Mandatory vaccination: understanding the common good in the midst of the global polio eradication campaign
AbstractBackgroundThe detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state ’s police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective meas...
Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research - January 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Modeling Poliovirus Transmission in Pakistan and Afghanistan to Inform Vaccination Strategies in Undervaccinated Subpopulations
This study suggests that despite the moderate effect of using IPV in SIAs, using OPV in SIAs remains the most effective means to stop transmission, while limited IPV resources should prioritize IPV use in routine immunization. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - January 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A. Pallansch, Stephen L. Cochi, Derek T. Ehrhardt, Noha H. Farag, Stephen C. Hadler, Lee M. Hampton, Maureen Martinez, Steve G.F. Wassilak, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

[Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].
te;na M, Montesdeoca Melián A, Ruiz-Contreras J, en representación del Comité Asesor de Vacunas de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (CAV-AEP) Abstract The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with...
Source: Anales de Pediatria - January 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Moreno-Pérez D, Álvarez García FJ, Álvarez Aldeán J, Cilleruelo Ortega MJ, Garcés Sánchez M, García Sánchez N, Hernández Merino Á, Méndez Hernández M, Merino Moína M, Montesdeoca Melián A, Ruiz-Contreras J, en representación del Comité As Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research

[Polio vaccines and biorisk management of polioviruses].
Abstract Japan is the first country where inactivated polio vaccines derived from Sabin attenuated strains, which are used to manufacture oral polio vaccines, were introduced in routine immunization program. The Sabin-derived inactivated vaccine has been developed based on the fact that Sabin strains are less neurovirulent and manufactured at safer productionfacilities than wild polioviruses. It is also convincing that Sabin strains are more safely used for evaluating the efficacy of inactivated vaccines in rat immunogenicity tests. However, in the current situation where polioviruses are close to being eradicated...
Source: Uirusu. Journal of Virology - January 1, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Someya Y, Shimizu H Tags: Uirusu Source Type: research

Chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis, and neuroborreliosis: CXCL10 as initial discriminator in diagnostic algorithm?
AbstractWe investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls,n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CX...
Source: Neurological Sciences - December 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Schemata, CONSORT, and the Salk Polio Vaccine Trial.
Abstract In this essay, we defend the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial and try to put some limits on the role schemata should play in designing clinical research studies. Our presentation is structured as a response to de Freitas and Pietrobon (de Freitas, R. S. and R. Pietrobon. 2007. Whoever could get rid of the context of discovery/context of justification dichotomy? A proposal based on recent developments in clinical research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32:25-42.) who identified the CONSORT statement as a schema that would have, had it existed at the time, ruled out the design of the Salk polio v...
Source: The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy - December 29, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Kowalski CJ, Mrdjenovich AJ Tags: J Med Philos Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Vaccination Status of Children Aged 12 –48 Months in India, 2012–2013
Conclusions for Practice India ’s vaccination rates among children aged 12–48 months remains unacceptably low. The Indian government should encourage institutional delivery or birthing with a skilled attendant to ensure women receive adequate health education through antenatal care that includes the importance of childhood va ccination. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - December 28, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Models and analyses to understand threats to polio eradication
To achieve complete polio eradication, the live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) currently used must be phased out after the end of wild poliovirus transmission. However, poorly understood threats may arise when ... (Source: BMC Medicine)
Source: BMC Medicine - December 22, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: James S. Koopman Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Immunologic non-inferiority and safety of the investigational pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) 4-dose vial presentation compared to the licensed PHiD-CV 1-dose vial presentation in infants: A phase III randomized study.
This study assessed immunologic non-inferiority and safety of the investigational PHiD-CV 4-dose versus licensed 1-dose vial presentation in infants. METHODS: In this phase III, mono-center, observer-blind study in Bangladesh, 6-10-week-old infants were randomized 1:1 to receive PHiD-CV primary vaccination (at ages 6, 10, 18 weeks) and a booster dose (at age 9 months) with a 4-dose vial (with preservative, 4DV group) or 1-dose vial (preservative-free, 1DV group). DTPw-HBV/Hib was (co)-administered per study protocol and polio, measles and rubella vaccines as part of the national immunization program. Non-inferiori...
Source: Vaccine - December 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zaman K, Zaman SF, Zaman F, Aziz A, Faisal SB, Traskine M, Habib MA, Ruiz-Guiñazú J, Borys D Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

[Correspondence] The imperative of vaccination put into practice
In an Editorial,1 The Lancet Infectious Diseases importantly addressed the topic of mandatory vaccination. Previously, Tony Kirby2 and Jonathan Kennedy and colleagues3 reported and commented on policy approaches adopted by Australia, Germany, and France in response to growing hesitancy around vaccination. Italy is among the several countries that have opted for mandatory vaccination. Italy's law 119/2017 makes ten vaccines mandatory for infants. These compulsory vaccinations are those against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B virus (all of which were already compulsory) plus pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - December 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carlo Signorelli, Stefania Iannazzo, Anna Odone Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods
The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stoch...
Source: eLife - December 21, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Computational and Systems Biology Source Type: research

Socially accountable medical education strengthens community health services
ContextSocially accountable health professional education (SAHPE) is committed to achieving health equity through training health professionals to meet local health needs and serve disadvantaged populations. This Philippines study investigates the impact of SAHPE students and graduates on child and maternal health services and outcomes. MethodsThis is a non‐randomised, controlled study involving a researcher‐administered survey to 827 recent mothers (≥1 child aged 0–5 years). Five communities were serviced by SAHPE medical graduates or final‐year medical students (interns) in Eastern Visayas and the Zam...
Source: Medical Education - December 20, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Torres Woolley, Servando D Halili, Jusie ‐Lydia Siega‐Sur, Fortunato L Cristobal, Carole Reeve, Simone J Ross, Andre‐Jacques Neusy Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Large-Scale Survey of Human Enteroviruses in Wastewater Treatment Plants of a Metropolitan Area of Southern Italy
In this study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Naples, Southern Italy, from January 2010 to December 2014. Influent and effluent samples from the three WWTPs were collected monthly. One hundred and sixty-one of the 731 wastewater samples collected (22.0%) before and after water treatment were CPE positive on RD cells; while no samples were positive on L20B cells from any WWTPs. Among the 140 non-polio enterovirus isolated from inlet sewage, 69.3% were Coxsackieviruses type B and 30.7% were Echoviru...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - December 16, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Fatigue, quality of life and walking ability in adults with cerebral palsy
Increased fatigue is often reported secondary to neurological diseases, such as poliomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, and more recently by adults with cerebral palsy (CP) [1 –5]. In a study of 56 young adults with CP, Russchen et al. found that 39.3% experienced fatigue, and for 12.5% the fatigue was severe [4]. Malone et al. report that pain and fatigue have an impact on adults with CP and their ability to participate in daily life [6]. (Source: Gait and Posture)
Source: Gait and Posture - December 16, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Sofia Lundh, Salmir Nasic, Jacques Riad Tags: Full length article Source Type: research

Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014-2016.
Abstract When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2). Introduction of 1 dose of IP...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - December 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhao D, Ma R, Zhou T, Yang F, Wu J, Sun H, Liu F, Lu L, Li X, Zuo S, Yao W, Yin J Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Letter To The Editor: Reply to Polio Eradication in Pakistan: Call for Alliance.
Authors: Ullah MA, Husseni AM PMID: 29230109 [PubMed] (Source: Ochsner Journal)
Source: Ochsner Journal - December 14, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: Ochsner J Source Type: research

New features for scanned bioelectrical activity of motor unit in health and disease
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 41 Author(s): N. Tuğrul Artuğ, Imran Goker, Bülent Bolat, Onur Osman, Elif Kocasoy Orhan, M. Baris Baslo The present study aims to find new features that support the differential diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. Scanning EMG is an experimental method developed for understanding the motor unit organization and for observing temporal and spatial characteristics of motor unit’s electrical activity. A motor unit consists of a motor neuron and muscle fibers that are innervated by its motor neuron. Both simulation and biologica...
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - December 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Enterovirus detection in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Switzerland
Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruse...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - December 13, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Rainer Gosert, Ulrich Heininger, Hans H. Hirsch Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Vaccination Practices in Pediatric Dialysis Patients Across Europe. A European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group and European Society for Pediatric Nephrology Dialysis Working Group Study
Conclusion: There are variations in vaccination practice across Europe. Children with CKD, those undergoing dialysis, and transplant candidates should receive age-appropriate vaccinations before RTx as well as before the transition to adult nephrology clinics and antibody levels should be monitored to evaluate the immunization status before and after RTx.Nephron (Source: Nephron)
Source: Nephron - December 13, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Hybrid repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a patient with poliomyelitis-related deformities
A 63-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had scoliosis and atrophic right leg change as sequelae of poliomyelitis. The patient was not a candidate for endovascular aneurysm repair because of anatomic unsuitability. An open surgical repair was performed by the retroperitoneal approach because of severe scoliosis and left lateral aneurysm deviation. To minimize contralateral exposure, the Viabahn stent graft (W. L. Gore& Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) was inserted in the right external iliac artery and anastomosed with the right expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft limb. (...
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - December 11, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Shin-Seok Yang Source Type: research

Childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an Egyptian pilot study
AbstractDescribing the variable clinical features, laboratory findings, neuroimaging findings, and treatments given to children who presented with ADEM and following them up both clinically and radiologically. 21 patients were recruited: 14 new cases, and 7 old ones presenting over the preceding 5  years (retrospective review of existing data). 11 males and 10 females, with a mean age of 4.4 years ± 2.7 SD, were included. All new patients were subject to full history, examination and a panel of investigations including MRI of the brain. Treatment was given in the form of pulsed methyl pr ednisolo...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - December 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence and characteristics of human parechovirus and enterovirus infections in febrile infants
This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infections in febrile young infants in Japan. MethodsDuring February 2010 – August 2015, we obtained 53 stool, 44 throat swab, and 20 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 56 infants (
Source: Pediatrics International - December 5, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kentaro Sano, Hiromichi Hamada, Shoko Hirose, Kenta Sugiura, Satoko Harada, Mai Koizumi, Mayumi Hara, Haruna Nishijima, Masakatsu Taira, Atsushi Ogura, Tomoko Ogawa, Jun ‐ichi Takanashi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Asymmetrical Arterial Diameters
An 88 year old male patient presented with rest pain in his right foot. Cardiovascular risk factors included diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. Poliomyelitis at the age of 15 had resulted in left leg paralysis without affecting sensation or leg length. MR angiography showed that arteries of the left leg had smaller diameters than those of the right, starting at the left common iliac artery (panel A). This may be an acquired feature as the still developing artery subsequently had less muscle mass to supply. (Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery)
Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery - December 3, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Wolfgang G. Mouton, Andr é Wyss Tags: Coup D ’Oeil Source Type: research

Vaccination coverage and factors associated with adherence to the vaccination schedule in young children of a rural area in Burkina Faso.
CONCLUSION: The study documented a further improvement in full vaccination coverage in Burkina Faso in recent years and better vaccination coverage in rural than in urban areas. The organization of healthcare systems with systematic outreach activities in the rural areas may explain the difference between rural and urban areas. PMID: 29185899 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Global Health Action)
Source: Global Health Action - December 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research

Vaccine-derived poliovirus surveillance in China during 2001 –2013: the potential challenge for maintaining polio free status
The goal of polio eradication is to complete elimination and containment of all wild, vaccine-related and Sabin polioviruses. Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) surveillance in China from 2001 –2013 is summarize... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - December 2, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hai-Bo Wang, Hui-Ming Luo, Li Li, Chun-Xiang Fan, Li-Xin Hao, Chao Ma, Qi-Ru Su, Hong Yang, Kathleen H. Reilly, Hua-Qing Wang and Ning Wen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Fractional-Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaign - Sindh Province, Pakistan, 2016.
This report describes the findings of an assessment of preparatory activities and subsequent implementation of the fIPV campaign. Despite achieving high coverage (>80%), several operational challenges were noted. The lessons learned from this campaign could help to guide the planning and implementation of future fIPV vaccination activities. PMID: 29190264 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - December 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Pervaiz A, Mbaeyi C, Baig MA, Burman A, Ahmed JA, Akter S, Jatoi FA, Mahamud A, Asghar RJ, Azam N, Shah MN, Laghari MA, Soomro K, Wadood MZ, Ehrhardt D, Safdar RM, Farag N Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Sister Elizabeth Kenny and Polio in America: Doyenne or Demagogue in Her Role in Rehabilitation Medicine?
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:PM&R Author(s): Bruce E. Becker (Source: PMandR)
Source: PMandR - November 30, 2017 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

The push to eradicate poliomyelitis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.
Authors: Maher C PMID: 29178113 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal)
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - November 29, 2017 Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Myelitis: Etiologic Challenges, Diagnostic and Management Considerations
AbstractPurpose of reviewPurpose of review Acute flaccid myelitis is a polio-like illness defined by the acute onset of flaccid paralysis in the setting spinal MRI demonstrating a longitudinal lesion in the gray matter of the cord. This paper aims to review the current state of knowledge and key clinical points for the diagnosis and management of acute flaccid myelitis.Recent findingsRecent findings There were clusters of AFM noted in California and Colorado in 2014, with additional cases across the USA that year, and another spike in cases in 2016. Patients have been managed with classic treatments for transverse myelitis...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - November 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Milk consumption in infants under one year of age and variables associated with non-maternal milk consumption
RESUMO Objetivos: Verificar o tipo de leite consumido por crian ças menores de um ano de idade e identificar variáveis associadas ao consumo de leite não materno (LNM) - fórmula infantil ou leite de vaca (LV). Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado durante a Campanha Nacional de Vacinação contra Poliomielite 2012. Os acompanhantes de 935 crianças menore s de um ano responderam a um questionário estruturado sobre a alimentação da criança nas últimas 24 horas. As estimativas são apresentadas por pontos e intervalo de confian&cced...
Source: Revista Paulista de Pediatria - November 27, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2016-September 2017.
This report describes activities conducted and progress made toward the eradication of poliovirus in Pakistan during January 2016-July 2017 and provides an update to previous reports (1,2). In 2016, Pakistan reported 20 WPV1 cases, a 63% decrease compared with 54 cases in 2015 (3). As of September 25, 2017, five WPV1 cases have been reported in 2017, representing a 69% decline compared with 16 cases reported during the same period in 2016 (Figure 1). During January-September 2017, WPV1 was detected in 72 of 468 (15%) environmental samples collected, compared with 36 of 348 (9%) samples collected during the same period in 2...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - November 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elhamidi Y, Mahamud A, Safdar M, Al Tamimi W, Jorba J, Mbaeyi C, Hsu CH, Wadood Z, Sharif S, Ehrhardt D Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 353: Pressure for Pattern-Specific Intertypic Recombination between Sabin Polioviruses: Evolutionary Implications
l Konstantin Chumakov Complete genomic sequences of a non-redundant set of 70 recombinants between three serotypes of attenuated Sabin polioviruses as well as location (based on partial sequencing) of crossover sites of 28 additional recombinants were determined and compared with the previously published data. It is demonstrated that the genomes of Sabin viruses contain distinct strain-specific segments that are eliminated by recombination. The presumed low fitness of these segments could be linked to mutations acquired upon derivation of the vaccine strains and/or may have been present in wild-type parents of Sabin ...
Source: Viruses - November 22, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Ekaterina Korotkova Majid Laassri Tatiana Zagorodnyaya Svetlana Petrovskaya Elvira Rodionova Elena Cherkasova Anatoly Gmyl Olga Ivanova Tatyana Eremeeva Galina Lipskaya Vadim Agol Konstantin Chumakov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Sister Elizabeth Kenny and Polio in America: Doyenne or Demagogue in Her Role in Rehabilitation Medicine?
(Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - November 22, 2017 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Bruce E. Becker Source Type: research

What Kind of Incision Should Be Made to Reduce the Risk of Incisional Hernia in Kidney Transplantation?
CONCLUSIONS We conclude that using the smallest possible semilunar line incision in the inguinal region would aid in preventing post-transplantation incisional hernias. PMID: 29151569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Transplantation)
Source: Annals of Transplantation - November 20, 2017 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Yildız I, Koca YS Tags: Ann Transplant Source Type: research

Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2016.
Abstract The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage for all vaccines in the country's routine immunization schedule by 2020. CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates to describe changes in global and regional coverage as of 2016. Global coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), the third dose of polio vaccine, and the first dose o...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - November 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Feldstein LR, Mariat S, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Conklin LM, Wallace AS Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Enforcement Associated With Higher School-Reported Immunization Rates
Conclusions In North Dakota, lack of school enforcement is strongly associated with lower immunization rates and a large noncompliant population. Addressing noncompliance through school enforcement could significantly increase school-reported immunization rates. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - November 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exploring the relationship between polio type 2 serum neutralizing antibodies and intestinal immunity using data from two randomized controlled trials of new bOPV-IPV immunization schedules.
t C Abstract BACKGROUND: Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is now the only source of routine type 2 protection. The relationship, if any, between vaccine-induced type 2 humoral and intestinal immunity is poorly understood. METHODS: Two clinical trials in five Latin American countries of mixed or sequential bOPV-IPV schedules in 1640 infants provided data on serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and intestinal immunity, assessed as viral shedding following oral mOPV2 challenge. Analyses with generalized additive and quantile regression models examined the relationships between prechallenge NAb titers and proportio...
Source: Vaccine - November 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bandyopadhyay AS, Asturias EJ, O'Ryan M, Oberste MS, Weldon W, Clemens R, Rüttimann R, Modlin JF, Gast C Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: "The Cure That Time Forgot"?
Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: "The Cure That Time Forgot"? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;996:295-309 Authors: Hamblin MR Abstract Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, UBI use declined and it has now been called "the cure that time forgot". Later studies were mostly performed by...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - November 12, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

General practitioners and vaccination of children presenting with a benign infection.
Authors: Le Maréchal M, Fressard L, Raude J, Verger P, Pulcini C Abstract PURPOSE: To assess the self-reported vaccination behavior of general practitioners (GPs) when asked whether they would recommend the vaccination of a child presenting with a febrile uncomplicated common cold. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey in 2014 on a national sample of GPs. GPs were randomly assigned to one of eight clinical vignettes, all describing a child presenting with an uncomplicated febrile common cold, but differing by age (4 or 11 months), temperature (38°C or 39°C), and the mother's emotional st...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - November 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research

Measuring the timeliness of childhood vaccinations: Using cohort data and routine health records to evaluate quality of immunisation services.
CONCLUSIONS: Routine immunisation records provide useful information on timely receipt of vaccines and can be used to assess the quality of childhood vaccination programmes. Parental report of MMR vaccine status is reliable. PMID: 29132992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - November 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Walton S, Cortina-Borja M, Dezateux C, Griffiths LJ, Tingay K, Akbari A, Bandyopadhyay A, Lyons RA, Bedford H Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Vaccine responses in newborns
AbstractImmunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older inf...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - November 9, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Modelling Risk to US Military Populations from Stopping Blanket Mandatory Polio Vaccination.
Conclusion: Risk-based immunization driven by deployment to polio-endemic regions is sufficient to prevent transmission among both deployed and nondeployed US military populations. PMID: 29104608 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine)
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - November 8, 2017 Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of post polio syndrome
Conclusion rTMS can be an effective method in treatment of post polio syndrome but further studies with larger group need to be done to confirm that data. (Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery - November 6, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

[Perspectives] Inspiration
Recently married Robin (Andrew Garfield) and Diana (Clare Foy) Cavendish lead charmed lives. Robin imports tea from Kenya, and both enjoy the trappings of a 1950s' colonial lifestyle. There are weekend safaris with chums and tea and tennis at the British ambassador's. Then, suddenly, Robin is taken seriously ill with polio. This leaves him tetraplegic and unable even to breathe for himself. It is, as Robin puts it, “a bit of a bugger”. Breathe is a relentlessly cheerful film about how Robin and his family don't accept that tragedy necessarily follows this disaster. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - November 3, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Stephen Ginn Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2016-June 2017.
This report updates previous summaries regarding VDPVs (3). During January 2016-June 2017, new cVDPV outbreaks were identified, including two in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (eight cases), and another in Syria (35 cases), whereas the circulation of cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) in Nigeria resulted in cVDPV2 detection linked to a previous emergence. The last confirmed case from the 2015-2016 cVDPV type 1 (cVDPV1) outbreak in Laos occurred in January 2016. Fourteen newly identified persons in 10 countries were found to excrete iVDPVs, and three previously reported patients in the United Kingdom and Iran (3) were still ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - November 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jorba J, Diop OM, Iber J, Henderson E, Sutter RW, Wassilak SGF, Burns CC Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Vaccine-related poliovirus shedding in trivalent polio vaccine and human immunodeficiency virus status: analysis from under five children
Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by poliovirus and transmitted via the fecal –oral route. The causative agent is one of the three serotypes of poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, 3) that differ slightly... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - November 3, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Joanne Hassan, Laura Wangai, Peter Borus, Christopher Khayeka –Wandabwa, Lucy Wanja Karani, Mercy Kithinji and Michael Kiptoo Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Surveillance and laboratory detection for non-polio enteroviruses in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2016.
Abstract Enteroviruses (EVs) cause severe outbreaks of respiratory and neurological disease as illustrated by EV-D68 and EV-A71 outbreaks, respectively. We have mapped European laboratory capacity for identification and characterisation of non-polio EVs to improve preparedness to respond to (re)-emerging EVs linked to severe disease. An online questionnaire on non-polio EV surveillance and laboratory detection was submitted to all 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. Twenty-nine countries responded; 26 conducted laboratory-based non-polio EV surveillance, and 24 included neurological infe...
Source: Euro Surveill - November 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harvala H, Jasir A, Penttinen P, Pastore Celentano L, Greco D, Broberg E Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Efficacy of trivalent influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza among young children in a randomized trial in Bangladesh.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Few trials have evaluated influenza vaccine efficacy (VE) in young children, a group particularly vulnerable to influenza complications. We aimed to estimate VE against influenza in children aged
Source: Vaccine - October 31, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rolfes MA, Goswami D, Sharmeen AT, Yeasmin S, Parvin N, Nahar K, Rahman M, Barends M, Ahmed D, Rahman MZ, Bresee J, Luby S, Moulton LH, Santosham M, Fry AM, Brooks WA Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research