Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 372: The NDV-MLS as an Immunotherapeutic Strategy for Breast Cancer: Proof of Concept in Female Companion Dogs with Spontaneous Mammary Cancer
Marcela Lizano The absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes negatively impacts the response to chemotherapy and prognosis in all subtypes of breast cancer. Therapies that stimulate a proinflammatory environment may help improve the response to standard treatments and also to immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) shows oncolytic activity, as well as immune modulating potential, in the treatment of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo; however, its potential to enhance tumor-infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer has yet to be evaluated. Since spontaneous canine mammary tumors r...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Diana S ánchez Gabriela Cesarman-Maus Laura Romero Rogelio S ánchez-Verin David Vail Marina Guadarrama Rosana Pelayo Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva Marcela Lizano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 374: Evolution of Virology: Science History through Milestones and Technological Advancements
Lu Lu Huan Liu The history of virology, which is marked by transformative breakthroughs, spans microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. From the development of Jenner’s smallpox vaccine in 1796 to 20th-century innovations such as ultrafiltration and electron microscopy, the field of virology has undergone significant development. In 1898, Beijerinck laid the conceptual foundation for virology, marking a pivotal moment in the evolution of the discipline. Advancements in influenza A virus research in 1933 by Richard Shope furthered our understanding of respiratory pathogens. Additio...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Kunlan Zuo Wanying Gao Zongzhen Wu Lei Zhang Jiafeng Wang Xuefan Yuan Chun Li Qiangyu Xiang Lu Lu Huan Liu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 375: Integration of Hepatitis C and Addiction Treatment in People Who Inject Drugs: The San Patrignano HCV-Free and Drug-Free Experience
n Enrico Girardi Injection drug use represents an important contributor to hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, hence therapeutic communities (TCs) are promising points of care for the identification and treatment of HCV-infected persons who inject drugs (PWIDs). We evaluated the effectiveness and efficacy of an HCV micro-elimination program targeting PWIDs in the context of a drug-free TC; we applied the cascade of care (CoC) evaluation by calculating frequencies of infection diagnosis, confirmation, treatment and achievement of a sustained virological response (SVR). We also evaluated the risk of reinfection of PW...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pierluca Piselli Antonio Boschini Romina Gianfreda Alessandra Nappo Claudia Cimaglia Gianpaolo Scarf ò Camillo Smacchia Raffaella Paoletti Sarah Duehren Enrico Girardi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 376: Deletion of the EP402R Gene from the Genome of African Swine Fever Vaccine Strain ASFV-G- & #8710;I177L Provides the Potential Capability of Differentiating between Infected and Vaccinated Animals
In this report, we describe the development of the ASFV-G-∆I177L mutant having deleted the EP402R gene, which encodes for the viral protein responsible for mediating the hemadsorption of swine erythrocytes. The resulting virus, ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R, does not have a decreased ability to replicates in swine macrophages when compared with the parental ASFV-G-∆I177L. Domestic pigs intramuscularly (IM) inoculated with either 102 or 106 HAD50 of ASFV-G-∆I177L/∆EP402R remained clinically normal, when compared with a group of mock-vaccinated anima...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Manuel V. Borca Elizabeth Ramirez-Medina Nallely Espinoza Ayushi Rai Edward Spinard Lauro Velazquez-Salinas Alyssa Valladares Ediane Silva Leeanna Burton Amanda Meyers Jason Clark Ping Wu Cyril G. Gay Douglas P. Gladue Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 377: Advances of Recombinant Adenoviral Vectors in Preclinical and Clinical Applications
Malik Aydin Adenoviruses (Ad) have the potential to induce severe infections in vulnerable patient groups. Therefore, understanding Ad biology and antiviral processes is important to comprehend the signaling cascades during an infection and to initiate appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. In addition, Ad vector-based vaccines have revealed significant potential in generating robust immune protection and recombinant Ad vectors facilitate efficient gene transfer to treat genetic diseases and are used as oncolytic viruses to treat cancer. Continuous improvements in gene delivery capacity, coupled with adv...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Luca Scarsella Eric Ehrke-Schulz Michael Paulussen Serge C. Thal Anja Ehrhardt Malik Aydin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 378: A mRNA Vaccine for Crimean & ndash;Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Expressing Non-Fusion GnGc Using NSm Linker Elicits Unexpected Immune Responses in Mice
In conclusion, our results indicated that NSm could be a factor that leads to decreased specific immune responses in the host and should be avoided in the development of CCHFV vaccine antigens. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Tong Chen Zhe Ding Xuejie Li Yingwen Li Jiaming Lan Gary Wong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 370: Exploring the Interplay between COVID-19 and Gut Health: The Potential Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Immune Support
ovanni Gherardi The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted global health, leading to extensive research focused on developing strategies to enhance outbreak response and mitigate the disease’s severity. In the aftermath of the pandemic, attention has shifted towards understanding and addressing long-term health implications, particularly in individuals experiencing persistent symptoms, known as long COVID. Research into potential interventions to alleviate long COVID symptoms has intensified, with a focus on strategies to support immune function and mitigate inflammation. One area of interest is the gu...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Marta Giovanetti Gianfranco Pannella Annamaria Altomare Giulia Rocchi Michele Guarino Massimo Ciccozzi Elisabetta Riva Giovanni Gherardi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 371: Effects of HCV Clearance with Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) on Liver Stiffness, Liver Fibrosis Stage and Metabolic/Cellular Parameters
Conclusions: With this study, we were able to contribute to the knowledge of the effects of HCV elimination with DAAs on liver disease and metabolic profile to improve the quality of treatment and follow-up of these patients after HCV elimination. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ferreira Bicho Serejo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 361: Proteomic and Lipidomic Profiling of Calves Experimentally Co-Infected with Influenza D Virus and Mycoplasma bovis: Insights into the Host & ndash;Pathogen Interactions
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 361: Proteomic and Lipidomic Profiling of Calves Experimentally Co-Infected with Influenza D Virus and Mycoplasma bovis: Insights into the Host–Pathogen Interactions Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030361 Authors: Ignacio Alvarez Mariette Ducatez Yongzhi Guo Adrien Lion Anna Widgren Marc Dubourdeau Vincent Baillif Laure Saias Siamak Zohari Jonas Bergquist Gilles Meyer Jean-Francois Valarcher Sara Hägglund The role of Influenza D virus (IDV) in bovine respiratory disease remains unclear. An in vivo experiment resulted in increased clinical signs, lesions, and pathog...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ignacio Alvarez Mariette Ducatez Yongzhi Guo Adrien Lion Anna Widgren Marc Dubourdeau Vincent Baillif Laure Saias Siamak Zohari Jonas Bergquist Gilles Meyer Jean-Francois Valarcher Sara H ägglund Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 362: Epidemiological Analyses of the First Incursion of the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 8 in Tunisia, 2021 & ndash;2022
In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological situation of the 2021–2022 EHDV outbreaks reported in Tunisia, providing a detailed description of the spatiotemporal evolution of the disease. We attempted to identify the eco-climatic factors associated with infected areas using generalized linear models (GLMs). Our results demonstrated that environmental factors mostly associated with the presence of C. imicola, such as digital elevation model (DEM), slope, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and night-time land surface temperature (NLST)) were by far the most explanatory variables for EHD repartiti...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Thameur Ben Hassine Jos é-María García-Carrasco Soufien Sghaier Sarah Thabet Alessio Lorusso Giovanni Savini Salah Hammami Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 364: IFN & alpha; Subtypes in HIV Infection and Immunity
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 364: IFNα Subtypes in HIV Infection and Immunity Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030364 Authors: Zehra Karakoese Martha Ingola Barbara Sitek Ulf Dittmer Kathrin Sutter Type I interferons (IFN), immediately triggered following most viral infections, play a pivotal role in direct antiviral immunity and act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, numerous viruses have evolved evasion strategies against IFN responses, prompting the exploration of therapeutic alternatives for viral infections. Within the type I IFN family, 12 IFNα subtypes exist,...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Zehra Karakoese Martha Ingola Barbara Sitek Ulf Dittmer Kathrin Sutter Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 365: A Review on The Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease of Flaviviridea Viruses Infection
Chang-Bo Zheng Members of the Flaviviridae family, encompassing the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus genera, are implicated in a spectrum of severe human pathologies. These diseases span a diverse spectrum, including hepatitis, vascular shock syndrome, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital heart defects and increased mortality rates. Notably, infections by Flaviviridae viruses have been associated with substantial cardiovascular compromise, yet the exploration into the attendant cardiovascular sequelae and underlying mechanisms remains relatively underexplored. This review aim...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Tie-Hua Yang Wen-Cong Gao Xin Ma Qian Liu Pan-Pan Pang Yong-Tang Zheng Yinnong Jia Chang-Bo Zheng Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 363: Discovery of a Novel Antiviral Effect of the Restriction Factor SPOC1 against Human Cytomegalovirus
Stamminger The chromatin-remodeler SPOC1 (PHF13) is a transcriptional co-regulator and has been identified as a restriction factor against various viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). For HCMV, SPOC1 was shown to block the onset of immediate-early (IE) gene expression under low multiplicities of infection (MOI). Here, we demonstrate that SPOC1-mediated restriction of IE expression is neutralized by increasing viral titers. Interestingly, our study reveals that SPOC1 exerts an additional antiviral function beyond the IE phase of HCMV replication. Expression of SPOC1 under conditions of high MOI resulted in ...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Anna K. Kuderna Anna Reichel Julia Tillmanns Maja Class Myriam Scherer Thomas Stamminger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 366: Recent Advances on Targeting Proteases for Antiviral Development
Silva Viral proteases are an important target for drug development, since they can modulate vital pathways in viral replication, maturation, assembly and cell entry. With the (re)appearance of several new viruses responsible for causing diseases in humans, like the West Nile virus (WNV) and the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), understanding the mechanisms behind blocking viral protease’s function is pivotal for the development of new antiviral drugs and therapeutical strategies. Apart from directly inhibiting the target protease, usually by targeting its active site, se...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pedro Henrique Oliveira Borges Sabrina Baptista Ferreira Floriano Paes Silva Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 367: Avian H6 Influenza Viruses in Vietnamese Live Bird Markets during 2018 & ndash;2021
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 367: Avian H6 Influenza Viruses in Vietnamese Live Bird Markets during 2018–2021 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030367 Authors: Lizheng Guan Lavanya Babujee Robert Presler David Pattinson Hang Le Khanh Nguyen Vu Mai Phuong Hoang Mai Quynh Le Harm van Bakel Yoshihiro Kawaoka Gabriele Neumann Avian influenza viruses of the H6 subtype are prevalent in wild ducks and likely play an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses through reassortment with other avian influenza viruses. Yet, only 152 Vietnamese H6 virus sequences were available in GISAID (Global Initiative ...
Source: Viruses - February 27, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Lizheng Guan Lavanya Babujee Robert Presler David Pattinson Hang Le Khanh Nguyen Vu Mai Phuong Hoang Mai Quynh Le Harm van Bakel Yoshihiro Kawaoka Gabriele Neumann Tags: Article Source Type: research