Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 474: A Balancing Act: The Viral & ndash;Host Battle over RNA Binding Proteins
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 474: A Balancing Act: The Viral–Host Battle over RNA Binding Proteins Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030474 Authors: Yahaira Bermudez David Hatfield Mandy Muller A defining feature of a productive viral infection is the co-opting of host cell resources for viral replication. Despite the host repertoire of molecular functions and biological counter measures, viruses still subvert host defenses to take control of cellular factors such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs are involved in virtually all steps of mRNA life, forming ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs) in a highly ordered and...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yahaira Bermudez David Hatfield Mandy Muller Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 475: A New Inovirus from the Human Blood Encodes Proteins with Nuclear Subcellular Localization
lle Desnues Viruses infecting bacteria (bacteriophages) represent the most abundant viral particles in the human body. They participate in the control of the human-associated bacterial communities and play an important role in the dissemination of virulence genes. Here, we present the identification of a new filamentous single-stranded DNA phage of the family Inoviridae, named Ralstonia Inoviridae Phage 1 (RIP1), in the human blood. Metagenomics and PCR analyses detected the RIP1 genome in blood serum, in the absence of concomitant bacterial infection or contamination, suggesting inovirus persistence in the human blood...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Nikolay Popgeorgiev Mart Krupovic Julien Hiblot Laura Fancello Sonia Monteil-Bouchard Christelle Desnues Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 477: Predicting Natural Evolution in the RBD Region of the Spike Glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 by Machine Learning
This study investigates the effectiveness of the “ML-Guided Design Correctly Predicts Combinatorial Effects Strategy” compared to the “ML-Guided Design Correctly Predicts Natural Evolution Prediction Strategy”. To enhance machine learning, we created a timestamping algorithm and two auxiliary programs using advanced techniques to rapidly process extensive data, surpassing batch sequencing capabilities. This study not only advances machine learning in guiding protein evolution but also holds potential for forecasting future viruses and vaccine development. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yiheng Liu Zitong He Liyiyang Jia Yiwei Xue Yuxuan Du Huiwen Tan Xianzhi Zhang Yu Ji Yigang Tong Haijun Xu Luo Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 476: Epidemiological and Genetic Characterization of Coxsackievirus A6-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Gwangju, South Korea, in 2022
In conclusion, circulating EV types should be continuously monitored to understand pathogen emergence and evolution during the post-pandemic era. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ji-Eun Lee Min-Ji Kim Mi-Hyeon Lim Sue-Ji Han Jin-Yeong Kim Soo-Hoo Kim Yi-Duen Ha Gyung-Li Gang Yoon-Seok Chung Jung-Mi Seo Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 478: Bacteriophage & ndash;Host Interactions and the Therapeutic Potential of Bacteriophages
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 478: Bacteriophage–Host Interactions and the Therapeutic Potential of Bacteriophages Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030478 Authors: Leon M. T. Dicks Wian Vermeulen Healthcare faces a major problem with the increased emergence of antimicrobial resistance due to over-prescribing antibiotics. Bacteriophages may provide a solution to the treatment of bacterial infections given their specificity. Enzymes such as endolysins, exolysins, endopeptidases, endosialidases, and depolymerases produced by phages interact with bacterial surfaces, cell wall components, and exopolysaccharides, and may ev...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Leon M. T. Dicks Wian Vermeulen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 479: Predicting Vaccine Effectiveness for Hospitalization and Symptomatic Disease for Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants Using Neutralizing Antibody Titers
ick The emergence of new virus variants, including the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, can lead to reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE) and the need for new vaccines or vaccine doses if the extent of immune evasion is severe. Neutralizing antibody titers have been shown to be a correlate of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens, and could be used to quickly estimate vaccine effectiveness for new variants. However, no model currently exists to provide precise VE estimates for a new variant against severe disease for SARS-CoV-2 using robust datasets from several populations. We developed predictive model...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Billy J. Gardner A. Marm Kilpatrick Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 480: Parvovirus B19 Outbreak in Israel: Retrospective Molecular Analysis from 2010 to 2023
This study presents an analysis of the epidemiological trends of parvovirus B19 (B19V) in Israel from 2010 to 2023, with particular emphasis on the outbreak in 2023. The analysis utilized molecular diagnostic data from individual patients obtained at the Central Virology Laboratory. Between 2010 and 2022, 8.5% of PCR-tested samples were positive for B19V, whereas in 2023, this percentage surged to 31% of PCR-tested samples. Throughout the study period, annual cycles consistently peaked in early spring/summer, with the most recent prominent outbreak occurring in 2016. Predominantly, diagnoses were made in children and women...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Orna Mor Marina Wax Shoshana-Shani Arami Maya Yitzhaki Or Kriger Oran Erster Neta S. Zuckerman Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 481: The Effect of Global Spread, Epidemiology, and Control Strategies on the Evolution of the GI-19 Lineage of Infectious Bronchitis Virus
This study leverages this scenario to explore how different environments may influence virus evolution. Through the analysis of the complete S1 sequence, four datasets were identified, comprising strains of monophyletic clades circulating in different continents or countries (e.g., Asia vs. Europe and China vs. Thailand), indicative of single introduction events and independent evolution. The population dynamics and evolutionary rate variation over time, as well as the presence and intensity of selective pressures, were estimated and compared across these datasets. Since the lineage origin (approximately in the mid-20th ce...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Giovanni Franzo Giulia Faustini Claudia Maria Tucciarone Francesca Poletto Francesca Tonellato Mattia Cecchinato Matteo Legnardi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 468: Host-like RNA Elements Regulate Virus Translation
Fox Viruses are obligate, intracellular parasites that co-opt host cell machineries for propagation. Critical among these machineries are those that translate RNA into protein and their mechanisms of control. Most regulatory mechanisms effectuate their activity by targeting sequence or structural features at the RNA termini, i.e., at the 5′ or 3′ ends, including the untranslated regions (UTRs). Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs is initiated by 5′ cap-dependent scanning. In contrast, many viruses initiate translation at internal RNA regions at internal ribosome entry sites (I...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Debjit Khan Paul L. Fox Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 469: Trends of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in Poland: Assessing the Potential Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and War in Ukraine
This study analyzed trends of HAV infections in Poland according to socio-demographic features in the years 2009–2022 and assessed the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020–2023) and the migration of war refugees from Ukraine (since February 2022). In 2009–2022, 7115 new cases of HAV infection were diagnosed in Poland, especially among men (66.4%) and in urban areas (77.4%). Infections among men were most common at the age of 25–34 (median rate 0.43 per 105) and in women aged 15–24 (median rate 0.39 per 105). Analysis of the 14-year frequency o...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Piotr Rzymski Dorota Zar ębska-Michaluk Agnieszka Genowska Piotr Tyszko Birute Strukcinskiene Robert Flisiak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 470: Development and Validation of Three Triplex Real-Time RT-PCR Assays for Typing African Horse Sickness Virus: Utility for Disease Control and Other Laboratory Applications
Agüero The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) belongs to the Genus Orbivirus, family Sedoreoviridae, and nine serotypes of the virus have been described to date. The AHSV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded (ds) RNA, numbered in decreasing size order (Seg-1 to Seg-10). Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer-capsid protein VP2, the most variable AHSV protein and the primary target for neutralizing antibodies. Consequently, Seg-2 determines the identity of the virus serotype. An African horse sickness (AHS) outbreak in an AHS-free status country requires identifying the serotype as soon as poss...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rub én Villalba Cristina Tena-Tom ás Mar ía José Ruano Marta Valero-Lorenzo Ana L ópez-Herranz Cristina Cano-G ómez Montserrat Ag üero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 467: Assessing the Clinical Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma Variant on Intensive Care Unit Admissions: Insights from a Reference Hospital in Northeastern Brazil
a Ferreira Costa Zaquer Suzana Costa-Ferro Clarissa Araújo Gurgel Rocha Silvia Inês Sardi Gúbio Soares Ana Verena Almeida Mendes Bruno Solano de Freitas Souza The global challenge posed by the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic underscores the critical need for ongoing genomic surveillance to identify emerging variants and formulate effective public health strategies. This retrospective observational study, conducted in a reference hospital in Northeast Brazil and comprising 2116 cases, employed PCR genotyping together with epidemiological data to elucidate the impact of the Gamma variant during its emergence, ...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Carolina Kymie Vasques Nonaka Adlas Michel de Jesus Ribeiro Gisele Vieira Rocha Helena Souza da Hora Ant ônio Augusto Fonseca Junior Fernanda de Mac êdo Lima Iasmin Nogueira Bastos Samara Alves Sa Teles Thamires Gomes Lopes Weber Vanessa Ferreira Costa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 471: Investigation of the Correlation between Enterovirus Infection and the Climate Factor Complex Including the Ping-Year Factor and El Ni & ntilde;o-Southern Oscillation in Taiwan
This study aimed to determine the relationship between these two CFCs and the incidence of enterovirus infection. Children aged 15 years and younger with enterovirus infection and/or EVSC were enrolled between 2007 and 2022. Each year was categorized into a ping-year or non-ping-year according to the PYF. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the associations between the PYF, ENSO, and the incidence of enterovirus infection. Compared to the ping-year group, the incidence rate of enterovirus infection, the incidence rate of EVSC, and the ratio of EVSC in the non-ping-year group were 1.24, 3.38, and 2.73 times higher, resp...
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Hsueh-Wen Yu Chia-Hsuan Kuan Liang-Wei Tseng Hsing-Yu Chen Meg-Yen Tsai Yu-Sheng Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 466: Susceptibility of Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Following Experimental Infection with Lumpy Skin Disease Virus
This study highlights that the sensitivity of ELISA and VNT may differ between animal species and further studies are needed to investigate the epidemiological role of water buffalo. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 19, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Elisabetta Di Felice Chiara Pinoni Emanuela Rossi Giorgia Amatori Elisa Mancuso Federica Iapaolo Angela Taraschi Giovanni Di Teodoro Guido Di Donato Gaetano Federico Ronchi Maria Teresa Mercante Mauro Di Ventura Daniela Morelli Federica Monaco Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 464: Brincidofovir Effectively Inhibits Proliferation of Pseudorabies Virus by Disrupting Viral Replication
Xiangru Wang Pseudorabies is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. Currently, PRV is predominantly endemoepidemic and has caused significant economic losses among domestic pigs. Other animals have been proven to be susceptible to PRV, with a mortality rate of 100%. In addition, 30 human cases of PRV infection have been reported in China since 2017, and all patients have shown severe neurological symptoms and eventually died or developed various neurological sequelae. In these cases, broad-spectrum anti-herpesvirus drugs and integrated treatm...
Source: Viruses - March 18, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Huihui Guo Qingyun Liu Dan Yang Hao Zhang Yan Kuang Yafei Li Huanchun Chen Xiangru Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research