Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study

We examined the influence of transportation noise exposure over a 5-y period (1994–1998) on incident diabetes cases in a population-based prospective cohort study (n=380,738) of metropolitan Vancouver (BC) residents who were 45–85 y old, with 4-y of follow-up (1999–2002). Annual average transportation noise (Lden), air pollution [black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 10% of the population was of South Asian ethnicity, and nearly one-half of the sample lived in neighborhoods where>10% of the population was of Chinese ethnicity. All covariates were significantly associated with all of the exposures and outcomes (p10% Chinese population in neighborhood 183,044 48.1% Note: dBA, A-weighted decibels; IQR, interquartile range; Lden, annual average noise exposure; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NO, nitric oxide; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research

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Objective The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of level of spinal cord injury (SCI) on caloric intake relative to total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and body composition, and to develop a SCI–specific correction factor for the TDEE estimation. Design Individuals with paraplegia (PARA, n = 28) and tetraplegia (TETRA, n = 13) were analyzed. Daily caloric intake, basal metabolic rate, and TDEE were obtained using dietary recall, indirect calorimetry, and prediction equations, respectively. Caloric intake and TDEE were adjusted to bodyweight. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray a...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles: CME Article . 2019 Series . Number 11 Source Type: research
Objective Using a feasibility analysis and matched subgroup analysis, this study investigated the implementation/safety/outcomes of a stroke recovery program (SRP) integrating modified cardiac rehabilitation for stroke survivors. Design This prospective cohort study of 783 stroke survivors were discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation facility to an outpatient setting; 136 SRP-participants completed a feasibility study and received the SRP including modified cardiac rehabilitation, 473 chose standard of care rehabilitation (nonparticipants), and a group (n = 174) were excluded. The feasibility study assessed the fo...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
Objective Slow walking speed paired with increased energy cost is a strong predictor for mortality and disability in older adults but has yet to be examined in a heterogeneous sample (ie, age, sex, disease status). The aim of this study was to examine energy cost of slow and normal walking speeds among low- and normal-functioning adults. Design Adults aged 20–90 yrs were recruited for this study. Participants completed a 10-m functional walk test at a self-selected normal walking speed and were categorized as low functioning or normal functioning based on expected age- and sex-adjusted average gait speed. Partic...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
This study seeks to use the relative refractory period, a sensitive parameter for detecting early change in peripheral polyneuropathies, as a tool for early detection of diabetic polyneuropathy. Design The relative refractory period of the median and sural sensory nerves was measured in 57 diabetic patients (male 31, female 26) and 23 healthy controls (male 16, female 7). The shortest interstimulus interval, where the latency of the response to the second stimulus recovers to normal, was defined as the relative refractory period. Results The relative refractory period of the median and sural nerves were significantly...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
Introduction Ozone has been recently used as a safe alternative treatment in musculoskeletal disorders with fewer adverse effects than corticosteroids. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single injection of ozone with that of a corticosteroid in the treatment of shoulder impingement. Design Thirty patients with shoulder pain and clinical signs and symptoms of impingement were randomly assigned into two groups: ultrasound-guided injection with ozone or corticosteroid. Patients’ symptoms were evaluated by visual analog scale, constant score, shoulder pain and disability scale, shoulder range of...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
Despite the fact that one fifth of Americans live with disability, caring for these patients is not routinely part of the undergraduate medical student curriculum. An innovative session addressing care of patients with spinal cord injury was developed for medical students and led by physiatrists, faculty experts in communications, and individuals with spinal cord injury. A mixed-method design was used in evaluating students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes following this curriculum. Quantitative evaluation was performed with a written essay question and checklist items from an objective structured clinical examination sta...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Education & Administration Source Type: research
Bone stress injury is a common overuse injury in athletes. Risk factors for bone stress injury in athletes include the female athlete triad (triad); this has not been evaluated in para athletes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, prevalence, and anatomical distribution of bone stress injury in para athletes. A cross-sectional online survey on health characteristics and previous fractures including bone stress injury was completed by para athletes training for the 2016 or 2018 Paralympic Games. Two hundred sixty para athletes completed the survey (659 invited, response rate = 40%). Half reported previous fr...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Evidence-Based Physiatry: Cochrane Corner Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Journal of the American College of RadiologyAuthor(s): Cindy Yuan, Kirti Kulkarni, Brittany Z. DashevskyAbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the impact of comorbid conditions and age on mammography use.MethodsWe used data from the 2011 to 2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which contained records for 40,752 women over the age of 40. Use was defined as a mammogram within the previous 1 or 2 years, analyzed separately. A logit model was employed to evaluate associations between use and comorbidities and age. Statistical significance was defined by a P value
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
This study investigates the impact of SES in childhood and adulthood on health satisfaction across the life course. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and education as a central marker of SES, we test whether parental education (i.e., childhood SES) affects adult health satisfaction, directly and/or indirectly through own educational attainment (i.e., adult SES) as a mediating variable. Moreover, we apply diagonal reference models to disentangle the independent effect of intergenerational educational mobility. Our findings show that parental education has both direct and indirect effects. Yet, the relat...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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