning to middle adulthood
Endocrine Practice, Ahead of Print. (Source: Endocrine Practice)
Source: Endocrine Practice - June 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rutie Mamlok Sherf Dror Cantrell Karen Or Efrat Marcus Alex Shapira Carlos Benbassat Sophia Ish-Shalom Ronit Koren Source Type: research