Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 821: Understanding Enterovirus D68-Induced Neurologic Disease: A Basic Science Review
th L. Tyler In 2014, the United States (US) experienced an unprecedented epidemic of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-induced respiratory disease that was temporally associated with the emergence of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a paralytic disease occurring predominantly in children, that has a striking resemblance to poliomyelitis. Although a definitive causal link between EV-D68 infection and AFM has not been unequivocally established, rapidly accumulating clinical, immunological, and epidemiological evidence points to EV-D68 as the major causative agent of recent seasonal childhood AFM outbreaks in the US. This review summ...
Source: Viruses - September 4, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Alison M. Hixon Joshua Frost Michael J. Rudy Kevin Messacar Penny Clarke Kenneth L. Tyler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Let us not underestimate the long-term risk of SPLC after surgical resection of NSCLC
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide1. Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounts for around 85% of lung cancer cases. The standard treatment for patients with stage I and II NSCLC is surgery based, with or without postoperative chemotherapy depending on the pathological T and N status. Treatment for stage III NSCLC consists either of concurrent chemoradiation, or surgery with perioperative chemotherapy with or without thoracic radiotherapy2. After surgery, the 5-year survival rates range between 23 and 83%, depending on stage3. (Source: Lung Cancer)
Source: Lung Cancer - September 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Taylor Leroy, Elisabeth Monnet, St éphane Guerzider, Pascale Jacoulet, Bernardino De Bari, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Marie Gainet-Brun, Jean Lahourcade, Faraj Alfreijat, Hamadi Almotlak, Olivier Adotevi, Didier Pernet, Jean-Charles Polio, Maxime Desmarets, Source Type: research

Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Disease: Ethics in the Pediatric Emergency Department
After a decades-long reduction in vaccine-preventable illnesses worldwide, there has been a reappearance of childhood illnesses once thought to be eradicated. This resurgence in illnesses such as polio and measles is a consequence of multifactorial events leading to decreased vaccination rates. A lack of resources in poor and war-torn countries, coupled with increasing global travel, and decisions to delay or defer vaccinations because of inaccurate studies further emphasized by media have combined to result in current state of frequent local and widespread epidemics, specifically the current outbreak of measles. As provid...
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - September 1, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Wild polio virus eradicated in Nigeria, but battle isn't over yet
Publication date: 31 August 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 243, Issue 3245Author(s): Debora MacKenzie (Source: New Scientist)
Source: New Scientist - September 1, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

[Live Vaccine in Children with DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome].
CONCLUSION: In our sample, live vaccines were well-tolerated, even in children with moderate T-CD4+ lymphopenia and abnormal lymphocyte proliferative responses to antigens/mitogens. PMID: 31445531 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa)
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - August 27, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research

Wild polio has been eradicated in Nigeria but infections will continue
Nigeria has officially wiped out wild polio, but there have already been 15 cases of infection this year, caused by the live virus used in some vaccines (Source: New Scientist - Health)
Source: New Scientist - Health - August 23, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: research

DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib Vaccine (Hexyon ® ): An Updated Review of its Use in Primary and Booster Vaccination
AbstractHexyon® is a fully-liquid, ready-to-use, hexavalent vaccine approved in the EU since 2013 for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers from age 6  weeks against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B (HB), poliomyelitis, and invasive diseases caused byHaemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). While the source of HB antigen in Hexyon® is different from other vaccines, the rest of its valences have been extensively used in other approved vaccines. Hexyon® is highly immunogenic for all its component toxoids/antigens when used as primary and booster vaccine in infants and toddlers, irres...
Source: Pediatric Drugs - August 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Afghanistan, January 2018-May 2019.
This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2018-May 2019 and updates previous reports (2,3). During May-December 2018, insurgent groups (antigovernment elements) banned house-to-house vaccination in most southern and southeastern provinces, leaving approximately 1 million children inaccessible to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) administration. During January-April 2019, vaccination targeting children at designated community sites (site-to-site vaccination) was permitted; however, at the end of April 2019, vaccination campaigns were banned nationally. During 2018, a total of ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - August 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Martinez M, Shukla H, Nikulin J, Mbaeyi C, Jorba J, Ehrhardt D Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 775: Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Armenia, Colombia before Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine Cessation
This study aimed to detect the introduction and/or circulation of wild poliovirus or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) in wastewater, covering a significant population of Armenia, Colombia, before trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) cessation. Between March and September 2015, 24 wastewater samples were collected from eight study sites in eight communes of Armenia, Colombia. Virus detection and characterization were performed using both cell culture (i.e., RD or L20B cells) and RT-PCR. Polioviruses were isolated in 11 (45.8%) of 24 wastewater samples. All isolates were identified as Sabin strains (type 1 = 9, type 3 = 2) ...
Source: Viruses - August 23, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Mar ía Mercedes González Magile C. Fonseca Carlos Andr és Rodríguez Alejandra Mar ía Giraldo Jos é Joaquín Vila Jhon Carlos Casta ño Leonardo Padilla Luis Sarmiento Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Post-vaccination campaign coverage evaluation of oral cholera vaccine, oral polio vaccine and measles –rubella vaccine among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals in Bangladesh
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - August 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ashraful Islam Khan Md. Taufiqul Islam Shah Alam Siddique Shakil Ahmed Nurnabi Sheikh Ashraf Uddin Siddik Muhammad Shariful Islam Firdausi Qadri Source Type: research

DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib Vaccine (Hexyon ®): An Updated Review of its Use in Primary and Booster Vaccination.
DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib Vaccine (Hexyon®): An Updated Review of its Use in Primary and Booster Vaccination. Paediatr Drugs. 2019 Aug 23;: Authors: Syed YY Abstract Hexyon® is a fully-liquid, ready-to-use, hexavalent vaccine approved in the EU since 2013 for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers from age 6 weeks against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B (HB), poliomyelitis, and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). While the source of HB antigen in Hexyon® is different from other vaccines, the rest of its valences have been extensively u...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - August 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Syed YY Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Post-vaccination campaign coverage evaluation of oral cholera vaccine, oral polio vaccine and measles –rubella vaccine among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals in Bangladesh
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - August 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ashraful Islam Khan Md. Taufiqul Islam Shah Alam Siddique Shakil Ahmed Nurnabi Sheikh Ashraf Uddin Siddik Muhammad Shariful Islam Firdausi Qadri Source Type: research

The art of partnerships for vaccines.
Abstract The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) convened vaccine manufacturing experts and leaders from local and global public health organizations for its 19th Annual General Meeting. Lectures and panel discussions centered on international cooperation for better access to vaccines, and partnerships in areas ranging from vaccine research and process development, to clinical studies, regulatory, supply chain and emergency preparedness and response. Global vaccine market trends and changes that will impact vaccine financing and procurement methods were discussed as well as capital sources, ...
Source: Vaccine - August 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pagliusi S, Che Y, Dong S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

New, less-expensive inactivated polio vaccine non-inferior to conventional inactivated vaccine
Hu Y, Wang J, Zeng G, Chu K, Jiang D, Zhu F, et al. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Sabin Strain-Based Inactivated Polio Vaccine: A Phase 3 Clinical Trial. J Infect Dis 2019 pii: jiy736. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - August 20, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Andrew Kreppel Tags: Current Best Evidence Source Type: research

The future of vaccine development.
Abstract Vaccines are one of the most successful public health interventions in our history resulting in eradication of small pox, near eradication of polio and major reductions in case number and global morbidity and mortality for numerous diseases (Centers for Disease C, 1999) [1]. However, vaccine development has been less successful against complex infectious diseases, where pathogen variability and/or immune evasion mechanisms have combined to pose major obstacles, and have been unsuccessful against non-communicable diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases (K...
Source: Vaccine - August 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Koff WC, Schenkelberg T Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Quality of life assessment scales in polio survivors: a scoping review
ConclusionThe information provided in this review could be used to guide instrument selection and identify the need to develop a new tool or to adapt a pre-existing scale for measuring quality of life among polio survivors. (Source: Quality of Life Research)
Source: Quality of Life Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Acute flaccid myelitis and enterovirus D68: lessons from the past and present
Conclusion: This review presents the current knowledge on acute flaccid myelitis with respect to the clinical presentation and its differential diagnosis with Guillain-Barr é syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. We also discuss the association with enterovirus D68 and the presumed pathophysiological mechanism of this infection causing anterior horn cell damage. Sharing clinical knowledge and insights from basic research is needed to make progress in diagnosis, trea tment, and prevention of this new polio-like disease.What is Known:•Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a polio-like condition characterized by rapid...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - August 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Turning Trash Cans into Iron Lungs: Dr. Robert M. Coffey, the “Genius of Juneau”
Portland surgical pioneer Robert Calvin Coffey named his youngest son Robert Mayo Coffey (1906 to 1972,right). The latter earned his M.D. at the University of Michigan and returned with his wife to his native Oregon. By 1937 the couple and their two young daughters were living in Juneau, Alaska. When neighboring children were quarantined with infantile paralysis, the resourceful Dr. Coffey began converting trash cans into iron lungs (left), just in case any children developed breathing difficulties. Electrical valves on Coffey ’s “pressure and reserve tanks” alternated positive and negative pressures for ...
Source: Anesthesiology - August 13, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Growing up with a disability following paralytic poliomyelitis: experiences from persons with late effects of polio.
Conclusion: The challenges of growing up with a disability following paralytic polio led to the development of various psychological strategies for managing daily life. By understanding these experiences and strategies, knowledge may be gained in assisting rehabilitation professionals to better support persons with late effects of polio in adapting to the new situation. Implications for rehabilitation At the onset of late effects of polio, strategies developed earlier in life, such as overachieving, disregarding pain, and weariness, may not function anymore. Understanding the experiences of growing up with poliomyelitis ca...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - August 6, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Sjödahl Hammarlund C, Lexell J, Brogårdh C Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Nigeria, January 2018-May 2019.
Abstract The number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases in Nigeria decreased from 1,122 in 2006 to six WPV type 1 (WPV1) in 2014 (1). During August 2014-July 2016, no WPV cases were detected; during August-September 2016, four cases were reported in Borno State. An insurgency in northeastern Nigeria had resulted in 468,800 children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - July 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Adamu US, Archer WR, Braka F, Damisa E, Siddique A, Baig S, Higgins J, Sume GE, Banda R, Korir CK, Waziri N, Gidado S, Bammeke P, Edukugo A, Nganda GW, Forbi JC, Burns CC, Liu H, Jorba J, Asekun A, Franka R, Wassilak SGF, Bolu O Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Association Between Simian Virus 40 and Human Tumors
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is small DNA tumor virus of monkey origin. This polyomavirus was administered to human populations mainly through contaminated polio vaccines, which were produced in naturally-infected SV40 monkey cells. Previous molecular biology and recent immunological assays have indicated that SV40 is spreading in human populations, independently from early SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 DNA sequences have been detected at higher prevalence in specific human cancer specimens, such as brain and bone tumors, malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lymphoproliferative disorders, compared to corresponding normal tissu...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Natural Clearance of Prolonged VDPV Infection in a Child With Primary Immunodeficiency Disorder
The emergence of immunodeficiency associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPV) from the children with primary immunodeficiency disorders poses a threat to the eradication program. Herein we report a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), identified as a prolonged serotype 3 VDPV (VDPV3) excreter with thirteen VDPV3 isolates and maximum of 10.33% nucleotide divergence, who abruptly cleared infection after a period of two years. Occurrence of an episode of Norovirus diarrhea associated with increased activated oligoclonal cytotoxic T cells, inverse CD4:CD8 ratio, significantly elevated pro-inflammatory cyto...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - July 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Poliomyelitis outbreak in Papua New Guinea: health system and health security implications for PNG and Australia.
Authors: Hall JJ, Ambang T, Asante A, Mapira P, Craig A, Schuele E, Pervaz Iqbal M PMID: 31318056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical Journal of Australia)
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - July 19, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Twitter Conversations and English News Media Reports on Poliomyelitis in Five Different Countries, January 2014 to April 2015.
DISCUSSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, our evidence suggests Twitter content differs significantly from English mass media content. Evidence from our study helps inform media monitoring and communications surveillance during global public health crises, such as infectious disease outbreaks, as well as reactions to health promotion campaigns. PMID: 31314733 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Permanente journal)
Source: The Permanente journal - July 19, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Perm J Source Type: research

Enteroviral meningitis reduces CSF concentration of A β42, but does not affect markers of parenchymal damage
AbstractBiomarkers classically studied in Alzheimer ’s disease have been analyzed in numerous central nervous system infections in adults, but there are scarce data on these biomarkers in children. Enteroviruses appear to be the most common cause of aseptic meningitis throughout the world. The aim of the study was to investigate neuroinflammatory p roperties of non-polio enteroviruses by measuring CSF concentrations of biomarkers that are involved in neuropathological pathways of neurodegenerative disorders. We measured Aβ42, t-tau, and S100B concentrations in 42 children with enteroviral meningitis (EM) compare...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fred Snite, Jr., Headlined as the “Iron Lung Boy” Who Attended a Wedding
Long before he was paralyzed by poliomyelitis, Frederick Bernard Snite, Jr. (1910 to 1954) shared childhood adventures with Joseph Murray (left) and Mary Grass. Much later, as a 26-yr-old tourist to China in 1936, “Fred” was stricken with infantile paralysis. Fortunately, his financier father could marshal resources to save Fred Jr. with an assortment of “iron lung” and other ventilatory assistance devices. After visiting the Shrine of Miracles in 1939 in Lourdes, France, for spiritual inspiration, Fr ed Jr. witnessed the wedding of Joseph and Mary, his two childhood friends, by using the swiveling ...
Source: Anesthesiology - July 17, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Post-polio Syndrome: More Than Just a Lower Motor Neuron Disease
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a neurological condition that affects polio survivors decades after their initial infection. Despite its high prevalence, the aetiology of PPS remains elusive, mechanisms of progression are poorly understood and the condition is notoriously under-researched. While motor dysfunction is a hallmark feature of the condition, generalised fatigue, sleep disturbance, decreased endurance, neuropsychological deficits, sensory symptoms and chronic pain are also often reported and have considerable quality of life implications in PPS. The non-motor aspects of PPS are particularly challenging to evaluate, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A 5-year study of human parechoviruses in children living in bad sanitation conditions and non-polio acute flaccid paralysis children from Greece
We describe the presence of HPeVs in Greece, and we enforce that their diagnosis should be considered in children with neurological outcome such as non-polio AFP. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Vaccination uptake and income inequalities within a mass vaccination campaign
ConclusionsPublic health professionals promoting vaccine programs need to make specially-designed efforts both in localities with high average income and in localities with a high level of income diversity/inequality. Such practice will better utilize funds, resources, and manpower dedicated to increasing vaccination uptake across varying populations and communities. (Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research)
Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research - July 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Movement Analysis in Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery - Measurement Systems and Clinical Applications.
CONCLUSION: The instrumented movement analysis is an additional tool that aids clinical practitioners of O/U in the dynamic assessment of pathologic movement and loading patterns. In conjunction with common radiologic imaging it aids in the planning of type and extent of corrective surgical interventions. In the field of orthopaedics and trauma surgery movement analysis can help as an additional diagnostic tool to develop therapeutic strategies and evaluate clinical outcomes. PMID: 31291674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Unfallchirurgie)
Source: Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Unfallchirurgie - July 12, 2019 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Z Orthop Unfall Source Type: research

Host Genetics, Innate Immune Responses, and Cellular Death Pathways in Poliomyelitis Patients
Conclusions: We suggest that genetic variants in innate immune defences and cell death pathways contribute to the clinical presentation of PV infection. Importantly, this study is the first to uncover the genetic profile in patients with PPM, combined with investigations of immune responses and viral burden in primary cells. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Estimating the effect of measles vaccination on child growth using 191 DHS from 65 low- and middle-income countries.
r S Abstract BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccinations reduce morbidity and mortality and are highly cost-effective. They may also protect children from malnutrition and lead to improved child growth. Stunting, wasting and underweight are targets used to monitor progress towards the achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). METHODS: We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) covering the period from 1990 to 2017 to estimate the effect of measles vaccination at 12 months of age on stunting, wasting, and underweight. For causal estimation, we use household- and mother-fixed effects, which a...
Source: Vaccine - July 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bogler L, Jantos N, Bärnighausen T, Vollmer S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Do mobile phone-based reminders and conditional financial transfers improve the timeliness of childhood vaccinations in Tanzania? Study protocol for a quasi-randomized controlled trial
Vaccination is a cost-effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality among children under 5  years old. To be fully protected from diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, child... (Source: Trials)
Source: Trials - July 4, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jan Ostermann, Lavanya Vasudevan, Joy Noel Baumgartner, Esther Ngadaya and Sayoki Godfrey Mfinanga Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research

Protecting children: the American turn from polio to cancer vaccines.
PMID: 31266790 [PubMed - in process] (Source: cmaj)
Source: cmaj - July 2, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Scheffler RW Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research

Etymologia: Poliomyelitis
R. Henry (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - July 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections
Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States o... (Source: Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Collins Oduor Owino and Justin Jang Hann Chu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Incidence, Risk Factors and Outcomes Among Children With Acute Flaccid Myelitis: A Population-based Cohort Study in a California Health Network Between 2011 and 2016
Conclusions: We employed a closed-population study to generate AFM incidence, risk and outcome data. Our findings support previous reports of male sex and atopy as risk factors. Interval increase in incidence, predisposing Asian ancestry and history of head injury were unique findings to this study. Overall prognosis was better than prior reports, but recovery was incomplete in several patients. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

The safety and immunogenicity of two novel live attenuated monovalent (serotype 2) oral poliovirus vaccines in healthy adults: a double-blind, single-centre phase 1 study
This study is registered with EudraCT, number 2017-000908-21 and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03430349.FindingsBetween May 22 and Aug 22, 2017, 48 volunteers were screened, of whom 15 (31%) volunteers were excluded for reasons relating to the inclusion or exclusion criteria, three (6%) volunteers were not treated because of restrictions to the number of participants in each group, and 30 (63%) volunteers were sequentially allocated to groups (15 participants per group). Both novel OPV2 candidates were immunogenic and increased the median blood titre of serum neutralising antibodies; all participants were seroprotected aft...
Source: The Lancet - June 6, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Polio endgame options: will we have the vaccines needed?
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Kimberly M Thompson (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - June 6, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Polio-like Manifestation of Powassan Virus Infection with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada.
We report a case of a polio-like illness caused by Powassan virus infection in a 62-year-old man in Canada. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hyperintensities in the anterior horns of the cervical spinal cord. PMID: 31158072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Picheca C, Yogendrakumar V, Brooks JI, Torres C, Pringle E, Zwicker J Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 510: Biological Function and Application of Picornaviral 2B Protein: A New Target for Antiviral Drug Development
Qiong Liu Picornaviruses are associated with acute and chronic diseases. The clinical manifestations of infections are often mild, but infections may also lead to respiratory symptoms, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, meningitis, hepatitis, and poliomyelitis, with serious impacts on human health and economic losses in animal husbandry. Thus far, research on picornaviruses has mainly focused on structural proteins such as VP1, whereas the non-structural protein 2B, which plays vital roles in the life cycle of the viruses and exhibits a viroporin or viroporin-like activity, has been overlooked. Viroporins are viral proteins...
Source: Viruses - June 4, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Zengbin Li Zixiao Zou Zeju Jiang Xiaotian Huang Qiong Liu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Polio-like Manifestation of Powassan Virus Infection with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada
C. Picheca et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - June 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Host targeted antiviral (HTA): functional inhibitor compounds of scaffold protein RACK1 inhibit herpes simplex virus proliferation.
Authors: Ullah H, Hou W, Dakshanamurthy S, Tang Q Abstract Due to the small number of molecular targets in viruses and the rapid evolution of viral genes, it is very challenging to develop specific antiviral drugs. Viruses require host factors to translate their transcripts, and targeting the host factor(s) offers a unique opportunity to develop broad antiviral drugs. It is well documented that some viruses utilize a host protein, Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1), to translate their mRNAs using a viral mRNA secondary structure known as the Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES). RACK1 is essential for the tr...
Source: Oncotarget - June 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Description of Restrictively Defined Acute Flaccid Myelitis
To the Editor We read with great interest the retrospective case analysis by Elrick et al titled “Clinical Subpopulations in a Sample of North American Children Diagnosed With Acute Flaccid Myelitis, 2012-2016” regarding the definition of more specific diagnostic criteria for acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). We concur with the authors in that the standardized case definition of AFM as adopted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after the 2014 epidemic is appropriately sensitive in capturing possible AFM cases for epidemiologic surveillance. However, other neurologic entities that cause acute limb ...
Source: JAMA Pediatrics - May 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, January 2017-March 2019.
This report describes global progress toward poliomyelitis eradication during January 1, 2017-March 31, 2019, and updates previous reports (1,2). Afghanistan and Pakistan reported their lowest annual number of WPV cases (22) in 2017; however, 33 WPV1 cases were reported in 2018. During January-March 2019 (as of May 3), 12 WPV1 cases had been reported worldwide, four more than the eight reported during the corresponding period in 2018. The occurrence of polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) is rare and occurs where oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage has been low and vaccine virus reverts t...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Greene SA, Ahmed J, Datta SD, Burns CC, Quddus A, Vertefeuille JF, Wassilak SGF Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

The virology of breast cancer: viruses as the potential causative agents of breast tumorigenesis.
Authors: Lehrer S, Rheinstein PH Abstract Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. The cause of sporadic cases is usually difficult to ascertain. Viruses that might be related to breast cancer are human papillomaviruses and herpes viruses. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has also been a suspect. MMTV is a milk-transmitted beta retrovirus, a form of single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell, thus altering the cell's genome. MMTV DNA sequences have been found in 36% of human breast tumor samples and 24% of non-cancerous breast tissue. The ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of full and fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine for use in routine immunisation and outbreak response: an open-label, randomised controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Cynthia J Snider, Khalequ Zaman, Concepcion F Estivariz, Mohammad Yunus, William C Weldon, Kathleen A Wannemuehler, M Steven Oberste, Mark A Pallansch, Steven GF Wassilak, Tajul Islam A Bari, Abhijeet AnandSummaryBackgroundIntradermal administration of fractional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) is a dose-sparing alternative to the intramuscular full dose. We aimed to compare the immunogenicity of two fIPV doses versus one IPV dose for routine immunisation, and also assessed the immunogenicity of an fIPV booster dose for an outbreak response.Me...
Source: The Lancet - May 17, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Vaccination status of resident pediatricians and the potential risk for their patients - a cross-sectional questionnaire study in pediatric practices in Vienna
Pediatricians are advised by the Austrian ministry of health to be vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, meningococcus ... (Source: BMC Pediatrics)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - May 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Susanne C. Diesner, Sarah Peutlberger and Peter Voitl Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Finding inhabited settlements and tracking vaccination progress: the application of satellite imagery analysis to guide the immunization response to confirmation of previously-undetected, ongoing endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Borno State, Nigeria
Four wild polio-virus cases were reported in Borno State, Nigeria 2016, 1 year after Nigeria had been removed from the list of polio endemic countries by the World Health Organization. Resulting from Nigeria ’s... (Source: International Journal of Health Geographics)
Source: International Journal of Health Geographics - May 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jeff Higgins, Usman Adamu, Kehinde Adewara, Adeshina Aladeshawe, Aron Aregay, Inuwa Barau, Andrew Berens, Omotayo Bolu, Nina Dutton, Nnaemeka Iduma, Bryant Jones, Brian Kaplan, Sule Meleh, Melton Musa, Gatei wa Nganda, Vincent Seaman & hellip; Tags: Research Source Type: research

S99. Herpes Simplex Virus -1 Seropositivity in Treatment Resistant Bipolar Depression
Exposure to viruses, such as mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex viruses have been proposed as risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders and may contribute to cognitive impairment. Reduced cognitive performance was correlated with HSV-1 seropositivity in patients with BD, while cognitive impairment has been associated with a pro-inflammatory state and inflammation as a possible factor in treatment resistance. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexander Truong, Evangelia Fatourou, Angelos Halaris, Robert Yolken Source Type: research