KREMEN1 Is a Host Entry Receptor for a Major Group of Enteroviruses.
Abstract Human type A Enteroviruses (EV-As) cause diseases ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to poliomyelitis-like disease. Although cellular receptors are identified for some EV-As, they remain elusive for the majority of EV-As. We identify the cell surface molecule KREMEN1 as an entry receptor for coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10). Whereas loss of KREMEN1 renders cells resistant to CV-A10 infection, KREMEN1 overexpression enhances CV-A10 binding to the cell surface and increases susceptibility to infection, indicating that KREMEN1 is a rate-limiting factor for CV-A10 infection. Furthermore, the extracellul...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - April 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Staring J, van den Hengel LG, Raaben M, Blomen VA, Carette JE, Brummelkamp TR Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

6.5-O8High coverage of the polio immunization program in refugees resettling in Denmark
Background: (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - April 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.
Abstract Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - April 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gardner TJ, Diop OM, Jorba J, Chavan S, Ahmed J, Anand A Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Evaluation of the use of various rat strains for immunogenic potency tests of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Biologicals, Volume 52 Author(s): Yuichi Someya, Yasushi Ami, Reiko Takai-Todaka, Akira Fujimoto, Kei Haga, Kosuke Murakami, Yoshiki Fujii, Haruko Shirato, Tomoichiro Oka, Takashi Shimoike, Kazuhiko Katayama, Takaji Wakita Slc:Wistar rats have been the only strain used in Japan for purpose of evaluating a national reference vaccine for the Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) and the immunogenicity of sIPV-containing products. However, following the discovery that the Slc:Wistar strain was genetically related to the Fischer 344 strain, other “real” Wistar strains, ...
Source: Biologicals - April 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Population sensitivity of acute flaccid paralysis and environmental surveillance for serotype 1 poliovirus in Pakistan: an observational study
To support poliomyelitis eradication in Pakistan, environmental surveillance (ES) of wastewater has been expanded alongside surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). ES is a relatively new method of surv... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - April 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kathleen M. O ’Reilly, Robert Verity, Elias Durry, Humayun Asghar, Salmaan Sharif, Sohail Z. Zaidi, M. Zubair M. Wadood, Ousmane M. Diop, Hiro Okayasu, Rana M. Safdar and Nicholas C. Grassly Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Planning for globally coordinated cessation of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine: risks of non-synchronous cessation and unauthorized oral poliovirus vaccine use
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing attenuated serotype 2 polioviruses was globally withdrawn in 2016, and bivalent OPV (bOPV) containing attenuated serotype 1 and 3 polioviruses needs to be withdrawn after th... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens, Lee M. Hampton and Kimberly M. Thompson Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Ensuring childhood vaccination among slums dwellers under the National Immunization Program in India - Challenges and opportunities
Conclusion Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and healthcare indicators. (Source: Preventive Medicine)
Source: Preventive Medicine - April 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Short communication: Could the genexpert system be a new tool for poliovirus detection in the sewage water?
Authors: Bãicuş A Abstract Environmental enterovirus surveillance plays a key role in the detection and identification of importation of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses into polio-free areas. In 2015, 2 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1), from south-western Ukraine, bordering Romania, were confirmed. Romania was considered a country at risk and the environmental enterovirus surveillance was enhanced. In this context we tried to find a diagnosis algorithm for the rapid detection of poliovirus (PV) in the sewage water, using a combination...
Source: Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology - April 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

How often do children receive their vaccinations late, and why?
CONCLUSION: Adherence to vaccination is fairly common in this part of the country. However, vaccination delays are still present and should be addressed to improve health care. PMID: 29619485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Medical Journal)
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - April 7, 2018 Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research

Polio transition: overlooked challenges
Publication date: 7–13 April 2018 Source:The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10128 Author(s): Oliver Razum, Maike Voss (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - April 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

On reducing the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in the global transition from oral to inactivated poliovirus vaccine
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:The Lancet Author(s): Xiangdong Peng, Xiaojiang Hu, Miguel A Salazar (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - April 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Polio transition: overlooked challenges
The reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases by more than 99% is an extraordinary success of the global community. In their Comment, Michel Zaffran and colleagues (Jan 6, p 11)1 assume that eradication will be achieved soon and focus on strategies to ensure that poliovirus will not be reintroduced into a polio-free world.2 (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Oliver Razum, Maike Voss Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Good practices and challenges in addressing poliomyelitis and measles in the European Union
ConclusionsPoliomyelitis and measles should be brought fully onto the policy agendas of all EU/EEA Member States, and adequate resources provided to address them. Each country must abide by the relevant commitments that they have already made. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Birth of Airway Surgery and Evolution over the Past Fifty Years
Significant developments in airway surgery occurred following the introduction of mechanical ventilators and intubation with cuffed endotracheal tubes during the poliomyelitis epidemic of the 1950s. The resulting plethora of postintubation injuries provided extensive experience with resection and reconstruction of stenotic tracheal lesions. In the early 1960s, it was thought that no more 2 cm of trachea could be removed. By the late 1960s, this was challenged owing to better knowledge of airway anatomy and blood supply, tension-releasing maneuvers, and improved anesthetic techniques. Currently, about half of the tracheal l...
Source: Thoracic Surgery Clinics - April 5, 2018 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Jean Deslauriers Source Type: research

Modafinil for the Improvement of Patient Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Conclusion. Modafinil is a central nervous system stimulant with well-established effectiveness in the treatment of narcolepsy and shift-work sleep disorder. There is conflicting evidence about the benefits of modafinil in the treatment of fatigue and EDS secondary to TBI. One randomized, controlled study states that modafinil does not significantly improve patient wakefulness, while another concludes that modafinil corrects EDS but not fatigue. An observational study provides evidence that modafinil increases alertness in fatigued patients with past medical history of brainstem diencephalic stroke or multiple scleros...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - April 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICNS Online Editor Tags: Current Issue Review excessive daytime sleep fatigue head injury modafinil stroke TBI traumatic brain injury Source Type: research

Total Hip Arthroplasty for Patients with Residual Poliomyelitis at a Mean Eight Years of Follow-up.
Abstract In patients with poliomyelitis, degenerative arthritis of the hip may be encountered in the paralytic or normal contralateral limb because of leg length discrepancy, pelvic obliquity, or severe deformities of the affected hip. Although total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common orthopedic procedures, there are few reports of THA in adult patients with residual poliomyelitis. From March 2001 to January 2011, 5 patients with residual poliomyelitis (6 hips) underwent THA using uncemented implants at our hospital. We retrospectively evaluated the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip score, c...
Source: Acta Med Okayama - April 1, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sonekatsu M, Sonohata M, Kitajima M, Kawano S, Mawatari M Tags: Acta Med Okayama Source Type: research

Extension of French vaccination mandates: from the recommendation of the Steering Committee of the Citizen Consultation on Vaccination to the law.
lon F Abstract On 4 December 2017, French parliamentarians passed a law extending the vaccination mandates for children up to 2 years of age from three vaccinations (against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis) to 11 by adding vaccinations against pertussis, Haemophilus influenza b (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal diseases, meningococcal C diseases, measles, mumps and rubella. This vote follows a recommendation made by the Steering Committee of the Citizen Consultation on Vaccination that took place in 2016. The law applies to all children born after 1 January 2018. Parents who do not fulfil the mandate will not...
Source: Euro Surveill - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lévy-Bruhl D, Desenclos JC, Quelet S, Bourdillon F Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Whole body vibration on people with sequelae of polio.
CONCLUSIONS: WBV appears to be a safe exercise for this population. Long-term use in polio survivors needs to be researched, particularly in reducing barriers to participation to promote the physical aspects of health. PMID: 29596010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice)
Source: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice - March 29, 2018 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Da Silva CP, Szot CL, deSa N Tags: Physiother Theory Pract Source Type: research

Factors associated with routine immunization coverage of children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic.
In this study, factors related to the immunization system and characteristics of provinces and districts in Lao PDR were examined to evaluate the association with routine immunization coverage. METHODS: Coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Hepatitis B (DTP-HepB), DTP-HepB-Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), polio (OPV), and measles (MCV1) vaccines from 2002 to 2014 collected through regular reporting system, were used to identify the immunization coverage trends in Lao PDR. Correlation analysis was performed using immunization coverage, characteristics of provinces or distri...
Source: Vaccine - March 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Phoummalaysith B, Yamamoto E, Xeuatvongsa A, Louangpradith V, Keohavong B, Saw YM, Hamajima N Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 4. History of the specialty: where PRM comes from.
Abstract In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the history of the PRM medical specialty. The specialty evolved in different European countries, and sometimes also into the single countries, from different medical streams that finally joined. These included among others: balneology, gymnastic, use of physical agents (water, heat, cold, massage, joint manipulations, physical exercise, etc.). Another important role has been played by the increasing number of people experiencing or likely to experience disability due to improvement of medicine a...
Source: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine - March 24, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Bodies Alliance Tags: Eur J Phys Rehabil Med Source Type: research

A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.
CONCLUSION: Non-inferiority of dTap-IPVB to dTap-IPVR was demonstrated. Both vaccines had a clinically acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile when co-administered with MMRV to children 3-4 years old. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01245049 (ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID: 29576304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - March 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marlow R, Kuriyakose S, Mesaros N, Han HH, Tomlinson R, Faust SN, Snape MD, Pollard AJ, Finn A Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Seronegativity to polio viruses among previously immunized adult candidates to solid organ transplantation
In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among the first 100 patients enrolled in this study, only seven adult SOT candidates had proven polio vaccination at childhood. Three of these seven patients (43%) had no protective antibody titers to one or mor...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The future control of rotavirus disease: Can live oral vaccines alone solve the rotavirus problem?
Abstract Live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines used worldwide are most effective in reducing diarrheal hospitalizations from RV in high income countries and least effective in low income countries where RV remains a prime cause of death in children. Research has failed to fully explain the reason for this difference of efficacy for RV vaccines, an observation made with other live oral vaccines for polio, cholera and typhoid fever. Use of parenteral vaccines have been successful in overcoming this problem for both polio and typhoid and parenteral RV vaccines are now in development. This approach should be pursued for r...
Source: Vaccine - March 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Glass RI, Jiang B, Parashar U Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks and Events - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.
Abstract The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence. This process occurs during extensive person-to-person transmission in pop...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - March 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Alleman MM, Chitale R, Burns CC, Iber J, Dybdahl-Sissoko N, Chen Q, Van Koko DR, Ewetola R, Riziki Y, Kavunga-Membo H, Dah C, Andriamihantanirina R Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Enhancing viral vaccine production using engineered knockout vero cell lines - A second look.
Abstract The global adoption of vaccines to combat disease is hampered by the high cost of vaccine manufacturing. The work described herein follows two previous publications (van der Sanden et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2017) that report a strategy to enhance poliovirus and rotavirus vaccine production through genetic modification of the Vero cell lines used in large-scale vaccine manufacturing. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools were used to knockout Vero target genes previously shown to play a role in polio- and rotavirus production. Subsequently, small-scale models of current industry manufacturing systems were develope...
Source: Vaccine - March 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hoeksema F, Karpilow J, Luitjens A, Lagerwerf F, Havenga M, Groothuizen M, Gillissen G, Lemckert AAC, Jiang B, Tripp RA, Yallop C Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

19-Polio-like syndrome – Electrophysiological findings
Although viral poliomyelitis has been eradicated in the Czech Republic for over 50  years, lesions of peripheral mononeurons with acute onset, frequently accompanied by fever, have still been known to occur. Despite the fact that there are no sensory distrubances, and the paresis tend to have typical distribution, they are often accompanied by pain. In addition, muscle atrophy i s a regular occurence. These acute motoneuron disorders and their possible combination with motor roots disorder are called “polio-like syndromes.” (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E. Ehler Source Type: research

Vernet syndrome resulting from varicella zoster virus infection —a very rare clinical presentation of a common viral infection
AbstractVernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Physical examination showed signs compatible with a right XI, X, and XI cranial nerves involvement and also several vesicular lesions in the right ear ’s concha. He had a personal history of poliomyelitis and chickenpox. La...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - March 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Incomplete childhood immunization with new and old vaccines and associated factors: BRISA birth cohort, S ão Luís, Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent ...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - March 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Silva FS, Barbosa YC, Batalha MA, Ribeiro MRC, Simões VMF, Branco MDRFC, Thomaz ÉBAF, Queiroz RCS, Araújo WRM, Silva AAMD Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research

The multiple lives of DEAD-box RNA helicase DP103/DDX20/Gemin3.
Abstract Gemin3, also known as DDX20 or DP103, is a DEAD-box RNA helicase which is involved in more than one cellular process. Though RNA unwinding has been determined in vitro, it is surprisingly not required for all of its activities in cellular metabolism. Gemin3 is an essential gene, present in Amoeba and Metazoa. The highly conserved N-terminus hosts the helicase core, formed of the helicase- and DEAD-domains, which, based on crystal structure determination, have key roles in RNA binding. The C-terminus of Gemin3 is highly divergent between species and serves as the interaction site for several accessory fact...
Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - March 9, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Curmi F, Cauchi RJ Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research

Ultrasound Guided Carpal Tunnel Release Using Dynamic Expansion of the Transverse Safe Zone in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome: A Case Report
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018 Source:PM&R Author(s): Troy Henning, Daniel Lueders, Kate Chang, Lynda Yang The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) in patients that suffer from post-polio syndrome occurs at a rate of 22%.[1] Irrespective of those with CTS, 74% of post-polio patients weight bear through their arms for ambulation or transfers.[1] As open carpal tunnel release is performed along the weight bearing region of the wrist, their functional independence may be altered while recovering. This case demonstrates that ultrasound guided carpal tunnel release(USCTR) was successfully performe...
Source: PMandR - March 6, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Polio eradication - just one final sprint to the finish.
ash;S PMID: 29513430 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening)
Source: Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening - March 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sivertsen ØS Tags: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Source Type: research

Ultrasound Guided Carpal Tunnel Release Using Dynamic Expansion of the Transverse Safe Zone in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome: A Case Report
The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) in patients that suffer from post-polio syndrome occurs at a rate of 22%.[1] Irrespective of those with CTS, 74% of post-polio patients weight bear through their arms for ambulation or transfers.[1] As open carpal tunnel release is performed along the weight bearing region of the wrist, their functional independence may be altered while recovering. This case demonstrates that ultrasound guided carpal tunnel release(USCTR) was successfully performed in a patient with post-polio syndrome allowing him to immediately weight bear through his hands after the procedure so he could rec...
Source: PM and R - March 5, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Troy Henning, Daniel Lueders, Kate Chang, Lynda Yang Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of anti-polio antibodies in children from polio high risk area of Afghanistan: A cross sectional survey 2017.
CONCLUSIONS: The polio eradication program in Kandahar achieved high serological protection, especially against PV1 and PV3. Lower PV2 seroprevalence in the younger age group is a result of a withdrawal of live type 2 vaccine in 2016 and is expected. Ability to reach all children with poliovirus vaccines is a pre-requisite for achieving poliovirus eradication. PMID: 29510918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - March 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hussain I, Mach O, Hamid NA, Bhatti ZS, Moore DD, Oberste MS, Khan S, Khan H, Weldon WC, Sutter RW, Bhutta ZA, Soofi SB Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Nigeria, January-December 2017.
This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimat...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - March 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Bolu O, Nnadi C, Damisa E, Braka F, Siddique A, Archer WR, Bammeke P, Banda R, Higgins J, Edukugo A, Nganda GW, Forbi JC, Liu H, Gidado S, Soghaier M, Franka R, Waziri N, Burns CC, Vertefeuille J, Wiesen E, Adamu U Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Nigeria, January –December 2017.
Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication: Nigeria, January–December 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2018 Mar 02;93(9):97-104 Authors: PMID: 29498497 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)
Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record - March 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Wkly Epidemiol Rec Source Type: research

Outbreak of recombinant coxsackievirus A2 infection and polio-like paralysis of children, Taiwan, 2014
Patients with coxsackievirus A2 (CVA2) infection mostly present with herpangina and rarely have central nervous system complications.1 However, in 2012, a Hong Kong study reported that a naturally occurring recombinant CVA2 caused an outbreak of severe respiratory symptoms, leading to two deaths.2 In the current study, we report an outbreak of CVA2-infection-related acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Taiwan. Sequencing and analysis of the viruses isolated from fecal samples revealed that the currently prevalent CVA2 strain is highly similar to the Hong Kong recombinant. (Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology)
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - March 1, 2018 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kuo-Liang Chiang, Sung-Hsi Wei, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Yu-Kung Chou, Jyh-Yuan Yang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Seronegativity to polio viruses among previously immunized adult candidates to solid organ transplantation.
In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among the first 100 patients enrolled in this study, only seven adult SOT candidates had proven polio vaccination at childhood. Three of these seven patients (43%) had no protective antibody titers to one or mor...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Brandão LGP, Brasil PEAAD, Silva SO, Silva EED, Lopes GS Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Results of Ilizarov External Fixation in Rigid Equinus Deformity: An Experience of 30 Patients.
CONCLUSION: Ilizarov external fixation being a minimal invasive procedure allows a greater degree of equinus deformity correction. PMID: 30152762 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja)
Source: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja - February 27, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ahmad K, Ahmad Bhat S, Avtar Agrawal R, Agrawal R Tags: Ortop Traumatol Rehabil Source Type: research

Total Hip Arthroplasty for Patients with Residual Poliomyelitis at a Mean Eight Years of Follow-up.
Authors: Sonekatsu M, Sonohata M, Kitajima M, Kawano S, Mawatari M Abstract In patients with poliomyelitis, degenerative arthritis of the hip may be encountered in the paralytic or normal contralateral limb because of leg length discrepancy, pelvic obliquity, or severe deformities of the affected hip. Although total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common orthopedic procedures, there are few reports of THA in adult patients with residual poliomyelitis. From March 2001 to January 2011, 5 patients with residual poliomyelitis (6 hips) underwent THA using uncemented implants at our hospital. We retrospectively...
Source: Acta Medica Okayama - February 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Okayama Source Type: research

Prevalence and characteristics of human parechovirus and enterovirus infection in febrile infants
This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infection in febrile young infants in Japan. MethodsDuring February 2010–August 2015, we obtained 53 stool, 44 throat swab, and 20 cerebrospinal fluid samples from 56 infants (
Source: Pediatrics International - February 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kentaro Sano, Hiromichi Hamada, Shoko Hirose, Kenta Sugiura, Satoko Harada, Mai Koizumi, Mayumi Hara, Haruna Nishijima, Masakatsu Taira, Atsushi Ogura, Tomoko Ogawa, Jun ‐ichi Takanashi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

New insights into physiopathology of immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus infection; systematic review of over 5 decades of data.
Abstract Widespread administration of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has decreased global incidence of poliomyelitis by ≈99.9%. However, the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) is threatening polio-eradication program. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are at higher risks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and prolonged excretion of immunodeficiency-associated VDPV (iVDPV). We searched Embase, Medline, Science direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and CDC and WHO databases by 30 September 2016, for all reports of iVDPV cases. Patient-level data were extracted form eligible stud...
Source: Vaccine - February 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shaghaghi M, Soleyman-Jahi S, Abolhassani H, Yazdani R, Azizi G, Rezaei N, Barbouche MR, McKinlay MA, Aghamohammadi A Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Evaluation of vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak response options: A randomized controlled trial, Karachi, Pakistan.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses type 2 (cVDPV2) remain a risk to poliovirus eradication in an era without live poliovirus vaccine containing type 2 in routine immunization. We evaluated existing outbreak response strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for control of cVDPV2 outbreaks. METHODS: Seronegative children for poliovirus type 2 (PV2) at 22 weeks of life were assigned to one of four study groups and received respectively (1) one dose of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV); (2) monovalent OPV 2 (mOPV2); (3) tOPV together with a dos...
Source: Vaccine - February 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Saleem AF, Yousafzai MT, Mach O, Khan A, Quadri F, Weldon WC, Oberste MS, Zaidi SS, Alam MM, Sutter RW, Zaidi AKM Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Evaluation of the use of various rat strains for immunogenic potency tests of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines.
Abstract Slc:Wistar rats have been the only strain used in Japan for purpose of evaluating a national reference vaccine for the Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) and the immunogenicity of sIPV-containing products. However, following the discovery that the Slc:Wistar strain was genetically related to the Fischer 344 strain, other "real" Wistar strains, such as Crlj:WI, that are available worldwide were tested in terms of their usefulness in evaluating the immunogenicity of the past and current lots of a national reference vaccine. The response of the Crlj:WI rats against the serotype 1 of sIP...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - February 20, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Someya Y, Ami Y, Takai-Todaka R, Fujimoto A, Haga K, Murakami K, Fujii Y, Shirato H, Oka T, Shimoike T, Katayama K, Wakita T Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

March of Dimes Foundation: leading the way to birth defects prevention.
Authors: Walani SR, Biermann J Abstract Birth defects are a major cause of mortality among children under five. In accordance with its mission, the March of Dimes Foundation is dedicated to reducing the toll of birth defects on children, families, and society. Founded in 1938 to fight polio, March of Dimes currently focuses on prevention of birth defects and preterm birth and has had a major influence on surveillance, research, advocacy, awareness, and education related to birth defects prevention and care. In the USA, it has played an active role in promoting and advocating for newborn screening for early diagnosi...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Polio immunization in Pakistan: ethical issues and challenges.
Conclusion: Having programmatic, system-wide, socio-cultural and of course ethical dimensions, the policy makers and the programme managers in Pakistan must attempt to address the multitude of challenges to polio vaccination, whereby the plan of action developed within the ethical norms could potentially lead to an ultimate success. PMID: 29450078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.
Abstract Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in adult asylum seekers. In this 2016 study, we assessed the immunity of adult asylum seekers against nine VPD to identify groups that might benefit from additional vaccinations. We invited asylum seekers from Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and Ethiopia to participate in a serosurvey. Par...
Source: Vaccine - February 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Freidl GS, Tostmann A, Curvers M, Ruijs WLM, Smits G, Schepp R, Duizer E, Boland G, de Melker H, van der Klis FRM, Hautvast JLA, Veldhuijzen IK Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Insecurity, polio vaccination rates, and polio incidence in northwest Pakistan [Social Sciences]
Pakistan is one of three countries in which endemic transmission of poliovirus has never been stopped. Insecurity is often cited but poorly studied as a barrier to eradicating polio. We analyzed routinely collected health data from 32 districts of northwest Pakistan and constructed an index of insecurity based on journalistic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Amol A. Verma, Marcia P. Jimenez, Rudolf H. Tangermann, S. V. Subramanian, Fahad Razak Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Attitude and subjective wellbeing of non-compliant mothers to childhood oral polio vaccine supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria
Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers ’ att... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - February 8, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Gregory C. Umeh, Terna Ignatius Nomhwange, Anthony F. Shamang, Furera Zakari, Audu I. Musa, Paul M. Dogo, Victor Gugong and Neyu Iliyasu Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Sense of Coherence in persons with late effects of polio.
Authors: Nolvi M, Brogårdh C, Jacobsson L, Lexell J Abstract BACKGROUND: Sense of Coherence (SOC) is important for successful adaptation and mental well-being in people with life-long medical conditions. Late effects of polio (LEoP) often lead to a life-long disability, but no study has assessed SOC in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess SOC in persons with LEoP and to explore the association between SOC, demographics (age, gender, marital status and level of education) and variables related to LEoP (age at polio onset, number of years from polio until onset of LEoP and self-rated disability). METHO...
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - February 7, 2018 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research