A simple and safe antibody neutralization assay based on polio pseudoviruses
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - October 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zheng Jiang Guixiu Liu Liao Guo-yang Mingbo Sun Kangwei Xu Zhifang Ying Jianfeng Wang Xuguang Li Changgui Li Source Type: research

Community-acquired acute meningitis and encephalitis: a narrative review.
Authors: Beaman MH Abstract Meningitis and encephalitis are medical emergencies. Patients need prompt evaluation and immediate empiric therapy to reduce the likelihood of fatal outcomes and chronic neurological sequelae. Conjugate bacterial vaccines have significantly reduced the incidence of bacterial meningitis, especially in children. As the results of changes in patterns of bacterial drug sensitivity, ceftriaxone is now part of the recommended empiric treatment for bacterial meningitis and should be administered as early as possible. Neuroimaging delays the treatment of meningitis and is not needed in most case...
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - October 13, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Poliovirus excretion following vaccination with live poliovirus vaccine in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders: clinicians ’ perspectives in the endgame plan for polio eradication
Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are prone to developing viral infections and should not be vaccinated with live vaccines. In such patients, prolonged excretion and viral divergence may occur and they m... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - October 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Nermeen M. Galal, Safaa Meshaal, Rabab ElHawary, Eman Nasr, Laila Bassiouni, Humayun Ashghar, Noha H. Farag, Ondrej Mach, Cara Burns, Jane Iber, Qi Chen and Aisha ElMarsafy Tags: Research note Source Type: research

Modeling Undetected Live Poliovirus Circulation After Apparent Interruption of Transmission: Pakistan and Afghanistan
AbstractSince most poliovirus infections occur with no paralytic symptoms, the possibility of silent circulation complicates the confirmation of the end of poliovirus transmission. Based on empirical field experience and theoretical modeling results, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified three years without observing paralytic cases from wild polioviruses with good acute flaccid paralysis surveillance as an indication of sufficient confidence that poliovirus circulation stopped. The complexities of real populations and the imperfect nature of real surveillance systems subsequently demonstrated the importance o...
Source: Risk Analysis - October 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dominika A. Kalkowska, Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A. Pallansch, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Inhospital Complications of Patients With Neuromuscular Disorders Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.
Authors: Cichos KH, Lehtonen EJ, McGwin G, Ponce BA, Ghanem ES Abstract INTRODUCTION: Orthopaedic surgeons are wary of patients with neuromuscular (NM) diseases as a result of perceived poor outcomes and lack of data regarding complication risks. We determined the prevalence of patients with NM disease undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and characterized its relationship with in-hospital complications, prolonged length of stay, and total charges. METHODS: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2014 was used for this retrospective cohort study to identify 8,028,435 discharges with total jo...
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - October 6, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research

Orthopaedic surgery for patients with central nervous system lesions: concepts and techniques
Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation MedicineAuthor(s): F Genêt, P Denormandie, MA KeenanAbstractSince ancient times, the aim of orthopedic surgery has been to correct limb and joint deformities, including those resulting from central nervous system lesions. Recent developments in the treatment of spasticity have led to changes in concepts and management strategies. The increase in life expectancy has increased the functional needs of patients. Orthopedic surgery, along with treatments for spasticity, improves the functional capacity of patients with neuro-ort...
Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - October 5, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Vaccine coverage of children in care of the child welfare system.
CONCLUSION: Children in care have consistently lower vaccine coverage than children not in care. Policies and practices should promote optimal access to vaccination for these children. PMID: 30284125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Canadian Journal of Public Health)
Source: Canadian Journal of Public Health - October 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Hermann JS, Simmonds KA, Bell CA, Rafferty E, MacDonald SE Tags: Can J Public Health Source Type: research

A simple and safe antibody neutralization assay based on polio pseudoviruses
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zheng Jiang Guixiu Liu Liao Guo-yang Mingbo Sun Kangwei Xu Zhifang Ying Jianfeng Wang Xuguang Li Changgui Li Source Type: research

Divergent approaches in the vaccination of recently arrived migrants to Europe: a survey of national experts from 32 countries, 2017.
Conclusion: Existing guidance is often not migrant-specific and may not be applied in practice; clarification is needed on which vaccines should be given. Strategies are needed specifically for catch-up vaccination in adult migrants. Vaccinations should be offered in multiple settings, free of charge, with sufficient guidance and training provided to front-line healthcare professionals. PMID: 30326996 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - October 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hargreaves S, Nellums LB, Ravensbergen SJ, Friedland JS, Stienstra Y, On Behalf Of The Esgitm Working Group On Vaccination In Migrants Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Investigation of an increase in large local reactions following vaccine schedule change to include DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib (Infanrix-hexa ®) and MMRV (ProQuad®) at 18 months of age.
CONCLUSION: This investigation suggested that most large local reactions were causally associated with the Infanrix-hexa® vaccine and that the risk was not greater when ProQuad® and Infanrix-hexa® were administered in the same limb. Given the improved vaccine coverage for hepatitis B, benefit-risk analysis likely still favours ongoing use of Infanrix-hexa® with informed parental consent. PMID: 30269915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - September 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kiely M, Billard MN, Toth E, Zafack JG, Landry M, Skowronski DM, De Serres G Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Inequalities in childhood vaccination timing and completion in London.
Abstract The UK primary vaccination course includes vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP/IPV/Hib) and is scheduled at ages four, 8 and 12 weeks, followed by a 'preschool booster' at age three years four months. Vaccine coverage is generally measured at age one, two and five years. In addition to high coverage, vaccination should be timely to maximise population protection. Vaccination histories for 315,381 children born March 2001 to April 2010 were extracted from Child Health Information Systems in nine London health service areas and grouped into fir...
Source: Vaccine - September 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tiley KS, White JM, Andrews N, Ramsay M, Edelstein M Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Comparison of Common Monogenic Defects in a Large Predominantly Antibody Deficiency Cohort
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Reza Yazdani, Hassan Abolhassani, Fatemeh Kiaee, Sima Habibi, Gholamreza Azizi, Marzieh Tavakol, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Tooba Momen, Mohammad Gharagozlou, Masoud Movahedi, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Nasrin Behniafard, Mohammamd Nabavi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Saba Arshi, Rasol Molatefi, Roya Sherkat, Afshin Shirkani, Reza AminAbstractBackgroundPredominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most common primary immunodeficiencies, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and ina...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - September 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Proactive and Reactive Strategies for Polio Eradication Activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Radboud J.Duintjer Tebbens , Kimberly M.Thompson Source Type: research

Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine made from Sabin strains: A phase II, randomized, dose-finding trial.
CONCLUSION: The test sIPV generally demonstrated good safety and immunogenicity. The medium-D antigen dose would be a preferred choice for the further phase III clinical trial in consideration of its high immunogenicity for all serotypes and the satisfying tolerance. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02985320. PMID: 30249424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - September 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chu K, Ying Z, Wang L, Hu Y, Xia J, Chen L, Wang J, Li C, Zhang Q, Gao Q, Hu Y Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Evaluation of Proactive and Reactive Strategies for Polio Eradication Activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan
AbstractOnly Pakistan and Afghanistan reported any polio cases caused by serotype 1 wild polioviruses (WPV1s) in 2017. With the dwindling cases in both countries and pressure to finish eradication with the least possible resources, a danger exists of inappropriate prioritization of efforts between the two countries and insufficient investment in the two countries to finish the job. We used an existing differential ‐equation‐based poliovirus transmission and oral poliovirus (OPV) evolution model to simulate a proactive strategy to stop transmission, and different hypothetical reactive strategies that adapt the quality o...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Environmental Surveillance System Characteristics and Impacts on Confidence About No Undetected Serotype 1 Wild Poliovirus Circulation
AbstractSurveillance for poliovirus during the polio endgame remains uncertain. Building on prior modeling of the potential for undetected poliovirus transmission for conditions like those in Pakistan and Afghanistan, we use a hypothetical model to explore several key characteristics of the poliovirus environmental surveillance (ES) system (e.g., number and quality of sites, catchment sizes, and sampling frequency) and characterize their impacts on the time required to reach high (i.e., 95%) confidence about no circulation (CNC95%) following the last detected case of serotype 1 wild poliovirus. The nature and quality of th...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dominika A. Kalkowska, Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2065: Interventions to Improve Vaccination Uptake and Cost Effectiveness of Vaccination Strategies in Newly Arrived Migrants in the EU/EEA: A Systematic Review
nsen Kevin Pottie Newly arrived migrants to the EU/EEA (arrival within the past five years), as well as other migrant groups in the region, might be under-immunised and lack documentation of previous vaccinations, putting them at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases circulating in Europe. We therefore performed a systematic review conforming to PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42016045798) to explore: (i) interventions that improve vaccine uptake among migrants; and (ii) cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies among this population. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - September 20, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Charles Hui Jessica Dunn Rachael Morton Lukas P. Staub Anh Tran Sally Hargreaves Christina Greenaway Beverly Ann Biggs Robin Christensen Kevin Pottie Tags: Article Source Type: research

A Perspective in Critical Care Medicine: To Be a Mature Specialty We Must Move Our Focus Beyond Mortality
Over the last 60years, we have built a dynamic service that has saved the lives of millions of patients around the world. During this time our community has defeated polio epidemics, invented positive pressure ventilators and renal replacement therapy, learned to measure and image the function of the heart, and made the unsurvivable routine. Over the last 20years, we have become experts in conducting high-quality randomized controlled trials and basic scientific research, and we have demonstrated mortality benefits from improving the quality of our care and from working as multidisciplinary teams. (Source: Journal of Cardi...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - September 19, 2018 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alex Rosenberg, Vasileios Zochios Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Don't forget about neuromuscular disorders!
Respiratory medicine ostensibly targets diseases of the airways and the lungs, while respiratory problems arising from other entities are suggested to only play a minor role in this branch of medicine. However, diseases of the respiratory pump, particularly those associated with neuromuscular disorders (NMD), bear significant relevance to respiratory physicians, both in clinical practice and in terms of the scientific evolution of respiratory medicine and mechanical ventilation [1, 2]. During the 1952 Copenhagen polio epidemic, polio victims with severe respiratory acidosis secondary to respiratory paralysis were the first...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Windisch, W. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

After polio: Imagining, planning, and delivering a world beyond eradication.
Abstract As the world comes closer to the eradication of polio, the question of preparing for life after this debilitating disease becomes increasingly pertinent. This paper focuses on on-going institutional attempts to conceptualise, plan, and deliver a world after polio. Drawing upon interviews with global health officials and ethnographic fieldwork with eradication initiatives in Nigeria and Pakistan, I explore how international donors are transitioning towards life after the disease and the curtailment of the substantial resources it has successfully mobilised. Focusing specifically on the wind-down of the Glo...
Source: Health and Place - September 18, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Taylor S Tags: Health Place Source Type: research

Molecular diversity of Coxsackievirus A10 circulating in the southern and northern region of India [2009-17].
We report the identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of sixty-five Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) isolates, performed during the year 2009-17, causing acute flaccid paralysis in pediatric cases with their divergences and recombinations from four states of India. PMID: 30217658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - September 11, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Munivenkatappa A, Yadav PD, Nyayanit DA, Majumdar TD, Sangal L, Jain S, Sinha DP, Shrivastava A, Mourya DT Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Bone Mineral Density among Individuals with Residual Lower Limb Weakness after Polio
ConclusionsIn this small sample, using strong limb T-scores resulted in fewer individuals categorized as having low bone density or osteoporosis than when weak limb T-scores were used. Underestimating BMD loss may lead to under-treatment and increased risk of morbidity, mortality and costs associated with femoral neck fractures in this high fall-risk group. (Source: PMandR)
Source: PMandR - September 7, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in the Russian Federation in 1998-2014
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Olga E. Ivanova, Tatyana P. Eremeeva, Nadezhda S. Morozova, Armen K. Shakaryan, Ekaterina A. Korotkova, Liubov I. Kozlovskaya, Olga Y. Baykova, Alexandr Y. Krasota, Anatoly P. Gmyl Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliovirus Containment Implementation - Worldwide, 2017-2018.
This report summarizes containment progress since the previous report (3) and outlines remaining challenges. As of August 2018, 29 countries had designated 81 facilities to retain PV2 materials; 22 of these countries had established NACs. Although there has been substantial progress, intensification of containment measures is needed. PMID: 30188884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - September 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fournier-Caruana J, Previsani N, Singh H, Boualam L, Swan J, Llewellyn A, Sutter RW, Zaffran M, MEng Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in the Russian Federation in 1998 –2014
In 1996, the Russian Federation (Russia) adopted the National Polio Eradication Programme based on the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy, which included high coverage of the child population with polio vaccination through routine immunization and additional vaccination measures, as well as surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) (Hull et al., 1997). Vaccination against poliomyelitis in Russia is carried out within the framework of the national immunization schedule (NIS). From 1959 to 2008, a trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) was used for vaccination. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Olga E. Ivanova, Tatyana P. Eremeeva, Nadezhda S. Morozova, Armen K. Shakaryan, Ekaterina A. Korotkova, Liubov I. Kozlovskaya, Olga Y. Baykova, Alexandr Y. Krasota, Anatoly P. Gmyl Source Type: research

Bone Mineral Density among Individuals with Residual Lower Limb Weakness after Polio
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - September 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Beth Grill, Pamela Levangie, Maria Cole, Darren Rosenberg, Leah Jensen Source Type: research

Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects.
This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence interva...
Source: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice - September 5, 2018 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Galvão TS, Magalhães Júnior ES, Orsini Neves MA, de Sá Ferreira A Tags: Physiother Theory Pract Source Type: research

In Memory of Dr. Mahmoud Bahmanyar, an International Researcher of the Pasteur Institute of Iran.
Abstract In Iran and also throughout the world, Dr. Mahmoud Bahmanyar (1919-2007) is acknowledged as a well-known researcher mainly in the field of rabies and plague. As an expert of plague for the World Health Organization (WHO), he accomplished many missions in several countries such as India, Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Vietnam, Yemen, and Brazil. His research on rabies has played an important role leading to the successful combined use of immune-serum and anti-rabies vaccine for prevention of human rabies worldwide. He also conducted many studies in the field of typhus, relapsing fever, and polio. The presen...
Source: Archives of Iranian Medicine - September 1, 2018 Category: Middle East Health Authors: Mahdavi S, Enayatrad M, Mp de Almeida A, Mostafavi E Tags: Arch Iran Med Source Type: research

Amyloid in the Brain, Alzheimer's on the Mind.
Abstract Twenty percent of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease by experts like me in fact don't have elevated amyloid and so, in fact, don't have Alzheimer's. What they do have is the subject of intense research, and there are many possibilities. A recent study of one thousand brain autopsies from older adults with a range of cognitive impairment showed at least 230 combinations of neuropathology. The point is that while the disease will be treatable, we're unlikely to defeat it as we did polio and smallpox. We're going to have to learn how to live with Alzheimer's as an at least somewhat treatable disease...
Source: The Hastings Center Report - September 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Karlawish J Tags: Hastings Cent Rep Source Type: research

Ending Use of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine — A Difficult Move in the Polio Endgame
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 379, Issue 9, Page 801-803, August 2018. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - August 29, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mark A. Pallansch Source Type: research

MHC-II deficiency among Egyptians: novel mutations and unique phenotypes
ConclusionGiven that Egypt is a North African country with a high rate of consanguinity, MHC-II deficiency is not rare. However, the molecular defects differ from those reported in nearby countries. Early diagnosis must be based upon suspicious clinical signs and laboratory diagnosis since the defect can be missed by T cell receptor excision circles based neonatal screening. (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - August 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

What is causing high polio vaccine dropout among Pakistani children?
This study aims at empirically analyzing the associated factors with the no oral polio vaccination (OPV) and OPV dropout groups of children in Pakistan. (Source: Public Health)
Source: Public Health - August 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: W. Imran, F. Abbas, S.A. Javed Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Risk factors for diagnosed noma in northwest Nigeria: A case-control study, 2017
This study suggests that social conditions and infant feeding practices are potentially associated with being a diagnosed noma case in northwest Nigeria; these findings warrant further investigation into these factors. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - August 23, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elise Farley Source Type: research

Post ‐polio syndrome and the late effects of poliomyelitis: Part 2. treatment, management, and prognosis
Muscle&Nerve, EarlyView. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - August 23, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Julian K.LoMD , Lawrence R.RobinsonMD Source Type: research

Risk factors for diagnosed noma in northwest Nigeria: A case-control study, 2017
This study suggests that social conditions and infant feeding practices are potentially associated with being a diagnosed noma case in northwest Nigeria; these findings warrant further investigation into these factors. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - August 23, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Elise Farley Source Type: research

Postpolio syndrome and the late effects of poliomyelitis. Part 1. pathogenesis, biomechanical considerations, diagnosis, and investigations
Muscle&Nerve, EarlyView. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - August 22, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Julian K.LoMD , Lawrence R.RobinsonMD Source Type: research

Role of phenol red in the stabilization of the Sabin type 2 inactivated polio vaccine at various pH values
Journal of Medical Virology,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-. (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - August 22, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Yang Huijuan , Dai Xiaohu , Liu Ze , Cai Wei , Zhou Jian , Ma Lei , Song Shaohui , Li weidong , Liao Guoyang Source Type: research

Myelopathy in West Nile virus encephalitis: Report of a case and review of literature.
CONCLUSION/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Acute transverse myelitis may occur in WNV encephalitis and EMG may be helpful in confirming anterior horn cell involvement and predicting outcome. PMID: 30124385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine)
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - August 21, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research

Estimation of the Direct Cost of Poliomyelitis Rehabilitation Treatment to Pakistani Patients: A 53-Year Retrospective Study
ConclusionThe cost of poliomyelitis rehabilitation in Pakistan is high; it has an economic effect on the lives of patients and their families. Despite good education, polio survivors in Pakistan appear to have low socioeconomic status, lower chances of employment and marriage, as well as fewer children. Further research is recommended to explore the burden of disease on society, i.e., indirect costs and suffering. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 21, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Enteroviruses and Adenoviruses in stool specimens of paralytic children- can they be the cause of paralysis?
Conclusion: Our finding shows that NPEVs and Adenoviruses may be isolated from the acute flaccid paralyses but there is no association between the residual paralyses and virus detection. PMID: 30112158 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - August 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research

Childhood Limb Poliomyelitis as a Suspected Etiology for a Contra-Lateral Femoral Arteriomegaly and Aneurysm Formation.
Authors: Mannheim D, Karmeli R PMID: 30109799 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Israel Medical Association Journal)
Source: The Israel Medical Association Journal - August 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Isr Med Assoc J Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1755: Correlation between Non-Polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis Rates with Pulse Polio Frequency in India
Puliyel The last case of polio from India was reported in 2011. That year, the non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) rate in India was 13.35/100,000, where the expected rate is 1–2/100,000. A previous study of data from 2000 to 2010 has detailed the NPAFP rate in a state correlated with the pulse polio rounds conducted there, and the strongest correlation with the NPAFP rate was found when the number of doses from the previous 4 years were used. However, a simple association being found with regression analysis does not prove a causal relationship. After publication of those findings, as the threat of...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - August 15, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Rachana Dhiman Sandeep C. Prakash V. Sreenivas Jacob Puliyel Tags: Article Source Type: research

Joint evaluation of marketing authorization files of inactivated polio vaccines in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.
Conclusions: The report focuses on the benefits of the exercise and highlights its shortcomings as a sole strategy to secure the timely registration of the vaccine in target countries. We discuss additional aspects to be addressed to effectively accelerate registration, and hence access to priority vaccines. PMID: 30079954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal)
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - August 11, 2018 Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research

Accelerated functional losses in ageing congenital Minamata disease patients
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Neurotoxicology and TeratologyAuthor(s): Takashi Yorifuji, Shigeru Takaoka, Philippe GrandjeanAbstractSevere methylmercury poisoning occurred in Minamata and neighboring communities in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s. A considerable number of children were born with conditions resembling cerebral palsy, later known as congenital Minamata disease. Although surviving patients are now in their 50s or 60s, few assessments of functional capacities in daily living have been performed. We assessed the changes in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) status of 11 patients over a...
Source: Neurotoxicology and Teratology - August 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Non-interference of Bovine-Human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine ROTASIIL ® with the immunogenicity of infant vaccines in comparison with a licensed rotavirus vaccine.
CONCLUSION: BRV-PV does not interfere with the immunogenicity of concomitantly administered routine infants vaccines. PMID: 30104114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - August 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Desai S, Rathi N, Kawade A, Venkatramanan P, Kundu R, Lalwani SK, Dubey AP, Venkateswara Rao J, Narayanappa D, Ghildiyal R, Gogtay NJ, Venugopal P, Palkar S, Munshi R, Bavdekar A, Juvekar S, Ganguly N, Niyogi P, Uttam KG, Kondekar A, Kumbhar D, Mohanlal S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Polio priority countries and the 2018 Hajj: Leveraging an opportunity
During the past three decades, since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate polio, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) efforts have decreased global polio incidence by 99.9%. GPEI efforts have benefitted over 16 million people who would otherwise have been paralysed, and approximately 1.5 million people whose lives would otherwise have been lost [1]. Now the task remains to tackle poliovirus transmission in its last few strongholds through parallel pursuits of wild poliovirus (WPV) eradication and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) transmission elimination [2,3]. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Habida Elachola, Rohit A. Chitale, Shahul H. Ebrahim, Steve G.F. Wassilak, Ziad A. Memish Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Afghanistan, January 2017-May 2018.
This report describes polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges to eradication in Afghanistan during January 2017-May 2018 and updates previous reports (2, 3). Fourteen WPV1 cases were confirmed in Afghanistan in 2017, compared with 13 in 2016; during January-May 2018, eight WPV1 cases were reported, twice the number reported during January-May 2017. To supplement surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and laboratory testing of stool samples, environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples) was initiated in 2013 and includes 20 sites, 15 of which have detected WPV1 circulation. The number of poli...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - August 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Martinez M, Shukla H, Ahmadi M, Inulin J, Widodo MS, Ahmed J, Mbaeyi C, Jabra J, Gerhardt D Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Motor Neuron Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management
Motor neuron diseases are the result of dysfunction of upper motor neurons in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe and/or lower motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. In general, they cause weakness without notable sensory symptoms or pain. The most common motor neuron disease is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which is the primary focus of this review. Other motor neuron diseases include hereditary spastic paraparesis, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and infectious motor neuron diseases including polio and West Nile virus. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Laura A. Foster, Mohammad Kian Salajegheh Tags: Review Source Type: research

A post-conflict vaccination campaign, Central African Republic.
Conclusion: A preventive, multi-antigen, vaccination campaign was effective in rapidly increasing immunization coverage in a post-conflict setting. To sustain high coverage, routine immunization must be reinforced. PMID: 30104794 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization)
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - August 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Peyraud N, Quéré M, Duc G, Chèvre C, Wanteu T, Reache S, Dumont T, Nesbitt R, Dahl E, Gignoux E, Albela M, Righetti A, Bottineau MC, Cabrol JC, Sarafini M, Nzalapan S, Lechevalier P, Rambaud C, Rull M Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

Detection of Campylobacter species in stool specimens from patients with symptoms of acute flaccid paralysis in South Africa
Conclusions: True association of the disease withCampylobacter spp. will enable the proportion ofCampylobacter-induced GBS to be better described in South Africa; this can only be done through systematic studies that include bacterial culture and serology together with molecular methodologies. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research