Evidence of Different IL-1 β Activation Pathways in Innate Immune Cells From Indeterminate and Cardiac Patients With Chronic Chagas Disease

Conclusions: We suggest some distinct molecular mechanisms for production of IL-1β in innate immune cells from patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease. MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases are associated with distinct disease outcomes and IL-1β production. Introduction Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (1), that affects millions of people in the world (2). During the acute phase, a diffuse and intense inflammation in the cardiomyocytes is observed, which is composed mainly of neutrophils, monocytes, and T lymphocytes. Patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease are classified in different clinical forms according to the symptoms presented: (1) Indeterminate (IND) with no alterations due the infection (3), (2) cardiac (CARD) with chronic alterations in heart function and structure (4, 5), and (3) digestive with gastrointestinal alterations (6). Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most severe alteration, affecting about 30% of patients in the chronic phase of the disease (7–9). Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy is the main fibrosing myocarditis among the known heart diseases (10), with chronic low intensity inflammation, progressive tissue destruction, cardiac remodeling, and extensive fibrosis in the heart (11). The collagen in cardiac matrix is replaced by weak fibers trough matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), that cleaves extracellular matrix (ECM) protei...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Abstract Over twenty thousand persons rely on water from Atuwara River for drinking and other domestic purposes, hence the need to ascertain the human health risk inherent in such practice. Seventy-two water samples were collected from River Atuwara during the dry and wet seasons of 2018, and the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) were measured using ICP-OES. A newly developed human health risk assessment method, HHRISK code was used to estimate the health risks associated with consumption of water from Atuwara River. Results obtained revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in t...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
This study investigated fluoride concentrations in 10 districts of Tianjin, China, to illustrate their spatial distribution characteristics and potential human health risks. The results showed fluoride concentration of 0.01-6.30 mg L-1 with a mean value of 0.99 mg L-1, and 78.82% of water fluoride reaches the standard for drinking water (1.5 mg L-1). Higher fluoride levels were recorded in deep well pumps supply zones, and more potential changes in fluoride occurred was positively correlated with pH in groundwater. Mean value of fluoride in drinking water in 10 districts followed the order of WQ > BC &...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
In this study, Fe3O4 and microwave (MW) were combined to activate persulfate (PS) for the removal of organic matter, resulting in the enhanced degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in solution. During the preparation of Fe3O4, the effect of sodium acetate was examined, and the results showed that the concentration of sodium acetate had little effect on the catalytic activity of the Fe3O4/PS/MW system but did have an effect on the Fe3O4 yield. In addition, with regards to the representative environmental factors, the degradation experiment showed that humic acid and the co-existing anions of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and pho...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
CA, Song S Abstract Alkaline activation is of great potential in the solidification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, but the metallic aluminum in the ash inhibits its application. This work studies the effects of residual metallic aluminum on the expansion and microstructure of alkali-activated MSWI fly ash-based pastes. Based on the results obtained, an optimized preparation process is suggested. Characterizations of the pastes include expansion ratio, morphology (SEM), mechanical strength and microstructure (XRD and FTIR). It is confirmed that MSWI fly ash could be solidified through alkali...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Abstract There is limited information about pesticide contamination in Iran's agricultural land, particularly in plains producing exportable fruits. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane (CHL), and their isomers compounds in agricultural soils of southern Iran. A total of 28 topsoil samples were collected from agricultural lands of Dalaki and Shabankare areas, Bushehr, Iran. In Dalaki area, the mean value of ΣHCH (α, β, γ, δ...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Authors: Bleibtreu A, Bertine M, Bertin C, Houhou-Fidouh N, Visseaux B Abstract Since the first case of human infection by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia in June 2012, more than 2260 cases of confirmed MERS-CoV infection and 803 related deaths have been reported since the 16th of October 2018. The vast majority of these cases (71%) were reported in Saudi Arabia but the epidemic has now spread to 27 countries and has not ceased 6 years later, unlike SARS-CoV that disappeared a little less than 2 years after emerging. Due to the high fatality rate ...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
Conclusion: Chinese women had a substantially lower risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared to that of Caucasians. The occurrence of pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism was largely confined to the early pregnancy period, probably related to the adoption of thromboprophylaxis, a lower rate of Cesarean section, and early mobilization. PMID: 31730677 [PubMed]
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: ARL is a heterogeneous disease. Histologic subtype is a major determinant of the clinical outcome. ADL has significantly lower CD4 counts than those of NADL. There is an urgent and unmet need for uniform management guidelines for improving outcomes in this under-represented patient population. PMID: 31730692 [PubMed]
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
Authors: Fathi E, Sanaat Z, Farahzadi R Abstract Drug resistance in cancer, especially in leukemia, creates a dilemma in treatment planning. Consequently, studies related to the mechanisms underlying drug resistance, the molecular pathways involved in this phenomenon, and alternate therapies have attracted the attention of researchers. Among a variety of therapeutic modalities, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest due to their potential clinical use. Therapies involving MSCs are showing increasing promise in cancer treatment and anticancer drug screening applications; however, results have been inc...
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results suggest a greater role of nongenetic factors in PTP inhibitor development. PMID: 31730688 [PubMed]
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
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