Maternal education, empowerment, economic status and child polio vaccination uptake in Pakistan: a population based cross sectional study
Objectives To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012–2013 data was performed. Participants Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Main outcome measures Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral pol...
Source: BMJ Open - March 10, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Khan, M. T., Zaheer, S., Shafique, K. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Infectious diseases, Public health Research Source Type: research

Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, inter...
Source: Medicine, Conflict and Survival - March 9, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Med Confl Surviv Source Type: research

Advances in Surgical Critical Care 2017: Growing Population and Personalized Protocols
Critical care is a young specialty, initiated in 1953 when poliomyelitis patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, and even earlier for surgical patients recovering from anesthesia or traumatic injuries.1,2 The burden of critical illness globally is high and has been increasing as our population ages.3 (Source: Critical Care Clinics)
Source: Critical Care Clinics - March 9, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Lena M. Napolitano Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Treatment with L-citrulline in patients with post-polio syndrome: study protocol for a single-center, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute infection by the Poliomyelitis virus. Most often, patients who suffered from polio start to expe... (Source: Trials)
Source: Trials - March 9, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Simone Schmidt, Vanya Gocheva, Thomas Zumbrunn, Daniela Rubino-Nacht, Ulrike Bonati, Dirk Fischer and Patricia Hafner Source Type: research

The Differential Diagnosis and Initial Management of Pediatric Transverse Myelitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides a guide to the basic differential considerations, diagnostic testing, and initial treatment of transverse myelitis, as well as complications to watch for and a discussion of recent data on outcomes of transverse myelitis (TM) in children.Recent FindingsWe continue to learn about the underlying causes of transverse myelitis. Neuroinflammation associated with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies is a recent addition to the list. Plasma exchange should be considered for patients with myelitis related to antibody-medicated conditions, particularly if unresponsi...
Source: Current Pediatrics Reports - March 9, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Analysis of the effects of individual and community level factors on childhood immunization in Malawi.
CONCLUSIONS: There were marked improvements in the national immunization coverage from 2004 to 2010. In order to achieve complete immunization, to further enhance the national immunization coverage as well as to lessen the gaps and disparities in childhood vaccination in Malawi, policy makers should design interventions based on the factors addressed in this study. PMID: 28284678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - March 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ntenda PA, Chuang KY, Tiruneh FN, Chuang YC Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Between Securitisation and Neglect: Managing Ebola at the Borders of Global Health.
Abstract In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) was widely criticised for failing to anticipate that an outbreak of Ebola in a remote forested region of south-eastern Guinea would trigger a public health emergency of international concern (pheic). In explaining the WHO's failure, critics have pointed to structural restraints on the United Nations organisation and a leadership 'vacuum' in Geneva, among other factors. This paper takes a different approach. Drawing on internal WHO documents and interviews with key actors in the epidemic response, I argue that the WHO's failure is better understood as a consequen...
Source: Medical History - March 7, 2017 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Honigsbaum M Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Health related quality of life in Turkish polio survivors: impact of post-polio on the health related quality of life in terms of functional status, severity of pain, fatigue, and social, and emotional functioning
Conclusions: Postpolio-syndrome has a negative impact on quality of life in terms of functional status, severity of pain and en ergy. The identification, early recognition and rehabilitation of postpolio-syndrome patients may result in an improvement in their quality of life.RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o impacto da s índrome pós-pólio na qualidade de vida nos sobreviventes da pólio. Métodos: Quarenta sobreviventes da pólio foram incluídos no estudo. Participaram do grupo de síndrome pós-pólio 21 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de sínd...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia - March 3, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Response to a Large Polio Outbreak in a Setting of Conflict - Middle East, 2013-2015.
Abstract As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was t...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - March 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mbaeyi C, Ryan MJ, Smith P, Mahamud A, Farag N, Haithami S, Sharaf M, Jorba JC, Ehrhardt D Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Dynamics Affecting the Risk of Silent Circulation When Oral Polio Vaccination Is Stopped
Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017 Source:Epidemics Author(s): J.S. Koopman, C.J. Henry, J.H. Park, M.C. Eisenberg, E.L. Ionides, J.N. Eisenberg Waning immunity could allow transmission of polioviruses without causing poliomyelitis by promoting silent circulation (SC). Undetected SC when oral polio vaccine (OPV) use is stopped could cause difficult to control epidemics. Little is known about waning. To develop theory about what generates SC, we modeled a range of waning patterns. We varied both OPV and wild polio virus (WPV) transmissibility, the time from beginning vaccination to reaching low polio levels, a...
Source: Epidemics - March 2, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Electronic Alerts Improve Immunization Rates in Two-month-old Premature Infants Hospitalized in the...
Objective: To determine if an electronic alert improves 2 month immunization rates in infants remaining hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review of 261 infants with birth weights
Source: Applied Clinical Informatics - March 1, 2017 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and safety evaluation of bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine by comparing different poliomyelitis vaccination schedules in China: A randomized controlled non-inferiority clinical trial
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - March 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jingjun Qiu Yunkai Yang Lirong Huang Ling Wang Zhiwei Jiang Jian Gong Wei Wang Hongyan Wang Shaohong Guo Chanjuan Li Shuyuan Wei Zhaojun Mo Jielai Xia Source Type: research

Coverage of childhood vaccination among children aged 12-23 months, Tamil Nadu, 2015, India.
CONCLUSIONS: The coverage of FVC in Tamil Nadu was high, with about 80 per cent children completing primary vaccination. Efforts to increase vaccination coverage in the State need to focus on educating vaccinators about the need to adhere to the national vaccination schedule and strengthening supervision to ensure that children are vaccinated appropriately. PMID: 28749402 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian J Med Res)
Source: Indian J Med Res - March 1, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Murhekar MV, Kamaraj P, Kanagasabai K, Elavarasu G, Rajasekar TD, Boopathi K, Mehendale S Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Adapting Nepal's polio eradication programme.
Abstract PROBLEM: Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. APPROACH: In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal's polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004. Staff from the programme aided the development and implementation of government i...
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - March 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Paudel KP, Hampton LM, Gurung S, Bohara R, Rai IK, Anaokar S, Swift RD, Cochi S Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

[Comment] Reaching everyone, everywhere with life-saving vaccines
In 2015, world leaders agreed to a new development plan —a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Expanding access to immunisation is crucial to achieving the SDGs.1,2 Not only do vaccinations prevent the suffering and death associated with infectious diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, whooping cough, measles, and polio, they also help enable national priorities like education and economic development to take hold. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - February 24, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Margaret Chan, Chris Elias, Anthony Fauci, Anthony Lake, Seth Berkley Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Effect of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in Guinea: a retrospective observational cohort study
We examined monthly service use data for eight maternal and child health services indicators: antenatal care (≥1 antenatal care visit and ≥3 antenatal care visits), institutional delivery, and receipt of five infant vaccines: polio, pentavalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B virus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b), yellow fever, measles, and tuberculosis. We used interrupted time series models to estimate trends in each indicator across three time periods: pre-Ebola virus disease epidemic (January, 2013, to February, 2014), during-epidemic (March, 2014, to February, 2015) and post-epidemic (March, 201...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - February 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Continued Endemic Wild Poliovirus Transmission in Security-Compromised Areas - Nigeria, 2016.
Abstract On August 10, 2016, 2 years after the most recent wild poliovirus (WPV) case was reported in Nigeria (in July 2014) (1), two WPV cases were reported in the northeastern state of Borno, which has been severely affected by insurgency-related insecurity since 2013. On September 9 and 26, 2016, two additional WPV cases were reported in Borno in children whose families migrated from security-compromised, inaccessible areas of the state. All four cases were WPV serotype 1 (WPV1), with genetic differences indicating prolonged undetected transmission. A large-scale emergency response plan was developed and implem...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - February 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Nnadi C, Damisa E, Esapa L, Braka F, Waziri N, Siddique A, Jorba J, Nganda GW, Ohuabunwo C, Bolu O, Wiesen E, Adamu U Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Muslim Scholars ’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers Towards Polio Immunization in Pakistan
The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results withp 
Source: Journal of Religion and Health - February 22, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Vaccines: Shaping global health.
Abstract The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaborati...
Source: Vaccine - February 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pagliusi S, Ting CC, Lobos F, DCVMN Executive Committee Group Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

[Adult immunisation: General points, hot topics and perspectives].
Authors: Loubet P, Launay O Abstract Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination. Main issues in this population are th...
Source: Revue de Medecine Interne - February 20, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Rev Med Interne Source Type: research

Post-Polio Syndrome, Implications for Geriatric Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPost-polio syndrome (PPS) is commonly experienced by geriatric patients with a history of acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The goal of this review is to educate clinicians about the clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria for PPS as well as explore established and experimental treatment options.Recent FindingsOn review of the literature, there is no new research identifying effective interventions for PPS.SummaryThe paucity of recent studies is not surprising since polio patients are diminishing in number. There is some hope that interventions for other similar conditions may cross over and sho...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - February 13, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Chapter 1 The history of neurocritical care
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): E.F.M. Wijdicks Critical care medicine came into sharp focus in the second part of the 20th century. The care of acutely ill neurologic patients in the USA may have originated in postoperative neurosurgical units, but for many years patients with neurocritical illness were admitted to intensive care units next to patients with general medical or surgical conditions. Neurologists may have had their first exposure to the complexity of neurocritical care during the poliomyelitis epidemics, but few were interested. Much later, the development ...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.
Authors: Mipatrini D, Stefanelli P, Severoni S, Rezza G Abstract The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventabl...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - February 8, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Safety of Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that antenatal combined Tdap administered during the second or third trimester of pregnancy is not associated with clinically significant harms for the fetus or neonate. Medically attended events in pregnant women are similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. PMID: 28178054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - February 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: McMillan M, Clarke M, Parrella A, Fell DB, Amirthalingam G, Marshall HS Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research

Recurrent venous thrombosis under rivaroxaban and carbamazepine for symptomatic epilepsy
Conclusion The combination of DOACs with carbamazepine, an inducer of P-gp and CYP3A4-activity, should be avoided since the anticoagulant effect is decreased. There is an urgent need to increase our knowledge and physicians’ awareness about the potential of drug–drug interactions of DOACs. (Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Post-polio syndrome. Cases report and review of literature
In this study we described three cases of people who developed PPS years after Haine–Medine disease and correlation between their EMG results and clinical status. We also analyzed electromyography results both after one month since first PPS signs occurred as well as after few years. Presentation of dynamic changes in EMG was the most important aim of that study. (Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery)
Source: Polish Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Post-polio syndrome. Cases report and review of literature.
In this study we described three cases of people who developed PPS years after Haine-Medine disease and correlation between their EMG results and clinical status. We also analyzed electromyography results both after one month since first PPS signs occurred as well as after few years. Presentation of dynamic changes in EMG was the most important aim of that study. PMID: 28209439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska)
Source: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pastuszak Ż, Stępień A, Tomczykiewicz K, Piusińska-Macoch R, Galbarczyk D, Rolewska A Tags: Neurol Neurochir Pol Source Type: research

Recurrent venous thrombosis under rivaroxaban and carbamazepine for symptomatic epilepsy.
r J Abstract BACKGROUND: The direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) rivaroxaban, an oral Factor Xa inhibitor, is increasingly used as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists (VKAs). Absorption and elimination of DOACs are dependent on the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protein system, and DOACs are substrates of the hepatic cytochrome P 450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes. Therefore, drug-interactions may occur when DOACs are administered with drugs affecting the activity of P-gp or CYP3A4 systems. Several antiepileptic drugs like carbamazepine are known to affect P-gp and CYP3A4-activity. CASE REPORT: A ...
Source: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stöllberger C, Finsterer J Tags: Neurol Neurochir Pol Source Type: research

Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
r S Abstract BACKGROUND: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in electronic databases (Cochrane, Pubmed, Embase) and additional literature was identified by targeted searches. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized t...
Source: Vaccine - February 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Croce E, Hatz C, Jonker EF, Visser LG, Jaeger VK, Bühler S Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Cranial nerve involvement in Charcot –Marie–Tooth Disease
Discussion CMT is a group of disorders with a wide range of clinical presentations and abnormalities. Cranial nerve involvement is infrequently described in CMT 1A. In our case and prior studies, there does not appear to be a correlation between cranial nerve involvement and symptoms. Trigeminal neuralgia has been described in patients in CMT, but is not common and was not seen in our patient despite abnormal trigeminal nerve findings on imaging. Our patient also demonstrated involvement of the facial nerve without facial muscle weakness. Clinical features are key in distinguishing CMT 1A from other forms of HMSN. (Source:...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - February 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sequential transmigration of polymorphonuclear cells and naive CD3(+) T lymphocytes across the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier in vitro following infection with Echovirus 30.
In conclusion, this study highlights the role of the choroid plexus and cytokines in regulating leucocyte entry into the CNS in the context of EV30 infection. PMID: 28161477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - February 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Dahm T, Frank F, Adams O, Lindner HA, Ishikawa H, Weiss C, Schwerk C, Schroten H, Tenenbaum T, Rudolph H Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine leading into the polio eradication endgame strategic plan; Hangzhou, China, 2010-2014.
CONCLUSION: Children in Hangzhou had high polio vaccination coverage. IPV-only schedule use increased by year, and was highest in urban areas among locally-born children. All cases of VAPP were associated with the first dose of OPV. PMID: 28161421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - February 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu Y, Wang J, Liu S, Du J, Wang L, Gu W, Xu Y, Zuo S, Xu E, An Z Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Poliomyelitis in Ancient Egypt?
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - February 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prophylactic antipyretics for prevention of febrile seizures following vaccination.
Abstract Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinat...
Source: Canadian Family Physician Medecin de Famille Canadien - February 1, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Monfries N, Goldman RD Tags: Can Fam Physician Source Type: research

Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustainability for tomorrow
AbstractBackgroundVaccination is a complex ecosystem with several components that interact with one another and with the environment. Today ’s vaccine ecosystem is defined by the pursuit of polio eradication, the drive to get as many of the new vaccines to as many people as possible and the research and development against immunologically challenging diseases. Despite these successes, vaccine ecosystem is facing keys issues with regar d to supply/distribution and cost/profitability asymmetry that risk slowing its global growth.The conference “Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustai...
Source: BMC Proceedings - January 27, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Campaigns with oral polio vaccine may lower mortality and create unexpected results.
Abstract Three studies from Guinea-Bissau found conflicting effects of OPV-at-birth (OPV0) on child survival. One study from 2004 suggested excess male mortality among children receiving OPV0 compared with children receiving NoOPV0 during a period of shortage of OPV. However, two subsequent studies showed beneficial effects of OPV0. In 2004, two national OPV-campaigns had been conducted in Guinea-Bissau. In a reanalysis of the 2004-study, in a survival analysis the age-adjusted mortality rate of study participants was 67% (95% CI=42-81%) lower after the OPV-campaigns than before the campaigns. In the OPV0 group on...
Source: Vaccine - January 27, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Benn CS, Jacobsen LH, Fisker AB, Rodrigues A, Sartono E, Lund N, Whittle HC, Aaby P Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Polio and cross-border management
A substantial gain was made towards polio eradication in 2015, with a 79% reduction in polio cases worldwide (n=74) compared with 350 cases reported in 2014. As of Dec 14, 2016, 34 cases of wild poliovirus have been reported worldwide in 2016.1 Despite the gradual reduction in the reported cases, wild poliovirus still poses a huge threat to global public health because it has not yet been eradicated. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - January 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muhammad Umair Khan, Akram Ahmad, Rajesh Balkrishnan Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Understanding ‘perceptions’ is critical for all vaccination efforts, not only polio eradication
Abstract Because Pakistan is the country with the most daunting challenges for ending transmission of endemic poliovirus, the work of Habib et al in this issue is critical for achieving polio eradication globally. Understanding why immunization programs are not reaching all children is important for success in reducing spread of all vaccine preventable diseases. The methods and insights are important for public health generalists, not only those employed in the pursuit of polio eradication. (Source: Journal of Public Health Policy)
Source: Journal of Public Health Policy - January 23, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Guillain-Barr é syndrome: surveillance and cost of treatment strategies
A century after it was first described, Hugh Willison and colleagues (Aug 14, p 717) provide a fabulous clinical overview of advances in the pathophysiology, immunopathology, and management of Guillain-Barr é syndrome.1 Unfortunately, despite listing poliomyelitis in their differential diagnosis, no mention was made of the global public health surveillance importance of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - January 20, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: David N Durrheim Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Long-term evaluation of mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by different polio booster vaccines.
Abstract Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) have distinct advantages and limitations. IPV does not provide mucosal immunity and introduction of IPV to mitigate consequences of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus from OPV has very limited effect on transmission and OPV campaigns are essential for interrupting wild polio virus transmission, even in developed countries with a high coverage of IPV and protected sewer systems. The problem is magnified in many countries with limited resources. Requirement of refrigeration for storage and transportation for both IPV and OPV is also a major c...
Source: Vaccine - January 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xiao Y, Daniell H Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions About Routine Childhood Vaccinations Among Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mothers Residing in Communities with Low Vaccination Coverage in the Jerusalem District
Conclusion Investigating maternal knowledge and attitudes on childhood vaccinations provides insights that may assist in planning tailored intervention programs aimed to increase both vaccination coverage and timeliness. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - January 16, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Guidance for Assessment of Poliovirus Vaccination Status and Vaccination of Children Who Have Received Poliovirus Vaccine Outside the United States.
This report summarizes current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for poliovirus vaccination and provides CDC guidance, in the context of the switch from tOPV to bOPV, regarding assessment of vaccination status and vaccination of children who might have received poliovirus vaccine outside the United States, to ensure that children living in the United States (including immigrants and refugees) are protected against all three poliovirus types. This guidance is not new policy and does not change the recommendations of ACIP for poliovirus vaccination in the United States. Children living in th...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - January 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Marin M, Patel M, Oberste S, Pallansch MA Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae
This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release. (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - January 11, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Jacqueline Staring Eleonore von Castelmur Vincent A. Blomen Lisa G. van den Hengel Markus Brockmann Jim Baggen Hendrik Jan Thibaut Joppe Nieuwenhuis Hans Janssen Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld Anastassis Perrakis Jan E. Carette Thijn R. Brummelkamp Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Knowledge and perceptions of polio and polio immunization in polio high-risk areas of Pakistan
AbstractPakistan and Afghanistan remain the only countries where polio is endemic, and Pakistan reports the most cases in the world. Although the rate is lower than in previous years, the situation remains alarming. We conducted a mixed methods study in high-risk areas of Pakistan to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of target populations about polio vaccine and its eradication, and to estimate coverage of routine immunization and oral polio vaccine. We surveyed 10,685 households in Karachi, 2522 in Pishin, and 2005 in Bajaur. Some knowledge of polio is universal, but important misconceptions persist. The findin...
Source: Journal of Public Health Policy - January 11, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae
This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release. (Source: Nature)
Source: Nature - January 11, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Jacqueline Staring Eleonore von Castelmur Vincent A. Blomen Lisa G. van den Hengel Markus Brockmann Jim Baggen Hendrik Jan Thibaut Joppe Nieuwenhuis Hans Janssen Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld Anastassis Perrakis Jan E. Carette Thijn R. Brummelkamp Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Vaccination Coverage and Timelines Among Children 0 –6 Months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Prospective Cohort Study
In conclusion, the strongest predictor for incomplete and untimely immunization amon g infants in Kinshasa was the clinics in which they were enrolled. The association was likely due to the user fee for well-baby clinic visits and its varying structure by clinic. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - January 5, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Acute flaccid paralysis incidence and Zika virus surveillance, Pacific Islands.
Abstract PROBLEM: The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. APPROACH: We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 ...
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - January 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Craig AT, Butler MT, Pastore R, Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

Combined tibial lengthening and ankle arthrodesis for patients with certain type of sequelae of poliomyelitis.
CONCLUSION: The described combined techniques may be an excellent alternate for treating selected patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. The procedure is not complex but the efficiency is extremely prominent. PMID: 28117634 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery)
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery - January 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Wu CC Tags: J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) Source Type: research

Knowledge assessment regarding poliomyelitis among the caregivers of children who received oral polio vaccine reveals lack of awareness of the vaccine vial monitor (VVM): Implications extending beyond polio eradication.
Abstract Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is now commonly used for vaccines that are included in the National Immunization Schedule in India. It helps to indicate the viability of the vaccine and of the proper functioning of the cold chain. This is useful as it prevents health personnel from administering damaged vaccine. Studies have shown a lack of awareness of health workers regarding the use and interpretation of a VVM. The current study, undertaken among the caregivers of children who were immunized, showed that this lack of information about the VVM also exists among the caregivers. This deficiency in knowledge, b...
Source: Tropical Doctor - January 1, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bhilwar M, Lal P Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research