Why more research needs to be done on echinococcosis in Pakistan
ConclusionFuture research on echinococcosis is anticipated to demonstrate whether the epidemiology, diagnosis and recombinant vaccines/antibodies relating to echinococcosis can meet the quality standards (purity, potency, safety and efficacy) defined by the World Health Organization. Research work should be carried out on the epidemiology and serodiagnosis of echinocossis in the different areas of Pakistan, which will be useful for the proper eradication of echinococcosis in this region. The health department should implement awareness-raising campaigns for the general public in order to reduce the burden of disease. (Sour...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - July 3, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The removal of type 2 polio vaccine from Uganda's routine immunization program: lessons learned from an independent validation committee
Five years from now the world will hopefully celebrate the achievements made to save children from a vaccine-preventable disabling disease caused by a wild polio virus as a result of concerted effort by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. During the 65th World Health Assembly, member states requested for a polio endgame to finish the job of polio eradication by 2018 with clear milestones, targets, and to consider completion of the polio game as a public health emergency of international concern. (Source: Public Health)
Source: Public Health - July 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: A. Kisakye, N.K. Sewankambo, I. Ampeire, D. Ndungutse, R. Mayanja, E. Mworozi Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Children who have received no routine polio vaccines in Nigeria: Who are they and where do they live?
. (Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - June 30, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Olalekan A. Uthman Sulaimon T. Adedokun Tawa Olukade Samuel Watson Olatunji Adetokunboh Adeyinka Adeniran Solomon A. Oyetoyan Saheed Gidado Stephen Lawoko Charles S. Wiysonge Source Type: research

Cognitive behavioural therapy for reducing fatigue in post-polio syndrome and in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A comparison.
CONCLUSION: Fatigue-related cognitions in severely fatigued patients with post-polio syndrome are not clearly different from that in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. Thus, the lack of efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy in post-polio syndrome cannot be attributed to unique cognitive characteristics of this population. PMID: 28657640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - June 29, 2017 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

Measuring physical and cognitive fatigue in people with Post Polio Syndrome: development of the Neurological Fatigue Index for Post Polio Syndrome (NFI-PP)
Conclusions A patient-derived Neurological Fatigue Index for PPS, with physical and cognitive subscales, and a total score, has demonstrated good reliability, appropriate concurrent validity, and satisfies the Rasch measurement model. A raw-score to interval scale transformation is available for parametric applications, and the calculation of change scores. (Source: PMandR)
Source: PMandR - June 27, 2017 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Vaccination coverage among social and healthcare workers in ten countries of Samu-social international sites.
CONCLUSIONS: The Samusocial International workers vaccine coverage at adulthood was insufficient and disparate by region. It is necessary to strengthen the outreach of this staff and increase immunization policy for hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, and measles, as well as for yellow fever, rabies and meningococcal ACYW135 vaccines in at risk regions. PMID: 28666760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - June 27, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marshall E, Salmon D, Laisney D, Bousfiha N, Togola Y, Ouedraogo F, Santantonio M, Dieng CK, Tartière S, Emmanuelli X Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Measuring physical and cognitive fatigue in people with Post Polio Syndrome: development of the Neurological Fatigue Index for Post Polio Syndrome (NFI-PP)
Fatigue in Post Polio Syndrome (PPS) has been shown to adversely affect quality of life. There is currently no disease-specific measure of fatigue for PPS. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - June 26, 2017 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Carolyn A. Young, Samantha M. Wong, Anne-Marie C. Quincey, Alan Tennant Source Type: research

Nigeria's polio endgame impeded by Boko Haram.
PMID: 28652489 [PubMed - in process] (Source: cmaj)
Source: cmaj - June 26, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Webster P Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research

Measuring Physical and Cognitive Fatigue in People With Post-Polio Syndrome: Development of the Neurological Fatigue Index for Post-Polio Syndrome (NFI-PP)
Fatigue in post-polio syndrome (PPS) has been shown to affect quality of life adversely. There is currently no disease-specific measure of fatigue for PPS. (Source: PM and R)
Source: PM and R - June 26, 2017 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Carolyn A. Young, Samantha M. Wong, Anne-Marie C. Quincey, Alan Tennant Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Detection of Emerging Vaccine-Related Polioviruses by Deep Sequencing [Virology]
Oral poliovirus vaccine can mutate to regain neurovirulence. To date, evaluation of these mutations has been performed primarily on culture-enriched isolates by using conventional Sanger sequencing. We therefore developed a culture-independent, deep-sequencing method targeting the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and P1 genomic region to characterize vaccine-related poliovirus variants. Error analysis of the deep-sequencing method demonstrated reliable detection of poliovirus mutations at levels of
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sahoo, M. K., Holubar, M., Huang, C., Mohamed-Hadley, A., Liu, Y., Waggoner, J. J., Troy, S. B., Garcia-Garcia, L., Ferreyra-Reyes, L., Maldonado, Y., Pinsky, B. A. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Progress Toward Containment of Poliovirus Type 2 - Worldwide, 2017.
This report summarizes the current status of poliovirus containment and progress since the last report (2), and outlines remaining challenges. Within 30 countries, 86 facilities have been designated by the relevant national authorities (usually the Ministry of Health) to become poliovirus-essential facilities for the continued storage or handling of PV2 materials; each country is responsible for ensuring that these facilities meet all biorisk management requirements. PMID: 28640795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Previsani N, Singh H, St Pierre J, Boualam L, Fournier-Caruana J, Sutter RW, Zaffran M, MEng Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Long ‐term neuromuscular outcomes of west nile virus infection: A clinical and electromyographic evaluation of patients with a history of infection
ConclusionsWith more than 16,000 cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease reported across the USA since 1999, understanding clinical outcomes from infection will provide a resource for physicians managing long‐term care of these patients. Muscle Nerve, 2017 (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - June 17, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Parveen Athar, Rodrigo Hasbun, Melissa S. Nolan, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P. Woods, Kazim Sheikh, Kristy O. Murray Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Advances Towards Painless Vaccination and Newer Modes of Vaccine Delivery
AbstractVaccines have been successful in reducing the mortality and morbidity, but most of them are delivered by intramuscular or intravenous route. They are associated with pain to the baby and bring lot of anxiety for the parents. There has been a marked increase in the number of injections required in first two years of life for completing the vaccination schedule. Hence, there is a need to have a painless vaccine delivery system. Numerous new routes of vaccination like, oral, nasal and transdermal routes are being tried. Oral polio and intranasal influenza have already been a success. Other newer approaches like edible...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - June 16, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccinations in children by two years of age in Alberta, Canada.
CONCLUSION: The timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccination in preschool children in this community-based pregnancy cohort is lower than provincial targets. Data on timeliness of vaccination can inform further work on barriers and enablers to vaccination in order to meet provincial targets. PMID: 28621647 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Journal of Public Health)
Source: Canadian Journal of Public Health - June 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Saini V, MacDonald SE, McNeil DA, McDonald SW, Kellner JD, Edwards SA, Stagg V, Tough S Tags: Can J Public Health Source Type: research

Acute segmental poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis in an adult in the UK, associated with enterovirus D68.
We report a case of acute segmental flaccid paralysis with respiratory involvement in an adult in the UK, with enterovirus D68 detected in a sputum sample. MR imaging of cervical spinal cord showed a longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity in the anterior cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an elevated white cell count, predominantly lymphocytic, with otherwise normal constituents and negative viral PCRs. His respiratory function improved after intravenous immunoglobulin, suggesting that this may be useful in such cases. Clinicians should consider enterovirus D68 infection in the differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barr&eac...
Source: Practical Neurology - June 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Stacpoole SRL, Molyneux A, Bäumer D Tags: Pract Neurol Source Type: research

Humoral Immunity in Arsenic-Exposed Children in Rural Bangladesh: Total Immunoglobulins and Vaccine-Specific Antibodies
Author Affiliations open 1Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh), Dhaka, Bangladesh 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden 3Maternal and Child Health Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh 4Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan PDF Version (995 KB) Abstract About This Article Supplemental Material Background: Early-life arsenic exposure has been associated with reduced cell-mediated immunity, but little is known about its effects o...
Source: EHP Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Karla Gonzalez Tags: Research Source Type: research

Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies Are a Reservoir of Poliovirus and a Risk to Polio Eradication
Asghar Aghamohammadi, Hassan Abolhassani, Necil Kutukculer, Steve G. Wassilak, Mark A. Pallansch, Samantha Kluglein, Jessica Quinn, Roland W. Sutter, Xiaochuan Wang, Ozden Sanal, Tatiana Latysheva, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Ewa Bernatowska, Irina A. Tuzankina, Beatriz T. Costa-Carvalho, Jose Luis Franco, Raz Somech, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Surjit Singh, Liliana Bezrodnik, Francisco J. Espinosa-Rosales, Anna Shcherbina, Yu-Lung Lau, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Fred Modell, Vicki Modell, The JMF Centers Network Investigators and Study Collaborators , Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Mark A. McKinlay, Ahmet Ozen, Andrea Berlin, Anissa Chouikha, Arm...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - June 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Risk factors and short-term projections for serotype-1 poliomyelitis incidence in Pakistan: A spatiotemporal analysis
by Natalie A. Molodecky, Isobel M. Blake, Kathleen M. O ’Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M. Safdar, Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O. Buckee, Ananda S. Bandyopadhyay, Hiromasa Okayasu, Nicholas C. Grassly BackgroundPakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns. Methods and findingsWe fit mixed-effects logistic regression ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - June 12, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Natalie A. Molodecky Source Type: research

Post-Polio-Like Syndrome
Post-polio-syndrome is a motor neuron disease that occurs in 15-80% of patients with history of polio.1 The diagnostic criteria for post-polio-syndrome include a confirmed history of polio, partial or complete neurological and functional recovery after acute polio, a period of over 15 years with neurological and functional stability, new symptoms that have been present for more than one year, such as weakness and abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other medical conditions.1 To our knowledge, no virus other than polio has been reported to cause such a disorder. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - June 9, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shingo Suzuki, Sonoko Misawa, Takahiro Ota, Yu Li, Satoshi Kuwabara, Masatomi Ikusaka Tags: Clinical Communication to the Editor Source Type: research

An Indian Perspective of Some Recent Developments in Polio DPT Zika and Rotavirus Vaccines
Vidhya V. Iyer*, A. Tejal, A. Poddar, D. Maithili, L. G. Rasika, A. Bendre and Vani Jaswal (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences)
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - June 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations
Conclusions: Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any recommended immunization. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Booster Injection of DTap-IPV//Hib (Pentaxim) Administered Concomitantly With Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Toddlers 15–18 Months of Age in Mexico: A Randomized Trial
Conclusion: Coadministration of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine with CYD-TDV has no observed impact on the immunogenicity or safety profile of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine. No difference was observed on the CYD-TDV profile when administered concomitantly or sequentially with the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research

Immunogenicity study to investigate the interchangeability among three different types of polio vaccine: A cohort study in Japan
Abstract: In Japan, the routine immunization program with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been suspended since September 2012, when a program with 4 doses of inactivated monovalent polio vaccine (IPV) or quadrivalent vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus with IPV (DTaP-IPV) was introduced. The aim of this study was to examine the interchangeability among these 3 types of polio vaccines. We conducted a prospective cohort study at 5 pediatric clinics in Japan. A total of 153 infants were assigned to 1 of the 4 groups by considering the vaccination history of OPV and trivalent vaccine against DTaP. Eleven infants w...
Source: Medicine - June 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Acute flaccid myelitis in childhood: a retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsAcute flaccid myelitis is an uncommon condition in childhood with a high rate of significant long‐term morbidity. AFM should be considered in children presenting with acute limb pain and weakness. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)
Source: European Journal of Neurology - June 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: E. W. Andersen, A. J. Kornberg, J. L. Freeman, R. J. Leventer, M. M. Ryan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST): A diagnosis to be considered on clinically undifferentiated tumors
A 64-year-old man attended to our dermatology unit complaining an asymptomatic mass on his left sole for seven month. His past medical history revealed he suffered polio on his early childhood. On physical examination, a well-defined 6 × 7 cm ulcerated and exudative tumor on left sole was observed. Skin examination showed no other significant findings. Laboratory tests and CT scan exhibit no abnormalities. Histopathology showed a subepidermal tumor with different growth patterns. Hypercellular fascicles alternating with myxoid re gions were noted configuring a marbleized pattern. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - May 31, 2017 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

On Viewing a Portrait by Otto Dix
A broad schmiss across his cheek, full lips, pursed as if to suppress a smile, Dr. Hans Koch wears pince nez, a white coat, collar up, sleeves rolled to the elbows. Standing by a chair with metal stirrups, a white tiled room, instruments scattered on a nearby table, he waits – a tourniquet in one hand, glass syringe in the other, its long needle facing me. And I am twelve once again, as my father looks up, a syringe in his hand when I come in, back from a ball game, his black bag open on the kitchen table. "This is for you! There's a polio epidemic. You need gamma globulin, 5 cc in each butt." He took care ...
Source: Medical Humanities - May 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bronson, R. Tags: Poetry and Prose Source Type: research

An enhanced Enterovirus surveillance system allows identification and characterization of rare and emerging respiratory enteroviruses in Denmark, 2015-16
In 2014, an outbreak of severe respiratory illness and neurological impairment affected North America. Enterovirus (EV) D68 was identified in more than 1100 cases (mostly children), and in specimens from 14 patients who died in the U.S. in 2014 [1]. The potential for similar outbreaks due to EV-D68 or other respiratory EVs is a concern. Since 2009, new EV species C have emerged [2 –6], with a wide range of clinical presentations reported, including lower and upper tract respiratory infections but also polio-like symptoms such as acute flaccid myelitis and paralysis [7], fatal in one case from Democratic Republic of C...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - May 29, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: C éline Barnadas, Sofie E. Midgley, Marianne N. Skov, Lotte Jensen, Mille W. Poulsen, Thea Kølsen Fischer Source Type: research

An assessment of the geographical risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks in Africa and Asia
The international spread of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks continues to threaten eradication of poliomyelitis and in 2014 a public health emergency of international concern was declared. Here we describe a risk ... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - May 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kathleen M. O ’Reilly, Christine Lamoureux, Natalie A. Molodecky, Hil Lyons, Nicholas C. Grassly and Graham Tallis Source Type: research

Virologic Monitoring of Poliovirus Type 2 after Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Type 2 Withdrawal in April 2016 - Worldwide, 2016-2017.
This report details for the first time the virologic tracking of elimination of a live vaccine that has been withdrawn from routine and mass immunization systems worldwide (3). To secure elimination, further monitoring is warranted to detect any use of tOPV or monovalent OPV type 2 (mOPV2). PMID: 28542124 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 26, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Diop OM, Asghar H, Gavrilin E, Moeletsi NG, Benito GR, Paladin F, Pattamadilok S, Zhang Y, Goel A, Quddus A Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Scientific consultation on the safety and containment of new poliovirus strains for vaccine production, clinical/regulatory testing and research. Report of a meeting held at NIBSC, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK, 6/7th July 2016
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017 Source:Biologicals Author(s): Philip D. Minor, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar When poliomyelitis is totally eradicated from the natural world containment will be vital to prevent its re-emergence. The matter has become pressing as type 2 component of oral polio vaccine was completely withdrawn by May 2016 as wild ty[e 2 was declared eradicated. Work on polioviruses must be contained in accordance with GAPIII (the third version of the Global Action Plan of WHO). Some activities will be essential for years after eradication. Vaccine production and control, surveillance ...
Source: Biologicals - May 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gray-Violet Plaque in an Immunocompromised Girl
A 4-year-old girl with newly diagnosed acute lymphocytic leukemia, currently on her initial course of chemotherapy with vincristine, daunorubicin, and methotrexate developed a painful lesion on her left triceps; the tender area was beneath an adhesive bandage placed where she had received DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) and polio vaccinations 3 weeks earlier. What is your diagnosis? (Source: JAMA Dermatology)
Source: JAMA Dermatology - May 24, 2017 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Determinants of successful vitamin A supplementation coverage among children aged 6-59 months in thirteen sub-Saharan African countries.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children aged 6-59 months occurs regularly in most sub-Saharan African countries. The present study aimed to explore child, household and delivery platform factors associated with VAS coverage and identify barriers to compliance in thirteen African countries. DESIGN: We pooled data (n ~60 000) from forty-four household coverage surveys and used bivariate and multivariable regression analyses to assess the effects of supplementation strategy, rural v. urban residence, child sex, child age, caregiver education and campaign awareness on child VAS status. Se...
Source: Public Health Nutrition - May 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Janmohamed A, Klemm RD, Doledec D Tags: Public Health Nutr Source Type: research

Scientific consultation on the safety and containment of new poliovirus strains for vaccine production, clinical/regulatory testing and research. Report of a meeting held at NIBSC, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK, 6/7th July 2016.
Abstract When poliomyelitis is totally eradicated from the natural world containment will be vital to prevent its re-emergence. The matter has become pressing as type 2 component of oral polio vaccine was completely withdrawn by May 2016 as wild ty[e 2 was declared eradicated. Work on polioviruses must be contained in accordance with GAPIII (the third version of the Global Action Plan of WHO). Some activities will be essential for years after eradication. Vaccine production and control, surveillance and supportive applied and academic research must all continue. Most laboratories do not currently comply with GAPII...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - May 23, 2017 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Minor PD, Lane B, Mimms S, Bar P Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

Live attenuated tetravalent (G1-G4) bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (BRV-TV): Randomized, controlled phase III study in Indian infants.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains the leading cause of diarrhoea among children
Source: Vaccine - May 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Saluja T, Palkar S, Misra P, Gupta M, Venugopal P, Sood AK, Dhati RM, Shetty A, Dhaded SM, Agarkhedkar S, Choudhury A, Kumar R, Balasubramanian S, Babji S, Adhikary L, Dupuy M, Chadha SM, Desai F, Kukian D, Patnaik BN, Dhingra MS Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Responding to a cVDPV1 outbreak in Ukraine: Implications, challenges and opportunities.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic under-vaccination in Ukraine resulted in the accumulation of children susceptible to polioviruses and created favorable conditions for VDPV1 emergence and circulation, leading to the outbreak. Until programmatic gaps in immunization and surveillance are addressed, Ukraine will remain at high-risk for VDPV emergence and circulation, as well as at risk for other vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID: 28528761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - May 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Khetsuriani N, Perehinets I, Nitzan D, Popovic D, Moran T, Allahverdiyeva V, Huseynov S, Gavrilin E, Slobodianyk L, Izhyk O, Sukhodolska A, Hegazi S, Bulavinova K, Platov S, O'Connor P Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

[Importance of enteroviruses in neuropaediatrics: from polioviruses to other enteroviruses].
Abstract Enteroviruses are among the most common human viruses around the world. More than 100 different serotypes that can cause a range of clinical pathologies have been identified, although the most frequent are those that affect the central nervous system, such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or paralysis, which in some cases can be very severe or even fatal. In recent years, enterovirus outbreaks associated to new diseases have been reported all over the world, and as a result some serotypes have been considered 'emerging' pathogens. Yet, our knowledge about these viruses, especially about the non-polio e...
Source: Revista de Neurologia - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Cabrerizo M, Grupo Para El Estudio de Las Infecciones Por Enterovirus Y Parechovirus GPEELIPEYP Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research

Polio Vaccination Drive in African Nations
Efforts to vaccinate 116 million children against polio in 13 western and central African countries, led by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children ’s Fund, were carried out at the end of March. Thepolio eradication effort was prompted by the identification of 4 cases of polio in northeastern Nigeria in August of 2016. These polio cases were the first to occur in the region in more than 2 years. Although no additional cases have been reported since last August in Nigeria, the virus may still be circulating, and this synchronized campaign is intended to protect children throughout Africa. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - May 16, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Health research and safeguards: The South African journey.
Authors: Dhai A Abstract Health research, as a social good, needs to be conducted in the interests of the common good. Because of the unfortunate exploitation of research participants globally, safeguards for protections are necessary. Most international codes and guidelines originated as responses to the abuse and mistreatment of research subjects. By the 1890s, antivivisectionists were already calling for laws to protect children, as a result of the increasing numbers of institutionalised children being subjected to vaccine experiments in Europe and the USA. Just after the turn of the century, the first attempt t...
Source: South African Medical Journal - May 13, 2017 Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research

Vaccine-Preventable Admissions to an Irish Paediatric Intensive Care.
Abstract In the Republic of Ireland, the schedule of state-funded immunisation for children is comprehensive and includes diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, meningococcus C, haemophilus B, polio, measles, rubella and mumps. Varicella and meningococcal B vaccines are commercially available but are not currently funded by the government. Each of the illnesses preventable by these vaccines can cause substantial morbidity, and rarely mortality, in infants and children. Our PICU continues to see serious illness due to avoidable infection. There were 39 admissions in a 4 year period, with 34 chil...
Source: Ir Med J - May 10, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Doyle Y, Healy M, McMahon C, Crowe S Tags: Ir Med J Source Type: research

Community engagement and integrated health and polio immunisation campaigns in conflict-affected areas of Pakistan: a cluster randomised controlled trial
Publication date: June 2017 Source:The Lancet Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 6 Author(s): Muhammad Atif Habib, Sajid Soofi, Simon Cousens, Saeed Anwar, Najib ul Haque, Imran Ahmed, Noshad Ali, Rehman Tahir, Zulfiqar A Bhutta Background Pakistan faces huge challenges in eradicating polio due to widespread poliovirus transmission and security challenges. Innovative interventions are urgently needed to strengthen community buy-in, to increase the coverage of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and other routine immunisations, and to enhance immunity through the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in combination with OPV. We...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - May 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Association between language and hearing disorders – risk identification
CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the importance of establishing and adopting low-cost procedures such as screenings to identify children at risk of developing language and/or hearing disorders in early childhood. (Source: Clinics)
Source: Clinics - May 4, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Individual Preferences for Child and Adolescent Vaccine Attributes: A Systematic Review of the Stated Preference Literature
ConclusionThis is the first systematic review of childhood/adolescent vaccine-related discrete choice experiments. In future, special attention should be paid to ensuring that choice context and discrete choice experiment design are compatible to generate reliable estimates of uptake. (Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research)
Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research - May 4, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Needle adapters for intradermal administration of fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine: Evaluation of immunogenicity and programmatic feasibility in Pakistan.
Abstract Administration of 1/5th dose of Inactivated poliovirus vaccine intradermally (fIPV) provides similar immune response as full-dose intramuscular IPV, however, fIPV administration with BCG needle and syringe (BCG NS) is technically difficult. We compared immune response after one fIPV dose administered with BCG NS to administration with intradermal devices, referred to as Device A and B; and assessed feasibility of conducting a door-to-door vaccination campaign with fIPV. In Phase I, 452 children 6-12months old from Karachi were randomized to receive one fIPV dose either with BCG NS, Device A or Device B in...
Source: Vaccine - May 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Saleem AF, Mach O, Yousafzai MT, Khan A, Weldon WC, Oberste MS, Sutter RW, Zaidi AKM Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Control of Poliomyelitis in Kuwait
The use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the early 1960s marked the beginning of the State's effort in controlling poliomyelitis in Kuwait. During the next two decades, despite the vaccine's availability and use, the disease continued to cause disability and death. However, with the massive and sustained use of the trivalent OPV since 1963G and the introduction of neonatal supplementary immunization with monovalent type 1 (MOPV) in 1976G along with strengthening of the surveillance activities against poliomyelitis, the incidence of the paralytic disease began declining and by the mid-eighties it disappeared altogether. ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 3, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Global polio eradication: Where are we in Europe and what next?
Abstract The world was never so close to reach the polio eradication: only 37 cases notified in 2016 in only three countries, but the game is not yet at the end. The risk of polio outbreaks in the EU is smaller than it has ever been in the past, but it is not so small that we can ignore it. The EU MS must remain alert and plan and prepare for managing polio events or outbreaks because of the possible dire consequences. The IPV only vaccination schedule universally applied in EU has achieved satisfactory coverage, but constantly leaving small accumulating pockets of susceptible individuals. Moreover the IPV only sc...
Source: Vaccine - May 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Celentano LP, Carrillo-Santisteve P, O'Connor P, Danielsson N, Huseynov S, Derrough T, Adel Ali K, Butler R, Greco D Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

National Serosurvey of Post Vaccination Poliovirus Antibody in Saudi Arabia
This is a national seroprevalence study conducted in Saudi Arabia in 1991G to determine postvaccination poliovirus antibody. Two hundred and nine children vaccinated with three oral polio vaccines at three, four, and five months of age were included in the study representing the five main regions in Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were collected at the age of nine months. Cytopathic effect (CPE) neutralization was used to determine the level of polio antibody. A dilution of 1/8th or more was defined as positive. Seventy-nine percent, 88% and 65% of the children were positive for Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3, respectively. Develo...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 2, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Screening of Schoolgirls
In this study, consent forms were distributed to elementary schoolgirls between 11-13 years, at random, in the city of Riyadh. Out of 1,147 girls screened, 40 girls were positive on screening. In the clinic, nine girls were found to have no scoliosis, one had old poliomyelitis and one had lumbar lipoma. The remaining 29 girls had idiopathic scoliosis, giving a prevalence of 2.5%. However, the Cobb's angle was more than five degrees in nine girls only, reducing the prevalence of significant curves to 0.78%. The study was acceptable to all parties involved. We feel studies that address the issues of female screeners, transpo...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 27, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015
This study indicates a marked effect of personalised written reminders, highest for the vaccines given later in the schedule in the older cohort. In addition, the reminders increased awareness about correct registration of vaccinations in DDV. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015.
This study indicates a marked effect of personalised written reminders, highest for the vaccines given later in the schedule in the older cohort. In addition, the reminders increased awareness about correct registration of vaccinations in DDV. PMID: 28488995 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Source: Euro Surveill - April 27, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suppli CH, Rasmussen M, Valentiner-Branth P, Mølbak K, Krause TG Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research