The multiple lives of DEAD-box RNA helicase DP103/DDX20/Gemin3.
Abstract Gemin3, also known as DDX20 or DP103, is a DEAD-box RNA helicase which is involved in more than one cellular process. Though RNA unwinding has been determined in vitro, it is surprisingly not required for all of its activities in cellular metabolism. Gemin3 is an essential gene, present in Amoeba and Metazoa. The highly conserved N-terminus hosts the helicase core, formed of the helicase- and DEAD-domains, which, based on crystal structure determination, have key roles in RNA binding. The C-terminus of Gemin3 is highly divergent between species and serves as the interaction site for several accessory fact...
Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - March 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Curmi F, Cauchi RJ Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research

Ultrasound Guided Carpal Tunnel Release Using Dynamic Expansion of the Transverse Safe Zone in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome: A Case Report
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018 Source:PM&R Author(s): Troy Henning, Daniel Lueders, Kate Chang, Lynda Yang The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) in patients that suffer from post-polio syndrome occurs at a rate of 22%.[1] Irrespective of those with CTS, 74% of post-polio patients weight bear through their arms for ambulation or transfers.[1] As open carpal tunnel release is performed along the weight bearing region of the wrist, their functional independence may be altered while recovering. This case demonstrates that ultrasound guided carpal tunnel release(USCTR) was successfully performe...
Source: PMandR - March 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Polio eradication - just one final sprint to the finish.
ash;S PMID: 29513430 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening)
Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening - March 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sivertsen ØS Tags: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Source Type: research

Ultrasound Guided Carpal Tunnel Release Using Dynamic Expansion of the Transverse Safe Zone in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome: A Case Report
The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) in patients that suffer from post-polio syndrome occurs at a rate of 22%.[1] Irrespective of those with CTS, 74% of post-polio patients weight bear through their arms for ambulation or transfers.[1] As open carpal tunnel release is performed along the weight bearing region of the wrist, their functional independence may be altered while recovering. This case demonstrates that ultrasound guided carpal tunnel release(USCTR) was successfully performed in a patient with post-polio syndrome allowing him to immediately weight bear through his hands after the procedure so he could rec...
Source: PM and R - March 5, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Troy Henning, Daniel Lueders, Kate Chang, Lynda Yang Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of anti-polio antibodies in children from polio high risk area of Afghanistan: A cross sectional survey 2017.
CONCLUSIONS: The polio eradication program in Kandahar achieved high serological protection, especially against PV1 and PV3. Lower PV2 seroprevalence in the younger age group is a result of a withdrawal of live type 2 vaccine in 2016 and is expected. Ability to reach all children with poliovirus vaccines is a pre-requisite for achieving poliovirus eradication. PMID: 29510918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - March 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hussain I, Mach O, Hamid NA, Bhatti ZS, Moore DD, Oberste MS, Khan S, Khan H, Weldon WC, Sutter RW, Bhutta ZA, Soofi SB Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Nigeria, January-December 2017.
This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimat...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - March 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bolu O, Nnadi C, Damisa E, Braka F, Siddique A, Archer WR, Bammeke P, Banda R, Higgins J, Edukugo A, Nganda GW, Forbi JC, Liu H, Gidado S, Soghaier M, Franka R, Waziri N, Burns CC, Vertefeuille J, Wiesen E, Adamu U Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Nigeria, January –December 2017.
Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Nigeria, January–December 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2018 Mar 02;93(9):97-104 Authors: PMID: 29498497 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - March 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Outbreak of recombinant coxsackievirus A2 infection and polio-like paralysis of children, Taiwan, 2014
Patients with coxsackievirus A2 (CVA2) infection mostly present with herpangina and rarely have central nervous system complications.1 However, in 2012, a Hong Kong study reported that a naturally occurring recombinant CVA2 caused an outbreak of severe respiratory symptoms, leading to two deaths.2 In the current study, we report an outbreak of CVA2-infection-related acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Taiwan. Sequencing and analysis of the viruses isolated from fecal samples revealed that the currently prevalent CVA2 strain is highly similar to the Hong Kong recombinant. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kuo-Liang Chiang, Sung-Hsi Wei, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Yu-Kung Chou, Jyh-Yuan Yang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Seronegativity to polio viruses among previously immunized adult candidates to solid organ transplantation.
In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among the first 100 patients enrolled in this study, only seven adult SOT candidates had proven polio vaccination at childhood. Three of these seven patients (43%) had no protective antibody titers to one or mor...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brandão LGP, Brasil PEAAD, Silva SO, Silva EED, Lopes GS Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Results of Ilizarov External Fixation in Rigid Equinus Deformity: An Experience of 30 Patients.
CONCLUSION: Ilizarov external fixation being a minimal invasive procedure allows a greater degree of equinus deformity correction. PMID: 30152762 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja)
Source: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja - February 27, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ahmad K, Ahmad Bhat S, Avtar Agrawal R, Agrawal R Tags: Ortop Traumatol Rehabil Source Type: research

Total Hip Arthroplasty for Patients with Residual Poliomyelitis at a Mean Eight Years of Follow-up.
Authors: Sonekatsu M, Sonohata M, Kitajima M, Kawano S, Mawatari M Abstract In patients with poliomyelitis, degenerative arthritis of the hip may be encountered in the paralytic or normal contralateral limb because of leg length discrepancy, pelvic obliquity, or severe deformities of the affected hip. Although total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common orthopedic procedures, there are few reports of THA in adult patients with residual poliomyelitis. From March 2001 to January 2011, 5 patients with residual poliomyelitis (6 hips) underwent THA using uncemented implants at our hospital. We retrospectively...
Source: Acta Medica Okayama - February 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Okayama Source Type: research

Prevalence and characteristics of human parechovirus and enterovirus infection in febrile infants
This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infection in febrile young infants in Japan. MethodsDuring February 2010–August 2015, we obtained 53 stool, 44 throat swab, and 20 cerebrospinal fluid samples from 56 infants (
Source: Pediatrics International - February 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kentaro Sano, Hiromichi Hamada, Shoko Hirose, Kenta Sugiura, Satoko Harada, Mai Koizumi, Mayumi Hara, Haruna Nishijima, Masakatsu Taira, Atsushi Ogura, Tomoko Ogawa, Jun ‐ichi Takanashi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

New insights into physiopathology of immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus infection; systematic review of over 5 decades of data.
Abstract Widespread administration of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has decreased global incidence of poliomyelitis by ≈99.9%. However, the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) is threatening polio-eradication program. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are at higher risks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and prolonged excretion of immunodeficiency-associated VDPV (iVDPV). We searched Embase, Medline, Science direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and CDC and WHO databases by 30 September 2016, for all reports of iVDPV cases. Patient-level data were extracted form eligible stud...
Source: Vaccine - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shaghaghi M, Soleyman-Jahi S, Abolhassani H, Yazdani R, Azizi G, Rezaei N, Barbouche MR, McKinlay MA, Aghamohammadi A Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Evaluation of vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak response options: A randomized controlled trial, Karachi, Pakistan.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses type 2 (cVDPV2) remain a risk to poliovirus eradication in an era without live poliovirus vaccine containing type 2 in routine immunization. We evaluated existing outbreak response strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for control of cVDPV2 outbreaks. METHODS: Seronegative children for poliovirus type 2 (PV2) at 22 weeks of life were assigned to one of four study groups and received respectively (1) one dose of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV); (2) monovalent OPV 2 (mOPV2); (3) tOPV together with a dos...
Source: Vaccine - February 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Saleem AF, Yousafzai MT, Mach O, Khan A, Quadri F, Weldon WC, Oberste MS, Zaidi SS, Alam MM, Sutter RW, Zaidi AKM Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Evaluation of the use of various rat strains for immunogenic potency tests of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines.
Abstract Slc:Wistar rats have been the only strain used in Japan for purpose of evaluating a national reference vaccine for the Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) and the immunogenicity of sIPV-containing products. However, following the discovery that the Slc:Wistar strain was genetically related to the Fischer 344 strain, other "real" Wistar strains, such as Crlj:WI, that are available worldwide were tested in terms of their usefulness in evaluating the immunogenicity of the past and current lots of a national reference vaccine. The response of the Crlj:WI rats against the serotype 1 of sIP...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - February 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Someya Y, Ami Y, Takai-Todaka R, Fujimoto A, Haga K, Murakami K, Fujii Y, Shirato H, Oka T, Shimoike T, Katayama K, Wakita T Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

March of Dimes Foundation: leading the way to birth defects prevention.
Authors: Walani SR, Biermann J Abstract Birth defects are a major cause of mortality among children under five. In accordance with its mission, the March of Dimes Foundation is dedicated to reducing the toll of birth defects on children, families, and society. Founded in 1938 to fight polio, March of Dimes currently focuses on prevention of birth defects and preterm birth and has had a major influence on surveillance, research, advocacy, awareness, and education related to birth defects prevention and care. In the USA, it has played an active role in promoting and advocating for newborn screening for early diagnosi...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Polio immunization in Pakistan: ethical issues and challenges.
Conclusion: Having programmatic, system-wide, socio-cultural and of course ethical dimensions, the policy makers and the programme managers in Pakistan must attempt to address the multitude of challenges to polio vaccination, whereby the plan of action developed within the ethical norms could potentially lead to an ultimate success. PMID: 29450078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.
Abstract Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in adult asylum seekers. In this 2016 study, we assessed the immunity of adult asylum seekers against nine VPD to identify groups that might benefit from additional vaccinations. We invited asylum seekers from Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and Ethiopia to participate in a serosurvey. Par...
Source: Vaccine - February 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Freidl GS, Tostmann A, Curvers M, Ruijs WLM, Smits G, Schepp R, Duizer E, Boland G, de Melker H, van der Klis FRM, Hautvast JLA, Veldhuijzen IK Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Insecurity, polio vaccination rates, and polio incidence in northwest Pakistan [Social Sciences]
Pakistan is one of three countries in which endemic transmission of poliovirus has never been stopped. Insecurity is often cited but poorly studied as a barrier to eradicating polio. We analyzed routinely collected health data from 32 districts of northwest Pakistan and constructed an index of insecurity based on journalistic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Amol A. Verma, Marcia P. Jimenez, Rudolf H. Tangermann, S. V. Subramanian, Fahad Razak Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Attitude and subjective wellbeing of non-compliant mothers to childhood oral polio vaccine supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria
Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers ’ att... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - February 8, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Gregory C. Umeh, Terna Ignatius Nomhwange, Anthony F. Shamang, Furera Zakari, Audu I. Musa, Paul M. Dogo, Victor Gugong and Neyu Iliyasu Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Sense of Coherence in persons with late effects of polio.
Authors: Nolvi M, Brogårdh C, Jacobsson L, Lexell J Abstract BACKGROUND: Sense of Coherence (SOC) is important for successful adaptation and mental well-being in people with life-long medical conditions. Late effects of polio (LEoP) often lead to a life-long disability, but no study has assessed SOC in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess SOC in persons with LEoP and to explore the association between SOC, demographics (age, gender, marital status and level of education) and variables related to LEoP (age at polio onset, number of years from polio until onset of LEoP and self-rated disability). METHO...
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - February 7, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research

On chronic fatigue syndrome and nosological categories
AbstractChronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a heterogeneous disease which presents with pronounced disabling fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment that negatively affects patients ’ functional capability. CFS remains a poorly defined entity and its etiology is still in question. CFS is neither a novel diagnosis nor a new medical condition. From as early as the eighteenth century, a constellation of perplexing symptoms was observed that resembled symptoms of CFS. Commencing with “febricula” and ending with CFS, many names for the disease were proposed including neurocirculatory asthenia, atyp...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - February 7, 2018 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Immunisation rates among children in Nuuk.
Authors: Albertsen N, Fencker IM, Noasen HE, Pedersen ML Abstract The children immunisation programme in Greenland correlates to the one in Denmark with the addition of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccine and the immunisation against Hepatitis B (HBV). The immunisation rate among children in Greenland has been and is currently unknown and this study aims to estimate the immunisation rates among children in Nuuk from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016. We did an observational cross-sectional study based on a statistical extraction identifying all children in Nuuk eligible for an immunization in the children immuni...
Source: International Journal of Circumpolar Health - February 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Int J Circumpolar Health Source Type: research

Estimating the Population-Level Effectiveness of Vaccination Programs in the Netherlands
Conclusion: Vaccination programs for diphtheria and pertussis showed substantial indirect effects, providing evidence for herd protection. (Source: Epidemiology)
Source: Epidemiology - February 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious diseases Source Type: research

Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience
Conclusions Access to EPI vaccination for children is a key example of preventative public health interventions that have been curtailed in Northern Syria since the start of the conflict. These findings demonstrate that collapse of the formal public health system has led to an increasingly large group of children who are susceptible to infectious diseases with serious consequences, with younger children most vulnerable. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of EPI activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan de Lima Pereira Source Type: research

Efficacy of Arsenicum album 30cH in preventing febrile episodes following DPT-HepB-Polio vaccination - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
CONCLUSION: Empirically selected Arsenicum album 30cH could not produce differentiable effect from placebo in preventing febrile episodes following DPT-HepB-Polio vaccination. [Trial registration: CTRI/2017/02/007939]. PMID: 29458932 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Complementary Therapies in Medicine)
Source: Complementary Therapies in Medicine - February 1, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Ghosh S, Ghosh T, Mondal R, Patra S, Das S, Ali SS, Koley M, Saha S Tags: Complement Ther Med Source Type: research

Anti-Infectious Human Vaccination in Historical Perspective.
Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be dev...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The global switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV): facts, experiences and lessons learned from the south-south zone; Nigeria, April 2016
The globally synchronized switch from trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (bOPV) took place in Nigeria on April 18th 2016. The country is divided into six geopolitical zones. Thi... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bassey Enya Bassey, Fiona Braka, Rui Gama Vaz, William Komakech, Sylvester Toritseju Maleghemi, Richard Koko, Thompson Igbu, Faith Ireye, Sylvester Agwai, Godwin Ubong Akpan, Sisay Gashu Tegegne, Abdul-Aziz Garba Mohammed and Angela Okocha-Ejeko Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Expanding molecular diagnostics of helminthiasis: Piloting use of the GPLN platform for surveillance of soil transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis in Ghana
This study raises the possibility of collaboration with the GPLN for the surveillance of a wider range of diseases which would both benefit the efforts to control the NTDs and also increase the scope of the GPLN as a diagnostic platform. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 25, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lucas J. Cunningham Source Type: research

Recipient vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in China, 2010-2015.
CONCLUSION: The epidemiological characteristics of recipient VAPP cases in China, such as age distribution, were comparable to those in previous studies from other countries. The risk of recipient VAPP, using either estimated births or vaccination doses, was comparable to that in the US and Japan. We recommend using an inactive poliovirus vaccine to decrease the number of recipient VAPP cases in China. PMID: 29395524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - January 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wu W, Wang H, Li K, Pekka Nuorti J, Liu D, Xu D, Ye J, Zheng J, Fan C, Wen N, An Z Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Extending the utility of the WHO recommended assay for direct detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen for resolving poliovirus co-infection
In a polio-free world there might be reduced funding for poliovirus surveillance. There is therefore the need to ensure that enterovirologist globally, especially those outside the global polio laboratory netw... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - January 18, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye, Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Naomi Princess Ozegbe, Oluwaseun Elijah Ogunsakin, Grace Ariyo, Faith Wuraola Adeshina, Oluwaseun Sarah Ogunga, Similoluwa Deborah Oluwadare and Johnson Adekunle Adeniji Tags: Research note Source Type: research

Assessment of poliovirus antibody seroprevalence in polio high risk areas of West Africa.
Abstract We conducted a serological survey of anti-polio antibodies in polio high-risk areas of Mali, Guinea and Cote d'Ivoire to assess risk of future poliovirus outbreaks. Random community sampling of children 6-11 and 36-48 months-old was conducted; neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus were detected using microneutralization assay. We analysed 1059/1064 (99.5%) of enrolled children. Seroprevalence to poliovirus type 1 (PV1) across all age groups and locations ranged between 92 and 100%, for PV2 it was 77-100%, and 89-95% for PV3. PV2 seroprevalence in the younger age group in Guinea and Cote d'Ivoire was 
Source: Vaccine - January 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Guindo O, Mach O, Doumbia S, Ekra DK, Beavogui AH, Weldon WC, Oberste MS, Sutter RW Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Recommendations for enterovirus diagnostics and characterisation within and beyond Europe
Enteroviruses (EVs) and human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are members of the Enterovirus genus of the virus family Picornaviridae. EVs infecting humans are classified into four species (A –D) and HRVs into three species (A–C) on the basis of genetic divergence [1]. The most well-known are polioviruses (PV), classified within species C enteroviruses and the target of a global polio eradication program. This guideline focuses on the detection and characterisation of non-polio enter oviruses. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - January 17, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Heli Harvala, Eeva Broberg, Kimberley Benschop, Natasa Berginc, Shamez Ladhani, Petri Susi, Claus Christiansen, James McKenna, David Allen, Phoebe Makiello, Georgina McAllister, Mirabelli Carmen, Katherina Zakikhany, Robert Dyrdak, Xiaohui Nielsen, Tina M Tags: Review Source Type: research

Measles and Rubella Global Strategic Plan 2012-2020 midterm review report: Background and summary.
ld AL Abstract Measles, a vaccine-preventable illness, is one of the most infectious diseases known to man. In 2015, an estimated 134,200 measles deaths occurred globally. Rubella, also vaccine-preventable, is a concern because infection during pregnancy can result in congenital defects in the baby. More than 100,000 babies with congenital rubella syndrome were estimated to have been born globally in 2010. Eradication of both measles and rubella is considered to be feasible, beneficial, and more cost-effective than high-level control. All six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have measles elimination goals b...
Source: Vaccine - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Orenstein WA, Cairns L, Hinman A, Nkowane B, Olivé JM, Reingold AL Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Measles and Rubella Global Strategic Plan 2012-2020 midterm review.
Abstract KEY HIGHLIGHTS: 1. Measles eradication is the ultimate goal but it is premature to set a date for its accomplishment. Existing regional elimination goals should be vigorously pursued to enable setting a global target by 2020. 2. The basic strategic approaches articulated in the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan 2012-2020 are valid to achieve the goals but have not been fully implemented (or not appropriately adapted to local situations). 3. The report recommends a shift from primary reliance on supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to assure two doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) are...
Source: Vaccine - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Orenstein WA, Hinman A, Nkowane B, Olive JM, Reingold A Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia
We report a case of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia who was initially diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. Isolation of Sabin-like type 1 poliovirus from the patient ’s cerebrospinal fluid made this a case of vaccine-related poliovirus (VRPV) infection. The patient developed paralysis and respiratory distress and deceased a few months after onset of paralysis with respiratory failure. This tragic case report highlights the emergence of VAPP and indicates the i mportance of timely diagnosis of VRPV infections to improve clinical management...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serological Markers of Recent Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Patients with Guillain-Barr é Syndrome in the State of Piauí, Brazil, 2014-2016.
Serological Markers of Recent Campylobacter jejuni Infection in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome in the State of Piauí, Brazil, 2014-2016. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jan 08;: Authors: Souza CO, Vieira MACS, Batista FMA, Eulálio KD, Neves JMM, Sá LC, Monteiro LCR, Almeida-Neto WS, Azevedo RSS, Costa DL, Cruz ACR Abstract In countries where poliomyelitis has been eradicated, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis. The range of infections that precede GBS in Brazil is unknown. Campylobacter jejuni infection is the most frequent t...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 8, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Souza CO, Vieira MACS, Batista FMA, Eulálio KD, Neves JMM, Sá LC, Monteiro LCR, Almeida-Neto WS, Azevedo RSS, Costa DL, Cruz ACR Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

[Comment] The polio endgame: securing a world free of all polioviruses
The global effort to eradicate poliomyelitis has reduced the incidence of cases caused by wild poliovirus by more than 99% since its launch in 1988, from 350  000 annual cases in 125 endemic countries to 20 cases in two countries in 2017.1 More than 16 million people who would otherwise have been paralysed by poliovirus infection are today walking, and 80%2 of the world's population lives in regions certified as polio free by WHO. Wild poliovirus now c irculates in only a few areas and remains endemic in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - January 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michel Zaffran, Michael McGovern, Reza Hossaini, Rebecca Martin, Jay Wenger Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Global Polio Eradication – Way Ahead
AbstractIn 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012. The year also marks the Global Polio E...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - January 5, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The polio endgame: securing a world free of all polioviruses
Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source:The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Michel Zaffran, Michael McGovern, Reza Hossaini, Rebecca Martin, Jay Wenger (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - January 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Characteristics of wild polio virus outbreak investigation and response in Ethiopia in 2013 –2014: implications for prevention of outbreaks due to importations
Ethiopia joined the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1996, and by the end of December 2001 circulation of indigenous Wild Polio Virus (WPV) had been interrupted. Nonetheless, the country experienc... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ayesheshem Ademe Tegegne, Fiona Braka, Meseret Eshetu Shebeshi, Aron Kassahun Aregay, Berhane Beyene, Amare Mengistu Mersha, Mohammed Ademe, Abdulahi Muhyadin, Dadi Jima and Abyot Bekele Wyessa Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Transcatheter bicuspid aortic valve replacement in Turner syndrome: A unique experience of interventional cardiologist
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017 Source:Journal of Cardiology Cases Author(s): Ahmad Munir, Ahsan Wahab, Mahin Khan, Hafiz Khan, Wah Wah Htun, Theodore L. Schreiber A 69-year-old short-statured Turner syndrome (TS) patient with a history of poliomyelitis in childhood and moderate bicuspid aortic stenosis (BAS) reported worsening dyspnea and fatigue over six months. A repeat transthoracic echocardiogram revealed progression to severe aortic stenosis with dilated ascending aorta (AA). As part of the work-up for aortic valve replacement, the patient underwent cardiac catheterization, which revealed a severel...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - January 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mandatory vaccination: understanding the common good in the midst of the global polio eradication campaign
AbstractBackgroundThe detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state ’s police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective meas...
Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research - January 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Modeling Poliovirus Transmission in Pakistan and Afghanistan to Inform Vaccination Strategies in Undervaccinated Subpopulations
This study suggests that despite the moderate effect of using IPV in SIAs, using OPV in SIAs remains the most effective means to stop transmission, while limited IPV resources should prioritize IPV use in routine immunization. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - January 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A. Pallansch, Stephen L. Cochi, Derek T. Ehrhardt, Noha H. Farag, Stephen C. Hadler, Lee M. Hampton, Maureen Martinez, Steve G.F. Wassilak, Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

[Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].
te;na M, Montesdeoca Melián A, Ruiz-Contreras J, en representación del Comité Asesor de Vacunas de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (CAV-AEP) Abstract The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with...
Source: Anales de Pediatria - January 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Moreno-Pérez D, Álvarez García FJ, Álvarez Aldeán J, Cilleruelo Ortega MJ, Garcés Sánchez M, García Sánchez N, Hernández Merino Á, Méndez Hernández M, Merino Moína M, Montesdeoca Melián A, Ruiz-Contreras J, en representación del Comité As Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research

[Polio vaccines and biorisk management of polioviruses].
Abstract Japan is the first country where inactivated polio vaccines derived from Sabin attenuated strains, which are used to manufacture oral polio vaccines, were introduced in routine immunization program. The Sabin-derived inactivated vaccine has been developed based on the fact that Sabin strains are less neurovirulent and manufactured at safer productionfacilities than wild polioviruses. It is also convincing that Sabin strains are more safely used for evaluating the efficacy of inactivated vaccines in rat immunogenicity tests. However, in the current situation where polioviruses are close to being eradicated...
Source: Uirusu. Journal of Virology - January 1, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Someya Y, Shimizu H Tags: Uirusu Source Type: research

Chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis, and neuroborreliosis: CXCL10 as initial discriminator in diagnostic algorithm?
AbstractWe investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls,n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CX...
Source: Neurological Sciences - December 29, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Schemata, CONSORT, and the Salk Polio Vaccine Trial.
Abstract In this essay, we defend the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial and try to put some limits on the role schemata should play in designing clinical research studies. Our presentation is structured as a response to de Freitas and Pietrobon (de Freitas, R. S. and R. Pietrobon. 2007. Whoever could get rid of the context of discovery/context of justification dichotomy? A proposal based on recent developments in clinical research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32:25-42.) who identified the CONSORT statement as a schema that would have, had it existed at the time, ruled out the design of the Salk polio v...
Source: The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy - December 29, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Kowalski CJ, Mrdjenovich AJ Tags: J Med Philos Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Vaccination Status of Children Aged 12 –48 Months in India, 2012–2013
Conclusions for Practice India ’s vaccination rates among children aged 12–48 months remains unacceptably low. The Indian government should encourage institutional delivery or birthing with a skilled attendant to ensure women receive adequate health education through antenatal care that includes the importance of childhood va ccination. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - December 28, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research