Progress Toward Rubella Elimination - World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2019
This report updates a previous report and describes progress toward rubella and CRS elimination in EUR during 2005-2019 (7). In 2000, estimated coverage with the first dose of a rubella-containing vaccine (RCV1) in EUR was 60%, and 621,039 rubella cases were reported (incidence = 716.9 per 1 million population). During 2005-2019, estimated regional coverage with RCV1 was 93%-95%, and in 2019, 31 (58%) countries achieved ≥95% coverage with the RCV1. During 2005-2019, approximately 38 million persons received an RCV during SIAs in 20 (37%) countries. Rubella incidence declined by>99%, from 234.9 cases per 1 million pop...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Patrick O'Connor Dragon Yankovic Laura Zimmerman Myriam Ben Mamou Susan Reef Source Type: research

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Administration of Selected Routine Childhood and Adolescent Vaccinations - 10 U.S. Jurisdictions, March-September 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 11;70(23):840-845. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7023a2.ABSTRACTAfter the March 2020 declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, an analysis of provider ordering data from the federally funded Vaccines for Children program found a substantial decrease in routine pediatric vaccine ordering (1), and data from New York City and Michigan indicated sharp declines in routine childhood vaccine administration in these areas (2,3). In November 2020, CDC interim guidance stated that routine vaccination of children and adolescents should remain an essential preventive service during the COVID...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bhavini Patel Murthy Elizabeth Zell Karen Kirtland Nkenge Jones-Jack LaTreace Harris Carrie Sprague Jessica Schultz Quan Le Cristi A Bramer Sydney Kuramoto Iris Cheng Mary Woinarowicz Steve Robison Ashley McHugh Stephanie Schauer Lynn Gibbs-Scharf Source Type: research

Decreases in COVID-19 Cases, Emergency Department Visits, Hospital Admissions, and Deaths Among Older Adults Following the Introduction of COVID-19 Vaccine - United States, September 6, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 11;70(23):858-864. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7023e2.ABSTRACTThroughout the COVID-19 pandemic, older U.S. adults have been at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and death (1). On December 14, 2020, the United States began a nationwide vaccination campaign after the Food and Drug Administration's Emergency Use Authorization of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended prioritizing health care personnel and residents of long-term care facilities, followed by essential workers and persons at risk for severe illness, in...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Athalia Christie S Jane Henley Linda Mattocks Robyn Fernando Amy Lansky Farida B Ahmad Jennifer Adjemian Robert N Anderson Alison M Binder Kelly Carey Deborah L Dee Taylor Dias William M Duck Denise M Gaughan Brianna Casey Lyons A D McNaghten Meeyoung M P Source Type: research

Genomic Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 Variants Circulating in the United States, December 2020-May 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 11;70(23):846-850. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7023a3.ABSTRACTSARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is constantly mutating, leading to new variants (1). Variants have the potential to affect transmission, disease severity, diagnostics, therapeutics, and natural and vaccine-induced immunity. In November 2020, CDC established national surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 variants using genomic sequencing. As of May 6, 2021, sequences from 177,044 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected during December 20, 2020-May 6, 2021, from 55 U.S. jurisdictions had been generated by or reported to CDC. These in...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Prabasaj Paul Anne Marie France Yutaka Aoki Dhwani Batra Matthew Biggerstaff Vivien Dugan Summer Galloway Aron J Hall Michael A Johansson Rebecca J Kondor Alison Laufer Halpin Brian Lee Justin S Lee Brandi Limbago Adam MacNeil Duncan MacCannell Clinton R Source Type: research

Hospitalization of Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 - COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 11;70(23):851-857. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7023e1.ABSTRACTMost COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occur in older adults, but severe disease that requires hospitalization occurs in all age groups, including adolescents aged 12-17 years (1). On May 10, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration expanded the Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include persons aged 12-15 years, and CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended it for this age group on May 12, 2021.* Before that time, COVID-19 vaccines had been available only to persons aged ≥16 ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fiona P Havers Michael Whitaker Julie L Self Shua J Chai Pam Daily Kirley Nisha B Alden Breanna Kawasaki James Meek Kimberly Yousey-Hindes Evan J Anderson Kyle P Openo Andrew Weigel Kenzie Teno Maya L Monroe Patricia A Ryan Libby Reeg Alexander Kohrman Ru Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Children < sup > † < /sup > Aged 2-17 Years Who Wear Glasses or Contact Lenses, < sup > § < /sup > by Sex and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 11;70(23):865. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7023a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34111062 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7023a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 10, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 Severity and COVID-19-Associated Deaths Among Hospitalized Patients with HIV Infection - Zambia, March-December 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):807-810. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a2.ABSTRACTThe effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, wher...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duncan Chanda Peter A Minchella Davies Kampamba Megumi Itoh Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Mary Adetinuke Boyd Kalongo Hamusonde Lameck Chirwa Kotey Nikoi Robert Chirwa Mpanji Siwingwa Suilanji Sivile Khozya D Zyambo Aggrey Mweemba Nyuma Mbewe Katongo H Mut Source Type: research

Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e1.ABSTRACTDisparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether ineq...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vaughn Barry Sharoda Dasgupta Daniel L Weller Jennifer L Kriss Betsy L Cadwell Charles Rose Cassandra Pingali Trieste Musial J Danielle Sharpe Stephen A Flores Kurt J Greenlund Anita Patel Andrea Stewart Judith R Qualters LaTreace Harris Kamil E Barbour C Source Type: research

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ─ United States, 1981-2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):801-806. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a1.ABSTRACTThe first cases of Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia among young men, which were subsequently linked to HIV infection, were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981 (1). At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million persons in the United States were living with HIV infection (2). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, CDC estimated the annual number of new HIV infections (incidence) among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2019. Estimated annual HIV incidence increased from 20,000 infect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karin A Bosh H Irene Hall Laura Eastham Demetre C Daskalakis Jonathan H Mermin Source Type: research

Excess Death Estimates in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - United States, February-August 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):825-829. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e2.ABSTRACTEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert Ziemba Kyle N Campbell Tsu-Hsuan Yang Sara Eve Schaeffer Kelly M Mayo Paul McGann Shalon Quinn Jesse Roach Edwin D Huff Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Who Are Very Worried About Ability to Pay Medical Bills if They Get Sick or Have an Accident, < sup > † < /sup > by Home Ownership < sup > § < /sup > and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):830. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34081688 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of Policy and Funding Decisions on COVID-19 Surveillance Operations and Case Reports - South Sudan, April 2020-February 2021
This study assessed whether changes in surveillance operations affected reporting in South Sudan; testing and case numbers reported during April 6, 2020-February 21, 2021, were analyzed relative to the timing of funding, policy, and strategy changes.* South Sudan, with a population of approximately 11 million, began COVID-19 surveillance in February 2020 and reported 6,931 cases through February 21, 2021. Surveillance data analyzed were from point of entry screening, testing of symptomatic persons who contacted an alert hotline, contact tracing, sentinel surveillance, and outbound travel screening. After travel restriction...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Talya Shragai Aimee Summers Olu Olushayo John Rumunu Valerie Mize Richard Laku Sudhir Bunga Source Type: research

COVID-19 Severity and COVID-19-Associated Deaths Among Hospitalized Patients with HIV Infection - Zambia, March-December 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):807-810. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a2.ABSTRACTThe effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, wher...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duncan Chanda Peter A Minchella Davies Kampamba Megumi Itoh Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Mary Adetinuke Boyd Kalongo Hamusonde Lameck Chirwa Kotey Nikoi Robert Chirwa Mpanji Siwingwa Suilanji Sivile Khozya D Zyambo Aggrey Mweemba Nyuma Mbewe Katongo H Mut Source Type: research

Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e1.ABSTRACTDisparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether ineq...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vaughn Barry Sharoda Dasgupta Daniel L Weller Jennifer L Kriss Betsy L Cadwell Charles Rose Cassandra Pingali Trieste Musial J Danielle Sharpe Stephen A Flores Kurt J Greenlund Anita Patel Andrea Stewart Judith R Qualters LaTreace Harris Kamil E Barbour C Source Type: research

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ─ United States, 1981-2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):801-806. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a1.ABSTRACTThe first cases of Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia among young men, which were subsequently linked to HIV infection, were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981 (1). At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million persons in the United States were living with HIV infection (2). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, CDC estimated the annual number of new HIV infections (incidence) among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2019. Estimated annual HIV incidence increased from 20,000 infect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karin A Bosh H Irene Hall Laura Eastham Demetre C Daskalakis Jonathan H Mermin Source Type: research

Excess Death Estimates in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - United States, February-August 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):825-829. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e2.ABSTRACTEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert Ziemba Kyle N Campbell Tsu-Hsuan Yang Sara Eve Schaeffer Kelly M Mayo Paul McGann Shalon Quinn Jesse Roach Edwin D Huff Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Who Are Very Worried About Ability to Pay Medical Bills if They Get Sick or Have an Accident, < sup > † < /sup > by Home Ownership < sup > § < /sup > and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):830. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34081688 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of Policy and Funding Decisions on COVID-19 Surveillance Operations and Case Reports - South Sudan, April 2020-February 2021
This study assessed whether changes in surveillance operations affected reporting in South Sudan; testing and case numbers reported during April 6, 2020-February 21, 2021, were analyzed relative to the timing of funding, policy, and strategy changes.* South Sudan, with a population of approximately 11 million, began COVID-19 surveillance in February 2020 and reported 6,931 cases through February 21, 2021. Surveillance data analyzed were from point of entry screening, testing of symptomatic persons who contacted an alert hotline, contact tracing, sentinel surveillance, and outbound travel screening. After travel restriction...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Talya Shragai Aimee Summers Olu Olushayo John Rumunu Valerie Mize Richard Laku Sudhir Bunga Source Type: research

COVID-19 Severity and COVID-19-Associated Deaths Among Hospitalized Patients with HIV Infection - Zambia, March-December 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):807-810. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a2.ABSTRACTThe effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, wher...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duncan Chanda Peter A Minchella Davies Kampamba Megumi Itoh Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Mary Adetinuke Boyd Kalongo Hamusonde Lameck Chirwa Kotey Nikoi Robert Chirwa Mpanji Siwingwa Suilanji Sivile Khozya D Zyambo Aggrey Mweemba Nyuma Mbewe Katongo H Mut Source Type: research

Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e1.ABSTRACTDisparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether ineq...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vaughn Barry Sharoda Dasgupta Daniel L Weller Jennifer L Kriss Betsy L Cadwell Charles Rose Cassandra Pingali Trieste Musial J Danielle Sharpe Stephen A Flores Kurt J Greenlund Anita Patel Andrea Stewart Judith R Qualters LaTreace Harris Kamil E Barbour C Source Type: research

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ─ United States, 1981-2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):801-806. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a1.ABSTRACTThe first cases of Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia among young men, which were subsequently linked to HIV infection, were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981 (1). At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million persons in the United States were living with HIV infection (2). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, CDC estimated the annual number of new HIV infections (incidence) among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2019. Estimated annual HIV incidence increased from 20,000 infect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karin A Bosh H Irene Hall Laura Eastham Demetre C Daskalakis Jonathan H Mermin Source Type: research

Excess Death Estimates in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - United States, February-August 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):825-829. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e2.ABSTRACTEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert Ziemba Kyle N Campbell Tsu-Hsuan Yang Sara Eve Schaeffer Kelly M Mayo Paul McGann Shalon Quinn Jesse Roach Edwin D Huff Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Who Are Very Worried About Ability to Pay Medical Bills if They Get Sick or Have an Accident, < sup > † < /sup > by Home Ownership < sup > § < /sup > and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):830. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34081688 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of Policy and Funding Decisions on COVID-19 Surveillance Operations and Case Reports - South Sudan, April 2020-February 2021
This study assessed whether changes in surveillance operations affected reporting in South Sudan; testing and case numbers reported during April 6, 2020-February 21, 2021, were analyzed relative to the timing of funding, policy, and strategy changes.* South Sudan, with a population of approximately 11 million, began COVID-19 surveillance in February 2020 and reported 6,931 cases through February 21, 2021. Surveillance data analyzed were from point of entry screening, testing of symptomatic persons who contacted an alert hotline, contact tracing, sentinel surveillance, and outbound travel screening. After travel restriction...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Talya Shragai Aimee Summers Olu Olushayo John Rumunu Valerie Mize Richard Laku Sudhir Bunga Source Type: research

COVID-19 Severity and COVID-19-Associated Deaths Among Hospitalized Patients with HIV Infection - Zambia, March-December 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):807-810. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a2.ABSTRACTThe effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, wher...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duncan Chanda Peter A Minchella Davies Kampamba Megumi Itoh Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Mary Adetinuke Boyd Kalongo Hamusonde Lameck Chirwa Kotey Nikoi Robert Chirwa Mpanji Siwingwa Suilanji Sivile Khozya D Zyambo Aggrey Mweemba Nyuma Mbewe Katongo H Mut Source Type: research

Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e1.ABSTRACTDisparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether ineq...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vaughn Barry Sharoda Dasgupta Daniel L Weller Jennifer L Kriss Betsy L Cadwell Charles Rose Cassandra Pingali Trieste Musial J Danielle Sharpe Stephen A Flores Kurt J Greenlund Anita Patel Andrea Stewart Judith R Qualters LaTreace Harris Kamil E Barbour C Source Type: research

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ─ United States, 1981-2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):801-806. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a1.ABSTRACTThe first cases of Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia among young men, which were subsequently linked to HIV infection, were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981 (1). At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million persons in the United States were living with HIV infection (2). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, CDC estimated the annual number of new HIV infections (incidence) among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2019. Estimated annual HIV incidence increased from 20,000 infect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karin A Bosh H Irene Hall Laura Eastham Demetre C Daskalakis Jonathan H Mermin Source Type: research

Excess Death Estimates in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - United States, February-August 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):825-829. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e2.ABSTRACTEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert Ziemba Kyle N Campbell Tsu-Hsuan Yang Sara Eve Schaeffer Kelly M Mayo Paul McGann Shalon Quinn Jesse Roach Edwin D Huff Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Who Are Very Worried About Ability to Pay Medical Bills if They Get Sick or Have an Accident, < sup > † < /sup > by Home Ownership < sup > § < /sup > and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):830. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34081688 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of Policy and Funding Decisions on COVID-19 Surveillance Operations and Case Reports - South Sudan, April 2020-February 2021
This study assessed whether changes in surveillance operations affected reporting in South Sudan; testing and case numbers reported during April 6, 2020-February 21, 2021, were analyzed relative to the timing of funding, policy, and strategy changes.* South Sudan, with a population of approximately 11 million, began COVID-19 surveillance in February 2020 and reported 6,931 cases through February 21, 2021. Surveillance data analyzed were from point of entry screening, testing of symptomatic persons who contacted an alert hotline, contact tracing, sentinel surveillance, and outbound travel screening. After travel restriction...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Talya Shragai Aimee Summers Olu Olushayo John Rumunu Valerie Mize Richard Laku Sudhir Bunga Source Type: research

COVID-19 Severity and COVID-19-Associated Deaths Among Hospitalized Patients with HIV Infection - Zambia, March-December 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):807-810. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a2.ABSTRACTThe effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, wher...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duncan Chanda Peter A Minchella Davies Kampamba Megumi Itoh Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Mary Adetinuke Boyd Kalongo Hamusonde Lameck Chirwa Kotey Nikoi Robert Chirwa Mpanji Siwingwa Suilanji Sivile Khozya D Zyambo Aggrey Mweemba Nyuma Mbewe Katongo H Mut Source Type: research

Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e1.ABSTRACTDisparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether ineq...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vaughn Barry Sharoda Dasgupta Daniel L Weller Jennifer L Kriss Betsy L Cadwell Charles Rose Cassandra Pingali Trieste Musial J Danielle Sharpe Stephen A Flores Kurt J Greenlund Anita Patel Andrea Stewart Judith R Qualters LaTreace Harris Kamil E Barbour C Source Type: research

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ─ United States, 1981-2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):801-806. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a1.ABSTRACTThe first cases of Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia among young men, which were subsequently linked to HIV infection, were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981 (1). At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million persons in the United States were living with HIV infection (2). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, CDC estimated the annual number of new HIV infections (incidence) among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2019. Estimated annual HIV incidence increased from 20,000 infect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karin A Bosh H Irene Hall Laura Eastham Demetre C Daskalakis Jonathan H Mermin Source Type: research

Excess Death Estimates in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - United States, February-August 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):825-829. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e2.ABSTRACTEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert Ziemba Kyle N Campbell Tsu-Hsuan Yang Sara Eve Schaeffer Kelly M Mayo Paul McGann Shalon Quinn Jesse Roach Edwin D Huff Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Who Are Very Worried About Ability to Pay Medical Bills if They Get Sick or Have an Accident, < sup > † < /sup > by Home Ownership < sup > § < /sup > and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):830. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34081688 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of Policy and Funding Decisions on COVID-19 Surveillance Operations and Case Reports - South Sudan, April 2020-February 2021
This study assessed whether changes in surveillance operations affected reporting in South Sudan; testing and case numbers reported during April 6, 2020-February 21, 2021, were analyzed relative to the timing of funding, policy, and strategy changes.* South Sudan, with a population of approximately 11 million, began COVID-19 surveillance in February 2020 and reported 6,931 cases through February 21, 2021. Surveillance data analyzed were from point of entry screening, testing of symptomatic persons who contacted an alert hotline, contact tracing, sentinel surveillance, and outbound travel screening. After travel restriction...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Talya Shragai Aimee Summers Olu Olushayo John Rumunu Valerie Mize Richard Laku Sudhir Bunga Source Type: research

COVID-19 Severity and COVID-19-Associated Deaths Among Hospitalized Patients with HIV Infection - Zambia, March-December 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):807-810. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a2.ABSTRACTThe effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, wher...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Duncan Chanda Peter A Minchella Davies Kampamba Megumi Itoh Jonas Z Hines Sombo Fwoloshi Mary Adetinuke Boyd Kalongo Hamusonde Lameck Chirwa Kotey Nikoi Robert Chirwa Mpanji Siwingwa Suilanji Sivile Khozya D Zyambo Aggrey Mweemba Nyuma Mbewe Katongo H Mut Source Type: research

Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e1.ABSTRACTDisparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether ineq...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vaughn Barry Sharoda Dasgupta Daniel L Weller Jennifer L Kriss Betsy L Cadwell Charles Rose Cassandra Pingali Trieste Musial J Danielle Sharpe Stephen A Flores Kurt J Greenlund Anita Patel Andrea Stewart Judith R Qualters LaTreace Harris Kamil E Barbour C Source Type: research

Estimated Annual Number of HIV Infections ─ United States, 1981-2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):801-806. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a1.ABSTRACTThe first cases of Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia among young men, which were subsequently linked to HIV infection, were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981 (1). At year-end 2019, an estimated 1.2 million persons in the United States were living with HIV infection (2). Using data reported to the National HIV Surveillance System, CDC estimated the annual number of new HIV infections (incidence) among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2019. Estimated annual HIV incidence increased from 20,000 infect...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Karin A Bosh H Irene Hall Laura Eastham Demetre C Daskalakis Jonathan H Mermin Source Type: research

Excess Death Estimates in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - United States, February-August 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):825-829. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022e2.ABSTRACTEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robert Ziemba Kyle N Campbell Tsu-Hsuan Yang Sara Eve Schaeffer Kelly M Mayo Paul McGann Shalon Quinn Jesse Roach Edwin D Huff Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Who Are Very Worried About Ability to Pay Medical Bills if They Get Sick or Have an Accident, < sup > † < /sup > by Home Ownership < sup > § < /sup > and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4;70(22):830. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34081688 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7022a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of Policy and Funding Decisions on COVID-19 Surveillance Operations and Case Reports - South Sudan, April 2020-February 2021
This study assessed whether changes in surveillance operations affected reporting in South Sudan; testing and case numbers reported during April 6, 2020-February 21, 2021, were analyzed relative to the timing of funding, policy, and strategy changes.* South Sudan, with a population of approximately 11 million, began COVID-19 surveillance in February 2020 and reported 6,931 cases through February 21, 2021. Surveillance data analyzed were from point of entry screening, testing of symptomatic persons who contacted an alert hotline, contact tracing, sentinel surveillance, and outbound travel screening. After travel restriction...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Talya Shragai Aimee Summers Olu Olushayo John Rumunu Valerie Mize Richard Laku Sudhir Bunga Source Type: research

QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged 18-26 Years Who Ever Received a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, < sup > † < /sup > by Race and Hispanic Origin < sup > § < /sup > and Sex - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019 < sup > ¶ < /sup >
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):797. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a5.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34043608 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a5 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Erratum: Vol. 70, No. 10
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):796. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a4.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34043609 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a4 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mask Use and Ventilation Improvements to Reduce COVID-19 Incidence in Elementary Schools - Georgia, November 16-December 11, 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):779-784. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021e1.ABSTRACTTo meet the educational, physical, social, and emotional needs of children, many U.S. schools opened for in-person learning during fall 2020 by implementing strategies to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). To date, there have been no U.S. studies comparing COVID-19 incidence in schools that varied in implementing recommended prevention strategies, including mask requirements and ventilation improvements* (2). Using data from Georgia kindergarten through grade 5 (K-5) schools that opened for in-p...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jenna Gettings Michaila Czarnik Elana Morris Elizabeth Haller Angela M Thompson-Paul Catherine Rasberry Tatiana M Lanzieri Jennifer Smith-Grant Tiffiany Michelle Aholou Ebony Thomas Cherie Drenzek Duncan MacKellar Source Type: research

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding Initiation ─ United States, 2019
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):769-774. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a1.ABSTRACTBreastfeeding is the optimal source of nutrition for most infants (1). Although breastfeeding rates in the United States have increased during the past decade, racial/ethnic disparities persist (2). Breastfeeding surveillance typically focuses on disparities at the national level, because small sample sizes limit examination of disparities at the state or territorial level. However, birth certificate data allow for assessment of breastfeeding initiation among nearly all newborn infants in the United States both nationally and at the ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Katelyn V Chiang Ruowei Li Erica H Anstey Cria G Perrine Source Type: research

HIV Viral Load Monitoring Among Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy - Eight Sub-Saharan Africa Countries, 2013-2018
This report describes progress on the scale-up of viral load testing in eight sub-Saharan African countries from 2013 to 2018 and examines the trajectory of improvement with viral load testing scale-up that has paralleled government commitments, sustained technical assistance, and financial resources from international donors. Viral load testing in low- and middle-income countries enables monitoring of viral load suppression at the individual and population level, which is necessary to achieve global epidemic control. Although there has been substantial achievement in improving viral load coverage for all patients receivin...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shirley Lee Lecher Peter Fonjungo Dennis Ellenberger Christiane Adje Toure George Alemnji Nancy Bowen Frank Basiye Anita Beukes Sergio Carmona Michael de Klerk Karidia Diallo Eric Dziuban Charles Kiyaga Henry Mbah Johannes Mengistu Tsietso Mots'oane Chris Source Type: research

Notes from the Field: Impact of the COVID-19 Response on Scale-Up of HIV Viral Load Testing - PEPFAR-Supported Countries, January-June 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):794-795. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a3.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34043613 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7021a3 (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Shirley Lee Lecher Mary Naluguza Christina Mwangi Jonathan N'tale Dianna Edgil George Alemnji Heather Alexander Source Type: research

COVID-19 Testing to Sustain In-Person Instruction and Extracurricular Activities in High Schools - Utah, November 2020-March 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):785-791. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021e2.ABSTRACTCessation of kindergarten through grade 12 in-person instruction and extracurricular activities, which has often occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, can have negative social, emotional, and educational consequences for children (1,2). Although preventive measures such as masking, physical distancing, hand hygiene, and improved ventilation are commonly used in schools to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and support in-person instruction (3-6), routine school-based COVID-19 testing has not been as w...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: William A Lanier Kendra D Babitz Abigail Collingwood Maggie F Graul Sydnee Dickson Lexi Cunningham Angela C Dunn Duncan MacKellar Adam L Hersh Source Type: research

COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Infections Reported to CDC - United States, January 1-April 30, 2021
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 May 28;70(21):792-793. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7021e3.ABSTRACTCOVID-19 vaccines are a critical tool for controlling the ongoing global pandemic. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued Emergency Use Authorizations for three COVID-19 vaccines for use in the United States.* In large, randomized-controlled trials, each vaccine was found to be safe and efficacious in preventing symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (1-3). Despite the high level of vaccine efficacy, a small percentage of fully vaccinated persons (i.e. received all recommended doses of an FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccin...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Authors: CDC COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Case Investigations Team Source Type: research