What Are Some Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy?
Discussion The term, cerebral palsy, or CP has gone through many iterations with the first description in 1861 by W.J. Little who described it as “The condition of spastic rigidity of the limbs of newborn children.” The most recent definition is from Rosenbaun et al. in 2007 which states it is “a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behaviour, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.” The incidence is about 2-3/1000 live births in high income countries but higher in low income countries. CP can be a severe motor problem for children and adults with up to 40% of patients unable to walk independently. CP is really a clinical diagnosis with help from neuroimaging. It basically includes using history, some standardized physical examination ratings (i.e. Prechtl General Movement Assessment and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination), and cranial ultrasound or MRI which may show findings consistent with the history and physical examination such as intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral or cerebellar hemorrhage, posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, or cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Diagnosis can be made within the first 6 months b...
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