Latest Battle to Wipe Out Polio Begins with Vast Vaccine Switch
Massive push that begins this weekend will include more than 150 countries -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)
Source: Scientific American - April 15, 2016 Category: Science Tags: Health Medicine Public Health Source Type: research

Repeated training of accredited social health activists (ASHAs) for improved detection of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Bihar, India.
Authors: Das VN, Pandey RN, Kumar V, Pandey K, Siddiqui NA, Verma RB, Matlashewski G, Das P Abstract Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are incentive-based, female health workers responsible for a village of 1000 population and living in the same community and render valuable services towards maternal and child health care, polio elimination program and other health care-related activities including visceral leishmaniasis (VL). One of the major health concerns is that cases remain in the endemic villages for weeks without treatment causing increased likelihood to treatment failure and disease transmission i...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - April 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients
Abstract Worldwide 10–20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940–1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) c...
Source: Journal of Neurology - April 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Performance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and incidence of poliomyelitis, 2015.
Authors: PMID: 27086368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - April 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Polio surveillance: tracking progress towards eradication, worldwide, 2014–2015.
Polio surveillance: tracking progress towards eradication, worldwide, 2014–2015. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016 Apr 15;91(15):193-202 Authors: PMID: 27086367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - April 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: Anesthetic and Critical Care Implications.
Abstract Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as measles and pertussis are becoming more common in the United States. This disturbing trend is driven by several factors, including the antivaccination movement, waning efficacy of certain vaccines, pathogen adaptation, and travel of individuals to and from areas where disease is endemic. The anesthesia-related manifestations of many VPDs involve airway complications, cardiovascular and respiratory compromise, and unusual neurologic and neuromuscular symptoms. In this article, we will review the presentation and management of 9 VPDs most relevant to anesthesiolog...
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - April 15, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Porteous GH, Hanson NA, Sueda LA, Hoaglan CD, Dahl AB, Ohlson BB, Schmidt BE, Wang CC, Fagley RE Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research

Environmental surveillance of viruses by tangential flow filtration and metagenomic reconstruction
An approach is proposed for environmental surveillance of poliovirus by concentrating sewage samples with tangential flow filtration (TFF) followed by deep sequencing of viral RNA. Subsequent to testing the method with samples from Finland, samples from Pakistan, a country endemic for poliovirus, were investigated. Genomic sequencing was either performed directly, for unbiased identification of viruses regardless of their ability to grow in cell cultures, or after virus enrichment by cell culture or immunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics enabled separation and determination of individual consensus sequences. Overall, deep seq...
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Environmental surveillance of viruses by tangential flow filtration and metagenomic reconstruction.
Abstract An approach is proposed for environmental surveillance of poliovirus by concentrating sewage samples with tangential flow filtration (TFF) followed by deep sequencing of viral RNA. Subsequent to testing the method with samples from Finland, samples from Pakistan, a country endemic for poliovirus, were investigated. Genomic sequencing was either performed directly, for unbiased identification of viruses regardless of their ability to grow in cell cultures, or after virus enrichment by cell culture or immunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics enabled separation and determination of individual consensus sequences....
Source: Euro Surveill - April 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Furtak V, Roivainen M, Mirochnichenko O, Zagorodnyaya T, Laassri M, Zaidic SZ, Rehman L, Alam MM, Chizhikov V, Chumakov K Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.
Authors: Ozaras R, Leblebicioglu H, Sunbul M, Tabak F, Balkan II, Yemisen M, Sencan I, Ozturk R Abstract The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - April 13, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Vaccination Status of Pneumococcal and Other Vaccines in 444 Liver Transplant Patients Compared to a Representative Population Sample.
CONCLUSIONS In agreement with studies addressing other solid organ transplant recipients, vaccination coverage of LT patients and the general population needs to be improved. PMID: 27052410 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Transplantation)
Source: Annals of Transplantation - April 9, 2016 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Weltermann B, Herwig A, Dehnen D, Herzer K Tags: Ann Transplant Source Type: research

Surveillance Systems to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2014-2015.
Abstract Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and polio-free certification has been achieved in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015, achieving an important milestone toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in the African Region (1). Afghanistan and Pakistan, both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, were the only countries to report WPV cases in 2015. Previously reported outbreaks caused by WPV importation during 2013-2014 have ended (2,3). The primary means for detecting poliovi...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - April 9, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Snider CJ, Diop OM, Burns CC, Tangermann RH, Wassilak SG Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Using the social structure of markets as a framework for analyzing vaccination debates: The case of emergency polio vaccination
Volume 12, Issue 7, July 2016, pages 1930-193510.1080/21645515.2016.1147637Yaron Connelly (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - April 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yaron ConnellyArnona ZivUri GorenOrna TalGiora KaplanBaruch Velan Source Type: research

Twenty-Year Clinical Profile of Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis in Children in Oman, a Gulf Country (P1.398)
Conclusion: ITM was a crippling disease in children and the incidence was almost one case per million children population per year in this country.Disclosure: Dr. Koul has nothing to disclose. Dr. Alfutaisi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sankhla has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Koul, R. l., Alfutaisi, A., Sankhla, D. Tags: MS and CNS Inflammatory Disease: Risk Factors for Disease Progression and Treatment Response Source Type: research

The Iron Lung - Halfway Technology Revisited (P2.403)
Conclusions: Manufacture of "iron lungs" began in the early 1930s and expanded until development of both a "full technology" for polio (Salk vaccine) and more sophisticated ventilation devices in the 1950s.Disclosure: Dr. Lanska received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Medlink Neurology and Elsevier. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lanska, D. Tags: History of Neurology Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia in Adult Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Pilot Study in Central Pennsylvania (P3.388)
CONCLUSION; This PILOT study showed a statistically significant high prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients with neuromuscular disorders independent of any known long term similar effects of prednisone therapy.such high prevalence was seen in men as well as in women.Large multicentric studies are worth contemplating. This can turn out to be an undiagnosed endemic or even pandemic condition. Plummeted quality of life, pain, and fractures can result from osteoporosis which can be potentially preventable if accurate and holistic diagnoses are made, prompting appropriate measures. Study supported by: noneDisclos...
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Bandyopadhyay, S. Tags: General Neurology: Clinical Practice Source Type: research

Clinical Profile of Monomelic Amyotrophy (MMA) and Role of Persistent Viral Infection (P4.101)
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MMA are predominantly young males with upper limb wasting and weakness. The present study did not find any evidence of the association of viral infection in MMA. Study Supported by: AIIMS Intramural Fund (A-167)Disclosure: Dr. Vibha has nothing to disclose. Dr. Behari has nothing to disclose. Dr. Goyal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Shukla has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bhatia has nothing to disclose. Dr. Srivastava has nothing to disclose. Dr. Vivekanadhan has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Vibha, D., Behari, M., Goyal, V., Shukla, G., Bhatia, R., Srivastava, A., Vivekanadhan, S. Tags: Imaging Studies and Clinical Features in Motor Neuron Disease Source Type: research

Public Health Innovations on the Way to Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vaz, R. G., Mkanda, P., Nsubuga, P., Ado, M., Etsano, A. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Tracking Vaccination Teams During Polio Campaigns in Northern Nigeria by Use of Geographic Information System Technology: 2013-2015
Conclusions. The tracking of vaccination teams provided significant feedback during polio campaigns and enabled supervisors to evaluate performance of vaccination teams. The reports supported other polio program activities, such as review of microplans and the deployment of other interventions, for increasing population immunity in northern Nigeria. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Touray, K., Mkanda, P., Tegegn, S. G., Nsubuga, P., Erbeto, T. B., Banda, R., Etsano, A., Shuaib, F., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013-2014
Conclusions. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gali, E., Mkanda, P., Banda, R., Korir, C., Bawa, S., Warigon, C., Abdullahi, S., Abba, B., Isiaka, A., Yahualashet, Y. G., Touray, K., Chevez, A., Tegegne, S. G., Nsubuga, P., Etsano, A., Shuaib, F., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing Communities of Northern Nigeria: 2013-2014
Conclusions. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013–November 2014. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Warigon, C., Mkanda, P., Muhammed, A., Etsano, A., Korir, C., Bawa, S., Gali, E., Nsubuga, P., Erbeto, T. B., Gerlong, G., Banda, R., Yehualashet, Y. G., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

The Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio and Improved Acceptance of the Polio Vaccine in Northern Nigeria 2007-2015
Conclusions. The formation of the JAP resulted in measurable improvement in the acceptance of polio vaccine in northern Nigeria. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Warigon, C., Mkanda, P., Banda, R., Zakari, F., Damisa, E., Idowu, A., Bawa, S., Gali, E., Tegegne, S. G., Hammanyero, K., Nsubuga, P., Korir, C., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Youth Group Engagement in Noncompliant Communities During Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kaduna, Nigeria, in 2014
Conclusions. Systematic engagement of youth groups has a great future in polio interruption as we approach the endgame strategy for polio eradication. It promises to be a veritable innovation in reaching chronically missed children in OPV-refusing communities. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Musa, A., Mkanda, P., Manneh, F., Korir, C., Warigon, C., Gali, E., Banda, R., Umeh, G., Nsubuga, P., Chevez, A., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Implementation of a Systematic Accountability Framework in 2014 to Improve the Performance of the Nigerian Polio Program
Conclusions. Improvements in staff performance and process indicators were observed for the WHO-Nigeria polio program after implementation of a systematic accountability framework. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tegegne, S. G., MKanda, P., Yehualashet, Y. G., Erbeto, T. B., Touray, K., Nsubuga, P., Banda, R., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Intensified Local Resource Mobilization for the Polio Eradication Initiative: The Experience of World Health Organization in Nigeria During 2008-2015
Discussion. The polio program in Nigeria has achieved unprecedented gains, despite prevailing security and operational challenges, with no case of wild poliovirus infection since July 2014. Through rigorous, transparent, and accountable funds management practice, the WHO country office in Nigeria gained donors' confidence. The locally mobilized funds have made a remarkable contribution to the successful implementation of the strategies set out in the polio emergency plan. We face the challenges of a narrow donor-base, donor fatigue, and competition among other emerging agencies joining the polio eradication initiative...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yehualashet, Y. G., Horton, J., Mkanda, P., Vaz, R. G., Afolabi, O., Gashu, S. G., Banda, R., O'Malley, H., Nsubuga, P. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

World Health Organization's Innovative Direct Disbursement Mechanism for Payment of Grassroots Immunization Personnel and Operations in Nigeria: 2004-2015
The objective of the DDM was to timely deploy operational funds at the field level and directly pay vaccination personnel allowances at the grassroots level. Methods. A detailed operational guideline for funds disbursement was developed in close consultation with central and field stakeholders. Multiyear financial resource requirements and operational budgets for every campaign were produced by an interagency-coordinated finance subcommittee. The WHO engaged a bank and an accounting firm as DDM partners to support disbursement of and accounting for the SIA funds, respectively. The 37 WHO field offices were equipped wi...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yehualashet, Y. G., Wadda, A., Agblewonu, K. B., Zhema, T., Ibrahim, A.-a. A., Corr, A., Linkins, J., Mkanda, P., Vaz, R. G., Nsubuga, P., Ashogbon, D. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Strategic Engagement of Technical Surge Capacity for Intensified Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria, 2012-2015
Discussion. Programmatic interventions were sustained in states in which security was compromised and the risk of polio was high, partly owing to the presence of the surge capacity personnel, who are engaged from the local community. Since mid-2012, significant programmatic progress was registered in the areas of polio supplementary immunization activities, acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, and routine immunization with the support of the surge capacity personnel. As of 19 June 2015, the last case of WPV was reported on 24 July 2014. The surge infrastructure has also been instrumental in building local capacity; s...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yehualashet, Y. G., Mkanda, P., Gasasira, A., Erbeto, T., Onimisi, A., Horton, J., Banda, R., Tegegn, S. G., Ahmed, H., Afolabi, O., Wadda, A., Vaz, R. G., Nsubuga, P. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Role of Serial Polio Seroprevalence Studies in Guiding Implementation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in Kano, Nigeria: 2011-2014
Conclusions. The results from the polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in Kano Metropolitan Area in 2011, 2013, and 2014 served to assess the trends in immunity and program performance, as well as to guide the program, leading to various interventions being implemented with good effect, as evidenced by the reduction of poliovirus circulation in Kano. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Craig, K. T., Verma, H., Iliyasu, Z., Mkanda, P., Touray, K., Johnson, T., Walla, A., Banda, R., Tegegne, S. G., Yehualashet, Y. G., Abba, B., Ahmad-Shehu, A., Takane, M., Sutter, R. W., Nsubuga, P., Muhammad, A. J. G., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Contribution of Environmental Surveillance Toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012-2015
This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015. Methods. The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2–4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4°C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation. Results. From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a sea...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johnson Muluh, T., Hamisu, A. W., Craig, K., Mkanda, P., Andrew, E., Adeniji, J., Akande, A., Musa, A., Ayodeji, I., Nicksy, G., Banda, R., Tegegne, S. G., Nsubuga, P., Oyetunji, A., Diop, O., Vaz, R. G., Muhammad, A. J. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Strategies for Improving Polio Surveillance Performance in the Security-Challenged Nigerian States of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe During 2009-2014
Conclusions. The strategies implemented in the security-challenged states improved the quality of polio surveillance during the review period. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hamisu, A. W., Johnson, T. M., Craig, K., Mkanda, P., Banda, R., Tegegne, S. G., Oyetunji, A., Ningi, N., Mohammed, S. M., Adamu, M. I., Abdulrahim, K., Nsubuga, P., Vaz, R. G., Muhammed, A. J. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

The Role of the Polio Program Infrastructure in Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria 2014
Conclusions. The support from the polio program infrastructure, particularly the coordination mechanism adopted (the EEOC), the availability of skilled personnel in the polio program, and lessons learned from managing the polio eradication program greatly contributed to the speedy containment of the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vaz, R. G., Mkanda, P., Banda, R., Komkech, W., Ekundare-Famiyesin, O. O., Onyibe, R., Abidoye, S., Nsubuga, P., Maleghemi, S., Hannah-Murele, B., Tegegne, S. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

Strengthening Routine Immunization in Areas of Northern Nigeria at High Risk for Polio Transmission During 2012-2014
Conclusions. Routine immunization could be strengthened in areas where coverage is low, and RI has been identified to be weak when certain key routine activities are intensified. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali, D., Banda, R., Mohammed, A., Adagadzu, J., Murele, B., Seruyange, R., Makam, J., Mkanda, P., Okpessen, B., Tegegne, S. G., Folorunsho, A. S., Erbeto, T. B., Yehualashet, Y. G., Vaz, R. G. Tags: BEST POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE (PEI) PRACTICES IN NIGERIA WITH SUPPORT FROM THE WHO Source Type: research

(127) Can viral infections cause sudden-onset of intractable pain?
Pain associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), polio, hepatitis C, and herpes zoster is well known, so it is likely that other viruses may precipitate pain. There are some intractable pain patients whose condition appeared suddenly, without warning, and with no apparent pre-disposing condition. The on-going pain is usually severe headache, upper torso muscle and joint pain, or pelvic pain. The sudden onset in these cases suggests a possible viral etiology. Six adult (three male and three female) intractable pain patients who suddenly developed their condition without warning or precipitating event were tested for...
Source: The Journal of Pain - April 1, 2016 Category: Materials Science Authors: F. Tennant Source Type: research

Analysis of vaccination campaign effectiveness and population immunity to support and sustain polio elimination in Nigeria
The world is closer than ever to a polio-free Africa. In this end-stage, it is important to ensure high levels of population immunity to prevent polio outbreaks. Here, we introduce a new method of assessing va... (Source: BMC Medicine)
Source: BMC Medicine - March 30, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alexander M. Upfill-Brown, Arend Voorman, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Faisal Shuaib and Hil M. Lyons Source Type: research

Guillain–Barré syndrome in Bangladesh: The role TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms
Background: Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success to eradicate poliomyelitis, however, Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is frequently diagnosed. GBS is an autoimmune mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system preceded by infections. Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as the predominant cause of antecedent infection in GBS. C. jejuni lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces antibodies cross-reactive with gangliosides and has shown to be involved in peripheral nerve damage. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-n...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: I. Jahan, R.U. Ahammad, M.M. Khalid, S.K. Sarker, M.B. Islam, H.P. Endtz, Z. Islam Tags: Type: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Polio eradication: End game and beyond
Abstract: In 2013, the target of polio eradication was broadened to include wild and vaccine polioviruses. In the “Polio Eradication and End Game Strategic Plan 2013-18” eradication refers to wild polioviruses (WPVs) and end game refers to managing all risks from vaccine polioviruses. WPVs can be eradicated using oral poliovaccine (OPV). Inactivated poliovaccine (IPV) is necessary to eradicate vaccine polioviruses. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: T.J. John Tags: Type: Invited Presentation Source Type: research

Integrated human and animal vaccination delivery to Nomadic Fulani communities in Northern Nigeria 2015
Background: Nigeria remains the only African country yet to interrupt transmission of wild polio virus and has a high incidence of childhood vaccine preventable diseases. Routine immunization (RI) services have not achieved sufficient coverages in remote rural settings especially among nomadic Fulani pastoralist. The high mobility and dispersion of these pastoralists makes easily missed by healthcare services yet these pastoralist often seek medical care for their animals regardless of the cost. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: I.M. Bomoi, N.E. Waziri, P. Nguku, A. Tsofo Tags: Type: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Polio eradication initiatives, a critical data analysis, District Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan, 2014
Background: By the end of 2014 Polio outbreaks were reported in 04 bordering districts of Khairpur. Pre, process and post campaign prime indicators were reviewed in the light of National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) strategy for Polio Eradication innitiatives (PEI) to find and fill the gaps through appropriate recommendations to minimize the risk of virus circulation in 2015. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Ghanghro, A.S. Phulpoto, A.A. Memon Tags: Type: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

The impact of increased use of ASHAs on rural immunization coverage in India
Background: Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are located in rural Indian villages to promote positive health behaviors and facilitate better health care utilization, including vaccination. We calculated the average coverage of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG); Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus vaccine (DPT); polio vaccine; measles vaccine, and full vaccine coverage (BCG, 3 doses of DPT, 3 doses of polio, and measles vaccine) across districts in India, and evaluated the impact of expanded ASHA presence on changes in district-level vaccine coverage. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Wagner, D. Bettampadi, J. Porth, M. Boulton Tags: Type: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Campylobacter jejuni infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: An emerging cause of acute flaccid paralysis after the eradication of poliomyelitis in Bangladesh
Background: Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success with the eradication of poliomyelitis. However, non-polio acute flaccid paralysis and its clinical presentation as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is still frequently diagnosed. GBS has a diverse clinical phenotype that varies according to geography. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the predominant bacterial infection preceding GBS. The purpose of the study was to define the clinical phenotype of GBS and the relation with preceding C. jejuni infection and anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM1, GD1 and GQ1b) in a large GBS cohort from Bangladesh. (Source: Interna...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Z. Islam, M.B. Islam, B.C. Jacobs, I. Jahan, Q.D. Mohammad, H.P. Endtz Tags: Type: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Evaluation of Ondo State acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system (2009-2013)
Background: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a clinical syndrome with infectious and non-infectious causes. AFP surveillance is the gold standard for detection of poliomyelitis cases and surveillance during polio outbreaks. Ondo state AFP surveillance system was evaluated to describe the key attributes and the process of operation, to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the surveillance system and to make appropriate recommendations for improving the surveillance system. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Adewole Tags: Type: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Importation and outbreak of wild polioviruses from 2000 to 2014 and interruption of transmission in Cameroon
In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) with the initial objective to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide by the year 2000. The main strategies for the eradication program are the use of extensive immunization campaigns with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Considerable progress has been registered towards the interruption of WPV transmission worldwide. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - March 28, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Marie Claire Endegue-Zanga, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Jane Iber, Cara C. Burns, Nicksy Gumede Moeletsi, Marycelin Baba, David Bukbuk, Francis Delpeyroux, Marcellin Nimpa Mengouo, Maurice Demanou, Guy Vernet, François-Xavier Etoa, Richard Njouom Source Type: research

Polio vaccines: WHO position paper – March, 2016.
Polio vaccines: WHO position paper – March, 2016. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016 Mar 25;91(12):145-68 Authors: PMID: 27039410 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - March 25, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Characterization of outbreak response strategies and potential vaccine stockpile needs for the polio endgame
Following successful eradication of wild polioviruses and planned globally-coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), national and global health leaders may need to respond to outbreaks from reint... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - March 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A. Pallansch, Steven G. F. Wassilak, Stephen L. Cochi and Kimberly M. Thompson Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Is introduction of IPV “Good news for billions of children”?
Mass worldwide vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has resulted in a steep decrease in polio infections and associated paralysis. Since the world is now close to eradicating polio, vaccine-derived polio constitutes an increasing proportion of overall polio infections. From this perspective, introduction of the more expensive inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) solves a problem as emphasised in the Comment by Kimberley Thompson.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - March 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Stine Byberg, Ane Bærent Fisker Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Is introduction of IPV “Good news for billions of children”? – Author's reply
The decision to globally coordinate cessation of use of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), starting with serotype 2 between April 15 and April 30, 2016 (with expected cessation of serotypes 1 and 3 after certification of the world as free of wild polioviruses of those serotypes), represents a crucial step in the effort to end all cases of poliomyelitis.1 After all use of OPV ends, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) will represent the only option available to protect people from any potential risks of re-introduction of polioviruses. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - March 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kimberly M Thompson Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reducing resistance to polio immunisation with free health camps and Bluetooth messaging: An update from Kaduna, Northern, Nigeria
10.1080/17441692.2016.1152283Gerida Birukila (Source: Global Public Health)
Source: Global Public Health - March 21, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Gerida BirukilaSufiyan M BabaleHelen EpsteinVictor GugongRobert AngerMelissa CorkumAlbarka Jehoshaphat NebanatFredrick MusokeOlaniran Alabi Source Type: research

Long-term follow-up of patients with prior polio over a 17-year period.
CONCLUSION: More than half of the patients with prior polio had died between 1995 and 2012. These patients were, on average, older than patients surviving in 2012. When interviewed in 2012 most of the patients felt progressively worse, with poor mobility and increased muscle weakness. PMID: 26983649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - March 19, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Surgery of the airway: historic notes.
Authors: Cooper JD Abstract Prior to the 20(th) century, the need for surgical procedures on the airway was infrequent and consisted mainly of tracheostomy to relieve airway obstruction or repair of tracheal injuries such as lacerations. Even the ability of tracheal suture lines to heal primarily was viewed with concern due to the rigidity of the tracheal wall, its precarious blood supply and uncertainty as to whether the cartilage components could heal without complications. In the 20(th) century the evolution of tracheal procedures on major airways evolved to meet the challenges provided by the expanding fields o...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - March 17, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Injection Site Lichenoid Dermatitis Following Pneumococcal Vaccination: Report and Review of Cutaneous Conditions Occurring at Vaccination Sites
Conclusions Dermatoses at the injection sites of vaccines can be granulomatous, immunity-related conditions, infections, lichenoid, neutrophilic, or pseudolymphomatous. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common vaccination site-associated malignancies; however, melanoma and sarcomas (dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma) are also smallpox vaccine-related site neoplasms. A cutaneous immunocompromised district that is created by vaccine-induced local immunologic changes is hypothesized to be the pathogenesis of vaccination site reactions. (Sour...
Source: Dermatology and Therapy - March 17, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Challenges to health workers and their opinions about parents' refusal of oral polio vaccination in the Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province, Pakistan.
Abstract A qualitative study design was adapted to explore the challenges faced by health workers (HWs) during the polio health campaign. In addition, HWs' opinions about the factors causing parents to refuse oral polio vaccination (OPV) were also explored. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were held (from 1st January 2015-31st March 2015) with the HWs who participated in the OPV campaigns in the polio red zones of Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province of Pakistan, namely Kohat (FG 1), Domel and Bannu (FG 2), Hangoo (FG 3), and Peshawar (FG 4). A total of N=42 HWs (10-11 in each FG) agreed to participate in this ...
Source: Vaccine - March 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Khan TM, Khayam SM Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research