Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees.
Authors: Mammas IN, Greenough A, Theodoridou M, Kramvis A, Christaki I, Koutsaftiki C, Koutsaki M, Portaliou DM, Kostagianni G, Panagopoulou P, Sourvinos G, Spandidos DA Abstract Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was incl...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - February 20, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.
Abstract As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - February 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Blake IM, Chenoweth P, Okayasu H, Donnelly CA, Aylward RB, Grassly NC Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB) in viral infections.
Abstract During reaction to stress caused by viral infection, RNA granules are formed in order to protect mRNA. Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB) provide cell homeostasis and mRNA stability. They are formed, for example, during polio virus and MRV (mammalian orthoreovirus) infections. Some viruses, such as influenza virus and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus 1), block the formation of granules. In addition, there are viruses like West Nile Virus, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) or human Herpes viruses, which influence the functioning of the granules. PMID: 26894234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] ...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - February 19, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Malinowska M, Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej P, Tokarz-Deptuła B, Deptuła W Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research

The antiviral potency of Fagus sylvatica 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates.
Abstract Herpes simplex virus belongs to Herpesviridae family and causes infection of humans from ancient times. 4OMe-glucuronoxylans as the renewable biopolymers can be promising glycomaterials for various applications in pharmacy. Control enzymatic degradation of the native 4OMe-glucuronoxylan (GX1) followed by targeted sulfation procedure afforded a range of 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates differed in the degree of sulfation (10-16%) and molecular mass (21,000-5,000g/mol; GXS1>GXS2>GXS3>GXS4). Antiviral activity tests on GXS1-4 against herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 revealed the positive effect ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - February 19, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pujol CA, Damonte EB, Turjan J, Yanbo KZ, Capek P Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Struggling to be part of Swedish society: Strategies used by immigrants with late effects of polio.
CONCLUSIONS: The strategies revealed that the participants strive to participate in occupations and society. This study reinforces the importance of occupation for immigrants with disability. The results highlight the need for adequate health care and rehabilitation but should also alert other social institutions. PMID: 26107773 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy - February 18, 2016 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Scand J Occup Ther Source Type: research

Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.
Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective. Int Rev Immunol. 2015 Nov 25;:1-32 Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been deve...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Muscle weakness and perceived disability of upper limbs in persons with late effects of polio
Conclusions Persons with prior polio and muscle weakness in their upper limbs perceive difficulties to use their arms in daily life, especially when performing activities above their head and strenuous household or leisure activities. The fair to moderate correlations of muscle strength with self-perceived disability imply that the weakness can only partially explain the perceived disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand. Other factors are therefore important to consider in the rehabilitation of persons with late effects of polio and upper limb disability. (Source: PMandR)
Source: PMandR - February 17, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

The predictive link between matrix and metastasis
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, Volume 11 Author(s): LE Barney, LE Jansen, SR Polio, S Galarza, ME Lynch, SR Peyton Cancer spread (metastasis) is responsible for 90% of cancer-related fatalities. Informing patient treatment to prevent metastasis, or kill all cancer cells in a patient's body before it becomes metastatic is extremely powerful. However, aggressive treatment for all non-metastatic patients is detrimental, both for quality of life concerns, and the risk of kidney or liver-related toxicity. Knowing when and where a patient has metastatic risk could revoluti...
Source: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering - February 17, 2016 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Muscle weakness and perceived disability of upper limbs in persons with late effects of polio
Muscle weakness in one or both upper limbs is common in persons with prior polio, but there is very limited knowledge how it influences daily life. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - February 16, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Christina Brogårdh, Ulla-Britt Flansbjer, Jan Lexell Source Type: research

Muscle Weakness and Perceived Disability of Upper Limbs in Persons With Late Effects of Polio
Muscle weakness in one or both upper limbs is common in persons with previous polio, but there is very limited knowledge how it influences daily life. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - February 16, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Christina Brog årdh, Ulla-Britt Flansbjer, Jan Lexell Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Notes from the Field: Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks - Five Countries, 2014-2015.
Abstract In 2015, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission was identified in only Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). The widespread use of live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been key in polio eradication efforts. However, OPV use, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage, is associated with the low risk for emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV), which can cause paralysis (2). VDPVs vary genetically from vaccine viruses and can cause outbreaks in areas with low vaccination coverage. Circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) are VDPVs in confirmed outbreaks. Single VDPVs for which the origin cannot be de...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - February 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Morales M, Nnadi CD, Tangermann RH, Wassilak SG Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

End of Year 2015 in Polio Endemic Pakistan: Yet Another Beginning Towards End
(Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 12, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of an Investigational Hexavalent Vaccine Against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (DTaP5), Polio (IPV), H. Influenzae Type b (Hib; PRP-OMPC), and Hepatitis B (HepB) Administered Concomitantly with RV5 and PCV-13 in US Infants
Source: PEDIATRICS - February 12, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Block, S. L., Marshall, G., Petrecz, M., Flores, S., Ngai, A., Xu, J., Foglia, G., Lee, A. W. Tags: Section on Advances in Therapeutics and Technology Source Type: research

Towards Polio Eradication in Nigeria: Identifying at Risk Population for Low Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) Uptake
Source: PEDIATRICS - February 12, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Falope, O. O., Adegoke, K. K., Ejiofor, C. O., Emechebe, N. C., Talabi, T. O., Agu, N. C. Tags: Section on International Child Health Poster Presentations of Scientific Abstracts Source Type: research

Fatigue in motor neuron diseases
Motor neuron diseases as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and post polio syndrome are characterized by prominent muscular weakness and severe motor disability. The prevalence of fatigue in motor neuron diseases is remarkably high, and may contribute significantly to patients’ disability and a poor quality of life. Despite its high prevalence, fatigue is an understudied clinical problem in motor neuron diseases and is often overlooked.This presentation will attempt to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of muscle fatigue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and post polio syndrome, to cover the various methods of quantificatio...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: V.E. Drory Source Type: research

Inactivated polio vaccine introduction in south Asia—1 year on
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016 Source:The Lancet Global Health Author(s): Andreas Hasman, Gaurav Garg, Douglas J Noble (Source: The Lancet Global Health)
Source: The Lancet Global Health - February 11, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

A World Free of Polio — The Final Steps
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 374, Issue 6, Page 501-503, February 2016. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - February 10, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication
I. M. Blake et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - February 10, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Experiences and perspectives of patients with post-polio syndrome and therapists with exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy
Many persons affected with poliomyelitis develop post-polio syndrome (PPS) later in their life. Recently, the effectiveness of Exercise Therapy (ET) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for PPS has been eva... (Source: BMC Neurology)
Source: BMC Neurology - February 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Minne Bakker, Karen Schipper, Fieke S. Koopman, Frans Nollet and Tineke A. Abma Source Type: research

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative: Progress, Lessons Learned, And Polio Legacy Transition Planning [Strengthening Immunization Programs]
The world is closer than ever to achieving global polio eradication, with record-low polio cases in 2015 and the impending prospect of a polio-free Africa. Tens of millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers have participated in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The program contributes to efforts to deliver other health benefits, including health systems strengthening. As the initiative nears completion after more than twenty-five years, it becomes critical to document and transition the knowledge, lessons learned, assets, and infrastructure accumulated by the initiative to address other health goa...
Source: Health Affairs - February 8, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Cochi, S. L., Hegg, L., Kaur, A., Pandak, C., Jafari, H. Tags: Access To Care, International Issues, Public Health, Vaccines Strengthening Immunization Programs Source Type: research

Publicly Available Online Tool Facilitates Real-Time Monitoring Of Vaccine Conversations And Sentiments [Attitudes Toward Vaccination]
We describe a publicly available platform for monitoring vaccination-related content, called the Vaccine Sentimeter. With automated data collection from 100,000 mainstream media sources and Twitter, natural-language processing for automated filtering, and manual curation to ensure accuracy, the Vaccine Sentimeter offers a global real-time view of vaccination conversations online. To assess the system’s utility, we followed two events: polio vaccination in Pakistan after a news story about a Central Intelligence Agency vaccination ruse and subsequent attacks on health care workers, and a controversial episode in a tel...
Source: Health Affairs - February 8, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Bahk, C. Y., Cumming, M., Paushter, L., Madoff, L. C., Thomson, A., Brownstein, J. S. Tags: International Issues, Internet And Health, Media, Public Opinion, Politics, Consumer Issues, Health Information Technology Attitudes Toward Vaccination Source Type: research

Since The Start Of The Vaccines For Children Program, Uptake Has Increased, And Most Disparities Have Decreased [Children's Vaccination In The United States]
This study examined the impact that this intervention had on race and ethnicity–related and income-related disparities for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, measles-mumps-rubella, and polio vaccinations, using data from the National Immunization Survey, 1995–2013. Vaccination rates increased across all races, ethnicities, and income groups following the introduction of the Vaccines for Children program. Disparities among race and ethnic groups narrowed considerably over time since the introduction of the vaccine program, although income-related disparities changed at different rates within racial and ethn...
Source: Health Affairs - February 8, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Walsh, B., Doherty, E., ONeill, C. Tags: Health Promotion/Disease Prevention, Maternal And Child Health, Vaccines Children ' s Vaccination In The United States Source Type: research

Beating Polio [Book Reviews]
(Source: Health Affairs)
Source: Health Affairs - February 8, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Dine, S. B. Tags: Public Health, Vaccines Book Reviews Source Type: research

Polio-Like Illness Associated With Outbreak of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children
Poliomyelitis is a historically devastating neurological complication of poliovirus infection. Poliovirus vaccines have decreased the incidence of poliomyelitis to 209 global cases in 2014, with new cases of acute flaccid myelitis primarily associated with nonpolio enteroviruses. Recently, during outbreaks of enterovirus D68 throughout North America and Europe, cases of acute flaccid myelitis have been reported, suggesting another nonpolio enterovirus associated with acute flaccid myelitis. The authors describe 3 patients diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis during a province-wide outbreak of enterovirus D68 with the viru...
Source: Journal of Child Neurology - February 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Crone, M., Tellier, R., Wei, X.-C., Kuhn, S., Vanderkooi, O. G., Kim, J., Mah, J. K., Mineyko, A. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultraviolet blood irradiation: Is it time to remember “the cure that time forgot”?
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2016 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): Ximing Wu, Xiaoqing Hu, Michael R. Hamblin Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined and it has now been called “the cure that time forgot”. Later studies we...
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - February 7, 2016 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Polio Vaccine Hesitancy in the Networks and Neighborhoods of Malegaon, India
Conclusions The finding on social and spatial clustering of vaccine-refusing households could be leveraged to tailor communication strategies to improve vaccine acceptance and community perceptions of immunization programs for polio and other vaccine preventable diseases. (Source: Social Science and Medicine)
Source: Social Science and Medicine - February 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Transferrin Receptor 1 Associates with VP1 [Molecular Bases of Disease]
In this study, we demonstrated that mouse transferrin receptor 1 (mTfR1) is responsible for PV attachment to the cell surface, allowing invasion into the CNS via the BBB. PV interacts with the apical domain of mTfR1 on mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (MBEC4) in a dose-dependent manner via its capsid protein (VP1). We found that F-G, G-H, and H-I loops in VP1 are important for this binding. However, C-D, D-E, and E-F loops in VP1-fused Venus proteins efficiently penetrate MBEC4 cells. These results imply that the VP1 functional domain responsible for cell attachment is different from that involved in viral permeatio...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - February 5, 2016 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mizutani, T., Ishizaka, A., Nihei, C.-i. Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research

Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.
Authors: Nam KY, Lee S, Yang EJ, Kim K, Jung SH, Jang SN, Han SJ, Kim WH, Lim JY Abstract Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. O...
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - February 4, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Parental Refusal of Routine Vaccination in the Czech Republic.
CONCLUSION: We observed increasing trend of routine vaccination refusal in children during the last ten years (compared to situation in the year 2004, p
Source: Central European Journal of Public Health - February 4, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Cent Eur J Public Health Source Type: research

Dogged Persistence—Harrington, Post-Polio Scoliosis, and the Origin of Spine Instrumentation
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Spine Deformity, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Dennis R. Wenger (Source: Spine Deformity)
Source: Spine Deformity - February 3, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Prospective assessment of clinical symptoms associated with Enterovirus and Parechovirus genotypes in a multicenter study in Dutch children
Human non-polio enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) are major causes of viral infection and aseptic meningitis, especially in neonates and young infants [1–4]. The clinical spectrum of EV and HPeV infections varies from fever to severe systemic disease, including sepsis and meningoencephalitis, which may result in severe neuropsychological sequelae [5–7]. Recently several clusters of severe respiratory illness resulting in intensive care admissions and fatal outcomes have been attributed to EV type 68 infections across the US [8]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - February 2, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: S.C.M. de Crom, J.W.A. Rossen, R.A. de Moor, E.J.M. Veldkamp, A.M. van Furth, C.C. Obihara Source Type: research

Patients with post-polio syndrome are more likely to have subclinical involvement as compared to polio survivors without new symptoms
Conclusion: Subclinical involvement is common in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, and this is especially present in those fulfilling criteria for PPS. New muscle weakness may develop in apparently nonaffected, subclinically involved muscles. Thus we believe that four-limb EMG studies should be performed in all polio survivors, especially in those with the symptoms of PPS. (Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - February 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Arzu Yagiz OnUlaş Sungur Source Type: research

The use of mobile phones in polio eradication.
PMID: 26908965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization)
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - February 1, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Kazi AM, Jafri LA Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

Transjugular balloon mitral valvotomy in a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016 Source:Indian Heart Journal Author(s): George Joseph, Mithun J. Varghese, Oommen K. George Balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) performed by the conventional transfemoral approach can be difficult or even impossible in the presence of structural impediments such as severe kyphoscoliosis, gross cardiac anatomic distortion and inferior vena caval anomalies. A 25-year-old woman with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis due to poliomyelitis presented with symptomatic rheumatic mitral valve stenosis. After the failure of transfemoral BMV, the procedure was attempted from the righ...
Source: Indian Heart Journal - January 30, 2016 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

[Editorial] Guinea worm disease nears eradication
Only two infectious diseases have ever been eradicated: smallpox, of which the last naturally transmitted case occurred in 1977, and rinderpest, a disease of cattle and related ungulates, officially declared eradicated in 2011. This year might see a remarkable doubling in the list of eradicated diseases, with both polio (about which we wrote in the August, 2015, issue) and guinea worm no longer being naturally transmitted. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - January 27, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Global Context of Vaccine Refusal: Insights from a Systematic Comparative Ethnography of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative
This article describes an ethnographic study of the GPEI, a collaborative effort between researchers at eight sites in seven countries. We developed a methodology grounded in nuanced understandings of local context but structured to allow analysis of global trends. Here, we examine polio vaccine acceptance and refusal to understand how global phenomena—in this case, policy decisions by donors and global health organizations to support vaccination campaigns rather than building health systems—shape local behavior. (Source: Medical Anthropology Quarterly)
Source: Medical Anthropology Quarterly - January 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Svea Closser, Anat Rosenthal, Kenneth Maes, Judith Justice, Kelly Cox, Patricia A. Omidian, Ismaila Zango Mohammed, Aminu Mohammed Dukku, Adam D. Koon, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Inactivation of virus in intravenous immunoglobulin G using solvent/detergent treatment and pasteurization.
Authors: Aghaie A, Pourfatollah AA, Bathaie SZ, Moazzeni SM, Khorsand Mohammad Pour H, Sharifi Z Abstract The safety of plasma derived medicinal products, such as immunoglobulin, depends on viral inactivation steps that are incorporated into the production process. Several attempts have been made to validate the effectiveness of these inactivation methods against a range of physio-chemically diverse viruses. Treatment with solvent/detergent (S/D) and pasteurization (P) has been continuously used in our IgG production and these methods were analysed in this study as models of viral inactivation. Bovine Viral Diarrho...
Source: Human Antibodies - January 26, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Tags: Hum Antibodies Source Type: research

Analytical and computational modeling of early penetration of non-enveloped icosahedral viruses into cells.
CONCLUSION: Utilization of our modeling can be substantially useful not only for basic science studies, but also in other, more applied fields, such as in the field of gene therapy, or in `phage' virus studies. PMID: 26890228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Technology and Health Care)
Source: Technology and Health Care - January 26, 2016 Category: Medical Equipment Authors: Katzengold R, Zaharov E, Gefen A Tags: Technol Health Care Source Type: research

How various self-reported impairments influence walking ability in persons with late effects of polio.
Authors: Brogårdh C, Lexell J Abstract BACKGROUND: Many persons with late effects of polio experience new or increased impairments, which can lead to walking limitations in daily life. No study has comprehensively analyzed how various self-reported impairments are associated with different aspects of self-reported walking limitations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between self-reported impairments and self-reported walking limitations in persons with late effects of polio. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-five persons (175 women and 150 men) with verified late effects of polio responded to...
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - January 25, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research

Primary immunodeficiencies worldwide: an updated overview from the Jeffrey Modell Centers Global Network
Abstract Primary immunodeficiencies (PI) are defects of the immune system that cause severe, sometimes life-threatening, infections if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. Many patients with PI are undiagnosed, under-diagnosed, or misdiagnosed. To raise awareness and assure earliest diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and proper care management, the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) implemented a physician education and public awareness program beginning in 2003. Data are requested annually from physician experts within the Jeffrey Modell Centers Network (JMCN), consisting of 602 expert physicians, at 253 aca...
Source: Immunologic Research - January 22, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Guillain-Barre syndrome masquerading as acute respiratory failure in an infant
We report a case of GBS in a 5-month-old girl. The child presented with cough, loose stools, breathing difficulty, and listlessness. The child was treated as pneumonia with respiratory failure. Due to difficulty in weaning from ventilation with areflexia, marked hypotonia, and reduced power in all four limbs; possibilities of spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, and myopathies were kept. Nerve conduction velocity study was suggestive of mixed sensory-motor, severe axonal, and demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid study revealed albuminocytological dissociation. Child was diagnosed as GBS and treated ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences - January 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Praveen KishorePradeep Kumar SharmaBhaskar SaikiaPraveen Khilnani Source Type: research

Recommended Strategies to Move Closer Toward the Global Eradication of Polio: International Health Regulations
--- (Source: International Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Preventive Medicine - January 18, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Differential diagnosis of a progressive neuromuscular disorder using bioarchaeological and biogeochemical evidence from a bronze age skeleton in the UAE
Publication date: June 2016 Source:International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 13 Author(s): Alecia Schrenk, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Debra L. Martin, Daniel T. Potts Bioarchaeologists frequently rely on differential diagnoses to examine pathological conditions in ancient human skeletons. However, this method is often hindered by the skeleton's limited response abilities, resulting in similar skeletal expressions across multiple diseases. These diseases can be placed into perspective by using stable isotope analysis to explore the life course of an individual. In the current study, strontium, oxygen, and carbon isot...
Source: International Journal of Paleopathology - January 16, 2016 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Non-polio Enteroviruses in Karnataka, India: Virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis cases (July 1997–2013)
Conclusion: A seasonal variation was noted with high transmission period between April and October with peaks in June–July. The male to female ratio was 1:1.2. The isolation of NPEV decreased significantly with the increase in age. Epidemiology of NPEVs from AFP cases in Karnataka is described. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 15, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: H HanumaiahCG RautDP SinhaPN Yergolkar Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses: Insights into Virus-Host Interaction
Enterovirus genus includes multiple important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus (EV) A71, EV-D68 and rhinovirus. Infection with EVs can cause numerous clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis and encephalitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis, diarrhea, myocarditis and respiratory illness. EVs, which are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, trigger activation of the host antiviral innate immune responses through pathogen recognition receptors such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-likeand Toll-like receptors. In turn, EVs have developed sophisti...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Xiaobo LeiXia XiaoJianwei Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rapid communication-- polio vaccine coverage in the acute flaccid paralysis (afp) cases in romania.
RAPID COMMUNICATION-- POLIO VACCINE COVERAGE IN THE ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS (AFP) CASES IN ROMANIA. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2015 Jan-Jun;74(1-2):65-7 Authors: Băicuş A Abstract Poliovirus (PV), a member of the Enterovirus genus, is the etiological agent of poliomyelitis. A study carried out between 2013-2014 on 30 serum samples from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, showed a protective antibody level of 90% against poliovirus Sabin strains type 1 and type 2 and of 88% against type 3. No PV strains were isolated from 2009 to 2015 in Romania. Maintaining a high vaccine coverage level against po...
Source: Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology - January 14, 2016 Category: Microbiology Tags: Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Echovirus serotypes circulating in Malaysia from 2002 to 2013
Conclusions From the findings, there is a possibility that echovirus 11 is the predominant serotype among Malaysian patients with echovirus infection. However, a larger sample size will yield a more confident result to support this evidence. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 14, 2016 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Infectious disease: Poliovirus tweaked for safer vaccines
Nature 529, 7585 (2016). doi:10.1038/529131b Poliovirus has been genetically modified so that it can be used in vaccines without the risk of spreading the disease.Inactivated polio vaccine is currently made (pictured) using highly infectious strains of the virus. To guard against accidental release, the World Health Organization (Source: Nature)
Source: Nature - January 13, 2016 Category: Research Tags: Research Highlights Source Type: research

Enteroviruses in the early 21st century: new manifestations and challenges
Purpose of review: Enteroviruses cause a wide variety of diseases with neurologic, respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal findings. The purpose of this review is to clarify changes in the classification of enteroviruses, provide information about recent disease outbreaks, and to summarize progress toward the treatment and prevention of these infections. Recent findings: Enteroviruses are now classified into four distinct species. New variants of coxsackievirus B1, enterovirus-A71, and enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) have emerged as causes of recent outbreaks in the United States and other countries, including more severe diseas...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - January 13, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND IMMUNIZATION: Edited by Yvonne J. Bryson Source Type: research