A post-conflict vaccination campaign, Central African Republic.
Conclusion: A preventive, multi-antigen, vaccination campaign was effective in rapidly increasing immunization coverage in a post-conflict setting. To sustain high coverage, routine immunization must be reinforced. PMID: 30104794 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization)
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - August 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Peyraud N, Quéré M, Duc G, Chèvre C, Wanteu T, Reache S, Dumont T, Nesbitt R, Dahl E, Gignoux E, Albela M, Righetti A, Bottineau MC, Cabrol JC, Sarafini M, Nzalapan S, Lechevalier P, Rambaud C, Rull M Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

Detection of Campylobacter species in stool specimens from patients with symptoms of acute flaccid paralysis in South Africa
Conclusions: True association of the disease withCampylobacter spp. will enable the proportion ofCampylobacter-induced GBS to be better described in South Africa; this can only be done through systematic studies that include bacterial culture and serology together with molecular methodologies. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Paralysis: 17-year ‘s active epidemiological surveillance in a pediatric hospital in Buenos Aires
Background: The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of patients reported with AFP. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: A. Gentile, M.D.V. Juarez, M.F. Lucion, M.S. Areso, S. Rapaport, N. Ar áoz Olivos, C. Freire Tags: UMP. 267 Source Type: research

Persistence of Vaccine-Induced Immunity in Preschool Children: Effect of Gestational Age.
CONCLUSIONS Among preschool children who were immunized according to chronological age, those we were born late preterm do not seem to differ in vaccine-induced immunity from those who were born full-term. PMID: 30033997 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - July 24, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

[The battle in Madrid over poliomyelitis vaccines (1963): science, ideology and power in the first mass immunization campaign in Spain].
Authors: Tuells J Abstract Between 1958 and 1963, Spain witnessed the highest ever incidence of poliomyelitis (2000 cases and 200 deaths per year). Although Salk's inactivated vaccine had arrived in Spain in 1957, the government took no decisive action to administer it to the entire population at risk. Neither was Sabin's attenuated vaccine administered, available in Europe from 1960. While other countries adopted one or the other, in Spain rivalry arose over the two vaccines, with mixed results. The Salk vaccine was administered to a small percentage of the population at risk through the Compulsory Sickness Insura...
Source: Gaceta Sanitaria - July 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Gac Sanit Source Type: research

Setbacks in the fight to eradicate polio
Publication date: 21–27 July 2018Source: The Lancet, Volume 392, Issue 10143Author(s): Sharmila Devi (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - July 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Isolation of Sabin-like Polioviruses from Sewage in Poland.
This study revealed, through environmental monitoring, the introduction of SL PVs into the population associated with the routine use of OPV in Poland before the April 2016. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of environmental surveillance in the overall polio eradication program. PMID: 30015429 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Polish Journal of Microbiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Pol J Microbiol Source Type: research

Low Rates of Poliovirus Antibodies in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients on Regular Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment
ConclusionsThis study demonstrates the need for ongoing vigilance regarding exposure of patients with PID to poliovirus in the community. (Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - July 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Technical aspects and complications in the surgical treatment of poliomyelitis-affected lower limb fractures
ConclusionGiven the large number of intraoperative complications, in preoperative planning we must include nails of small diameter and length, locking plates and external fixators, and, in the case of hip arthroplasty, long and thin stems and restrictive or dual mobility acetabular systems.ResumenObjetivoEl paciente con secuelas de poliomielitis presenta con frecuencia huesos osteoporóticos, pequeños, deformados, con un canal intramedular estrecho, afectando todo esto al tratamiento quirúrgico. El objetivo de este artículo es describir las principales complicaciones preoperatorias e intraoperato...
Source: Revista Espanola de Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia - July 11, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Non-specific effects of vaccines: Current evidence and potential implications.
Abstract Besides protection against specific microorganisms, vaccines can induce heterologous or non-specific effects (NSE). Epidemiological data suggest that vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), measles vaccine, and oral polio vaccine results in increased overall childhood survival, and several of these observations have been confirmed in randomized trials. Immunological mechanisms mediating NSE include heterologous lymphocyte effects and induction of innate immune memory (trained immunity). Trained immunity induces long-term functional upregulation of innate im...
Source: Seminars in Immunology - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: de Bree CLCJ, Koeken VACM, Joosten LAB, Aaby P, Benn CS, van Crevel R, Netea MG Tags: Semin Immunol Source Type: research

On reducing the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in the global transition from oral to inactivated poliovirus vaccine
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Xiangdong Peng, Xiaojiang Hu, Miguel A Salazar (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - July 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Seronegativity to polio viruses among previously immunized adult candidates to solid organ transplantation
In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among the first 100 patients enrolled in this study, only seven adult SOT candidates had proven polio vaccination at childhood. Three of these seven patients (43%) had no protective antibody titers to one or mor...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of post polio syndrome
ConclusionrTMS can be an effective method in treatment of post polio syndrome but further studies with larger group need to be done to confirm that data. (Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

P39. The split hand syndrome in ALS and post-polio-syndrom
Electrodiagnostic evaluation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) relies on extensive measurements. As one diagnostic clue, the split-hand-index (SHI) was proposed. It compares the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle with the CMAP of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle.In ALS, asymmetric atrophy of APB and ADM results in the index being reduced compared to the healthy population. This holds true despite the fact, that there is the same segmental innervation C8 for both examined muscles, as was previously discussed. (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Hoheisel, L. Burmeister, M. Tesch Source Type: research

Hexavalent vaccines: characteristics of available products and practical considerations from a panel of Italian experts in Public Health
Combination vaccines represent a valuable technological innovation in the field of infectious disease prevention and public health, because of their great health and economic value from the individual, societal, and healthcare system perspectives.In order to increase parents ’ and healthcare professionals’ confidence in the vaccination programs and maintain their benefits to society, more information about the benefits of innovative vaccination tools such as combination vaccines is needed.Purpose of this work is an examination of available hexavalent vaccines, that protect against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - July 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of post polio syndrome
ConclusionrTMS can be an effective method in treatment of post polio syndrome but further studies with larger group need to be done to confirm that data. (Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery - July 6, 2018 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1432: In Search of Factors Negatively Affecting Vaccine Immunity to Pertussis in Preschool Children Before the Administration of the First Booster
Conclusions: Immunomodulation considered on the example of titre of IgG antibody to pertussis can serve as a useful model of the assessment of development of acquired immunity after mandatory vaccinations. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - July 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Anna Bednarek Anna Bodajko-Grochowska Barbara Hasiec Robert Klepacz Katarzyna Szczekala Danuta Zarzycka Andrzej Emeryk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Preparedness and response against diseases with epidemic potential in the European Union: a qualitative case study of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and poliomyelitis in five member states
EU Decision 1082/2013/EU on serious cross-border health threats provides a legal basis for collaboration between EU Member States, and between international and European level institutions on preparedness, pre... (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Source: BMC Health Services Research - July 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: John Kinsman, John Angr én, Fredrik Elgh, Maria Furberg, Paola A. Mosquera, Laura Otero-García, René Snacken, Tarik Derrough, Paloma Carrillo Santisteve, Massimo Ciotti and Svetla Tsolova Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Evaluation of the use of various rat strains for immunogenic potency tests of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines
Publication date: March 2018Source: Biologicals, Volume 52Author(s): Yuichi Someya, Yasushi Ami, Reiko Takai-Todaka, Akira Fujimoto, Kei Haga, Kosuke Murakami, Yoshiki Fujii, Haruko Shirato, Tomoichiro Oka, Takashi Shimoike, Kazuhiko Katayama, Takaji WakitaAbstractSlc:Wistar rats have been the only strain used in Japan for purpose of evaluating a national reference vaccine for the Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) and the immunogenicity of sIPV-containing products. However, following the discovery that the Slc:Wistar strain was genetically related to the Fischer 344 strain, other “real” Wistar stra...
Source: Biologicals - July 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Technical aspects and complications in the surgical treatment of poliomyelitis-affected lower limb fractures
ConclusionGiven the large number of intraoperative complications, in preoperative planning we must include nails of small diameter and length, locking plates and external fixators, and, in the case of hip arthroplasty, long and thin stems and restrictive or dual mobility acetabular systems.ResumenObjetivoEl paciente con secuelas de poliomielitis presenta con frecuencia huesos osteoporóticos, pequeños, deformados, con un canal intramedular estrecho, afectando todo esto al tratamiento quirúrgico. El objetivo de este artículo es describir las principales complicaciones preoperatorias e intraoperato...
Source: Revista Espanola de Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia - July 5, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

On reducing the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in the global transition from oral to inactivated poliovirus vaccine
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Xiangdong Peng, Xiaojiang Hu, Miguel A Salazar (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - July 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Seronegativity to polio viruses among previously immunized adult candidates to solid organ transplantation
In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among the first 100 patients enrolled in this study, only seven adult SOT candidates had proven polio vaccination at childhood. Three of these seven patients (43%) had no protective antibody titers to one or mor...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Feasibility of jet injector use during inactivated poliovirus vaccine house-to-house vaccination campaigns.
CONCLUSIONS: The needle-free jet injector was feasible for use in house-to-house campaigns. Acceptability by vaccinators was low as 81% stated that the jet injector was not easier to use than needle and syringe. Parental refusal related to frequent polio vaccination campaigns was the biggest challenge. In addition, novelty of the device posed a challenge to teams as they needed to reassure parents about safety of the device. To take full advantage of the ability to take injectable vaccines door-to-door during vaccination campaigns using a needle-free jet injector device, tailored social mobilization efforts are needed ahea...
Source: Vaccine - July 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Farag NH, Mansour Z, Torossian L, Said R, Snider CJ, Ehrhardt D Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Immunizations – Nursing Interventions to Enhance Vaccination Rates
At the beginning of the 20th century infectious diseases resulted in illness and/or death in individuals of all ages (Center for Disease Control (CDC), 1999a). During the years of 1951 to 1954, 16,316 individuals contracted paralytic polio and all forms of polio were associated with approximately 1879 deaths (CDC, 1999a). In the 1950s it seemed that everyone either knew someone who had recovered from polio or had died from it. When the vaccine became available in 1955, parents lined up at clinics and doctors' offices to have their children vaccinated. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing - July 2, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ann M. Bowling Source Type: research

How are children who are delayed in the Childhood Vaccination Programme vaccinated: A nationwide register-based cohort study of Danish children aged 15-24 months and semi-structured interviews with vaccination providers.
CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination providers generally complied with the recommended minimum 6 months' interval between DTaP-IPV-Hib-2 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-3. Conversely, there was a low compliance with the recommendation to administer DTaP-IPV-Hib-3 and MMR-1 simultaneously. More efforts are needed to ensure timely vaccination. PMID: 30024308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health - July 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Pedersen KB, Holck ME, Jensen AKG, Suppli CH, Benn CS, Krause TG, Sørup S Tags: Scand J Public Health Source Type: research

Lessons Learnt from Epidemiological Investigation of Lassa Fever Outbreak in a Southwest State of Nigeria December 2015 to April 2016
Introduction Lassa fever (LF) is a severe acute viral hemorrhagic illness caused by a virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae.1,2 The disease was first discovered in Sierra Leone in the 1950s, but the aetiological agent was first isolated after an outbreak of the disease in a village called Lassa in Borno State, Nigeria claiming the lives of two foreign missionary nurses in 1969.3 The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection, with profuse urinary virus excretion in Mastomys natalensis rodents, which serve as the natural reservoir.1,2 The virus is shed in their excreta (urine and faeces) of the rodent which can...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - June 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: ELVIS EFE ISERE Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Enteroviral Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe focus of this review is on enterovirus (EV)-associated acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) due to spinal cord anterior horn cell disease. Emphasis is placed on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of AFP caused by polioviruses, vaccine-derived polioviruses, EV-D68, and EV-A71.Recent FindingsSince the launch of The Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the worldwide incidence of polio has been reduced by 99.9%, with small numbers of poliomyelitis cases being reported only in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. With the planned phaseout of oral polio vaccine, vaccine...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Threats to oral polio vaccine acceptance in Somalia: Polling in an outbreak.
CONCLUSIONS: As in endemic settings, outbreak responses will benefit from communications strategies focused on enhancing trust in vaccinators, institutions and the vaccine, alongside making community support visible. Disease facts may help motivate acceptance, and enhanced logistics information may help facilitate caregiver availability at the door. Quelling rumors early may be important to prevent them from becoming threats. PMID: 29958738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - June 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: SteelFisher GK, Blendon RJ, Haydarov R, Lodge W, Caporello H, Guirguis S, Anand S, Birungi J, Williams MR, Ben-Porath EN, O'Reilly D, Sahm C Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Strategic Response to an Outbreak of Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 2 - Syria, 2017-2018.
Abstract Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomy...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mbaeyi C, Wadood ZM, Moran T, MJourn, Ather F, Stehling-Ariza T, Nikulin J, Al Safadi M, Iber J, Zomahoun L, Abourshaid N, Pang H, Collins N, Asghar H, Butt OUI, Burns CC, Ehrhardt D, Sharaf M Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Mechanoadaptation: articular cartilage through thick and thin.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29917242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - June 19, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Vincent TL, Wann A Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Clearing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Infection Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: a Case Report and Review of Literature
This study could provide further insights into the immune mechanisms contributing to the clearance of enteroviral infections. (Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 10, Pages 320: Changes in the EV-A71 Genome through Recombination and Spontaneous Mutations: Impact on Virulence
Poh Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains resp...
Source: Viruses - June 12, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Madiiha Bibi Mandary Chit Laa Poh Tags: Review Source Type: research

Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses from Environmental Surveillance in Italy, 2009 –2015
AbstractWithin the initiatives for poliomyelitis eradication by WHO, Italy activated an environmental surveillance (ES) in 2005. ES complements clinical Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases, detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage, and is used to monitor transmission in communities. In addition to polioviruses, the analyses comprised: (i) the monitoring of the presence of non-polio enteroviruses in sewage samples and (ii) the temporal and geographical distribution of the detected viruses. From 2009 to 2015, 2880 sewage samples were collected from eight cities participating in t...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 12, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A new science of emotions, the trouble with polio eradication, and history writ large: Books in brief
A new science of emotions, the trouble with polio eradication, and history writ large: Books in brief, Published online: 12 June 2018; doi:10.1038/d41586-018-05376-7Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - June 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Barbara Kiser Source Type: research

Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses from Environmental Surveillance in Italy, 2009 –2015
AbstractWithin the initiatives for poliomyelitis eradication by WHO, Italy activated an environmental surveillance (ES) in 2005. ES complements clinical Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases, detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage, and is used to monitor transmission in communities. In addition to polioviruses, the analyses comprised: (i) the monitoring of the presence of non-polio enteroviruses in sewage samples and (ii) the temporal and geographical distribution of the detected viruses. From 2009 to 2015, 2880 sewage samples were collected from eight cities participating in t...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 12, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Stabilized single-injection inactivated polio vaccine elicits a strong neutralizing immune response [Applied Biological Sciences]
Vaccination in the developing world is hampered by limited patient access, which prevents individuals from receiving the multiple injections necessary for protective immunity. Here, we developed an injectable microparticle formulation of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that releases multiple pulses of stable antigen over time. To accomplish this, we established... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - June 5, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Stephany Y. Tzeng, Kevin J. McHugh, Adam M. Behrens, Sviatlana Rose, James L. Sugarman, Shiran Ferber, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Real-time RT-PCR Assay for Rapid, Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of Human Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)
Human Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that can cause mild to severe respiratory illness, especially in infants and children with asthma. Since its identification, every year EV-D68 has been detected sporadically throughout the world. The US experienced a nationwide outbreak of EV-D68 associated with a particularly severe respiratory illness from mid-August to early November 2014, with 1,153 confirmed cases in 49 states and the District of Columbia. Although various established detection methods are available for EV-D68, enteroviruses evolve rapidly. New methods are needed for specific testing to determi...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - June 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: ajoyprabhu3 Source Type: research

Measles, Rubella, and Tetanus Vaccinations: a Brief Global Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe study aims to review the prevention efforts for vaccine preventable diseases.Recent FindingsSignificant progress in global vaccination coverage has been made since World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Global coverage with vaccines to prevent tetanus, poliomyelitis, or measles has increased from
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - June 4, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Lessons learned from the 2009 –2010 H1N1 outbreak for the management of the 2013 silent polio outbreak
The Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) encountered two substantial outbreaks during the past decade: the H1N1 swine flu outbreak during 2009 –2010 and the silent polio outbreak during 2013. Although both outbreak... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - May 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Iftach Sagy, Paula Feder-Bubis, Victor Novack, Tal Peleg-Sagy and Dan Greenberg Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Co-appearance of OPV and BCG vaccine-derived complications in two infants with severe combined immunodeficiency
In this study, we present two SCID infants, who received BCG and oral polio vaccines according to their local immunization schedule early in life, before the diagnosis of immunodeficiency was made. Their clinical presentation, extensive immunological workup, genetic tests, and clinical disease course are presented. Both patients developed localized and disseminated infections originating from the BCG vaccine (BCGitis and BCGiosis, respectively) and in addition suffered from diarrhea and chronic fecal secretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus. Alarmingly, in case 2, the poliovirus was a type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in wh...
Source: Immunologic Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Competency guidance for the provision of travel health services
Travel medicine practice In the United Kingdom is largely undertaken by nurses, although in recent years a significant numbers of general practitioners and pharmacists have become involved as well. As a measure against potential public health threats of travellers returning with hepatitis A, typhoid, polio or cholera, vaccines to provide protection against these diseases are administered as a provision under our National Health Service. Other travel vaccines must be paid for out of pocket. UK travel medicine arguably began formally in 1995 with the development of a post graduate Diploma and then a Masters degree course in ...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - May 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jane Chiodini Source Type: research

Plong ée sous-marine et déficience motrice : état de l’art
Publication date: May 2018 Source:Science & Sports, Volume 33, Supplement 1 Author(s): Pierre Trape, Eric Watelain La plongée sous-marine pour les PErsonnes en Situation de Handicap (PESH) est une activité relativement récente. Les premières pratiques de terrain, peu documentées, surtout dans la littérature scientifique, datent des années 1960 [1]. La Grande Bretagne et Israël sont des pays précurseurs en la matière. Ces pratiques ont beaucoup évolué et se sont codifiées dans différentes fédérations sporti...
Source: Science and Sports - May 23, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Cuba's Scientific Contributions to Global Polio Eradication.
This report summarizes the unique scientific collaboration between Cuba's Ministry of Public Health and WHO, with participation by US scientists, in the global effort to eradicate polio. KEYWORDS Poliomyelitis, disease eradication, disease elimination, oral poliovirus vaccine, Sabin vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, Salk vaccine, Cuba, WHO. PMID: 29773776 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - May 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Effect of Formulation on Spray Dried Sabin Inactivated Polio Vaccine.
The objective of this study was to develop a stable spray dried formulation, containing the three serotypes of Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV), aiming for minimal loss of native conformation (D-antigen) during drying and subsequent storage. The influence of atomization and drying stress during spray drying on trivalent sIPV was investigated. This was followed by excipient screening, in which monovalent sIPV was formulated and spray dried. Excipient combinations and concentrations were tailored to maximize both the antigen recovery of respective sIPV serotypes after spray drying and storage (T= 40°C and t= 7 days...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - May 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kanojia G, Ten Have R, Brugmans D, Soema PC, Frijlink HW, Amorij JP, Kersten G Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research

Vaccines, inspiring innovation in health.
This report covers the topics of pandemics, epidemics and partnerships, including regulatory convergence initiatives, new technologies and novel vaccines, discussed by leading public and private sector stakeholders at the 18th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN). Contributions of Gavi and the vaccine industry from emerging countries to the growing global vaccine market, by improving the supply base from manufacturers in developing countries and contributing to 58% of doses, were highlighted. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the Internati...
Source: Vaccine - May 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pagliusi S, Dennehy M, Kim H, DCVMN AGM Organizing Committee Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Vaccines and the risk of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study do not demonstrate an association of vaccines with an increased risk of ADEM and its recurrence among either paediatric (≤18 years) or adult (>18 years) individuals within the 180 days after vaccinations. The finding in children in the 31-60 day risk interval is likely coincidental and was not confirmed in separate self-control analyses. PMID: 29784468 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - May 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen Y, Ma F, Xu Y, Chu X, Zhang J Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1014: Increased Vaccination Coverage among Adolescents and Young Adults in the District of Palermo as a Result of a Public Health Strategy to Counteract an ‘Epidemic Panic’
IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1014: Increased Vaccination Coverage among Adolescents and Young Adults in the District of Palermo as a Result of a Public Health Strategy to Counteract an ‘Epidemic Panic’ International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051014 Authors: Claudio Costantino Vincenzo Restivo Gianmarco Ventura Claudio D’Angelo Maria Randazzo Nicolò Casuccio Mario Palermo Alessandra Casuccio Francesco Vitale During the summer of 2016 four cases of invasive meningococcal disease in rapid succession among young adults in the district of ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - May 17, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Claudio Costantino Vincenzo Restivo Gianmarco Ventura Claudio D ’Angelo Maria Randazzo Nicol ò Casuccio Mario Palermo Alessandra Casuccio Francesco Vitale Tags: Article Source Type: research

The importance of complying with vaccination protocols in developed countries: "anti-vax" hysteria and the spread of severe preventable diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: This review proves that vaccine hysteria is detrimental because: 1) it causes an increased morbidity and mortality from preventable diseases; 2) it jeopardizes research for new vaccines; 3) patients are reluctant to accept any form of immune-therapy, commonly referred to as "vaccination". PMID: 29773050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - May 17, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Pandolfi F, Franza L, Todi L, Carusi V, Centrone M, Bonomo A, Newton EE, Schiavino D, Nucera E Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

Twenty-Five Years of Lamivudine: Current and Future Use for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
Abstract: Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - May 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research