What Are Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis?

Discussion Bile is produced by the liver to aid absorption of fat soluble vitamins and lipids from the gastrointestinal tract and to transport bilirubin, cholesterol and other substances to the gastrointestinal tract. Bile is the main form of cholesterol excretion. Gallstones or cholelithiasis form when the balance of substances within the hepatobiliary tract favors supersaturation with crystal formation and gallstone formation. It is a dynamic state of affairs as gallstones can form and also have a high rate of resorption of up to 50%. Gallstones 3 mm are called gallstones. Gallstones, while not as common as adult population (15-20%), do occur in the pediatric population. A prevalence rate of 0.13-0.22% is often quoted. The prevalence increases up to 1.9% in a study from the Netherlands that used ultrasound screening. Infants and adolescents have the highest risk creating a bimodal distribution. Patients can be asymptomatic (~33% for pediatrics vs 80% for adults) or symptomatic. Those that are symptomatic may not have the classic presentation of emesis, abdominal pain, fever and leukocytosis. Children can present with different problems including nausea and vomiting, jaundice, fatty food intolerance, acholic stools and fever. The abdominal pain may be generalized or more specifically attributable to biliary colic. Murphy’s sign or pain causing inspiration cessation when the gallbladder is palpated is helpful if present but can be difficult to illicit or determine in ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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PMID: 30433917 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Cancer GeneticsAuthor(s): Jennelle C. Hodge, David Bosler, Lauren Rubinstein, Navid Sadri, Shashirekha ShettyAbstractThe inv(3)(q21q26.2) altering a single chromosome 3 homolog is an established myeloid malignancy-associated entity. Comparatively, double inv(3) cases involving both homologs are exceedingly rare with 13 reports across AML, CML and MDS. This scarcity was confirmed by finding only 2 new cases out of 34,898 bone marrows collected during a 55 year period at a large medical center (0.0005%). The double inv(3) was detected by karyotype and confirmed by FI...
Source: Cancer Genetics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Hu H, Yuan G, Wang X, Sun J, Gao Z, Zhou T, Yin W, Cai R, Ye X, Wang Z Abstract Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) is a newly discovered adipokine plays an important role in energy homoeostasis, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although lifestyle modification in obesity and T2D is known to offer metabolic benefits, there is paucity of comprehensive data on change in ANGPTL8. We investigated the effect of lifestyle intervention on ANGPTL8 concentrations. 384 obese/overweight adults with newly diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to diet (n = 128), diet + activity (n = 128) or usual care (contro...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
We reported earlier about nano-formulation of tetracycline through its entrapment within calcium-phosphate nano-particle (CPNP) and about killing of pathogenic bacterium Shigella flexnari 2a, resistant to tetracycline (and 9 other antibiotics), by the nanonized antibiotic (Tet-CPNP). Here, we report on therapeutic role of Tet-CPNP against deadly diarrheal disease ‘shigellosis’ in mice, caused by Shigella infection. Our findings revealed that occurrence of mushy-stool excretion, colon-length shortening, weight-loss and bacterial colonization in gastrointestinal tract of mice due to shigellosis was significantly ...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: HS-FCM can sensitively detect minor PNH clones and reduce false-positive C-FCM minor PNH clone cases in AA/low-grade MDS patients. PMID: 30430777 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Ann Lab Med Source Type: research
ConclusionCongenital morphological disorders may occur at the lower cervical spine and cervicothoracic junction, and they can involve the vertebral body as well as the posterior arch. We reported three cases of uncommon malformations, with a unique Y- and S-shaped laminar pattern.
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research
ConclusionUS imaging is suitable to complement physical examination and for evaluating treatment outcomes. However, the small number of studies and the heterogeneity of the methods did not allow us to establish normal reference values for muscular fascia thickness and to provide strong recommendations about measurement protocols.
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Arnab Barik, James Hunter Thompson, Mathew Seltzer, Nima Ghitani, Alexander T. CheslerSummaryResponse to danger needs to be rapid and appropriate. In humans, nocifensive behaviors often precede conscious pain perception. Much is known about local spinal cord circuits for simple reflexive responses, but the mechanisms underlying more complex behaviors remain poorly understood. We now describe a brainstem circuit that controls escape responses to select noxious stimuli. Tracing experiments characterized a highly interconnected excitatory circuit invo...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Cam Underwood tried to take his own life in 2016. This year, he got a face transplant from a donor, Will, 23. Footage of the moment Cam met Will's mom Sally for the first time will be screened tonight.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Oshakbayev K, Bimbetov B, Manekenova K, Bedelbayeva G, Mustafin K, Dukenbayeva B Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the fast weight loss method on liver steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, glycemic and lipids features and body composition in patients with severe Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A 24-week open prospective randomised controlled clinical trial including 80 adult patients (aged 40-65 years) was performed. The patients after randomisation were divided in two groups: Main group followed the fast weight loss method; Control group receive...
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
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