Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 587: Begomovirus Transmission to Tomato Plants Is Not Hampered by Plant Defenses Induced by Dicyphus hesperus Knight
This study focused on tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a plant virus of the family Geminiviridae and genus Begomovirus. It is transmitted in a persistent circulative manner by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), posing a global threat to tomato production. Mirids (Hemiptera: Miridae) are effective biological control agents of B. tabaci, but there is a possibility that their omnivorous nature could also interfere with the process of virus transmission. To test this hypothesis, this study first addressed to what extent the mirid bug Dicyphus hesperus Knight induces plant defenses in tomato. ...
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Saioa Legarrea Angela Gabrielle LaTora Alvin M. Simmons Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 581: Roles of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K-Encoded Np9 in Human Diseases: A Small Protein with Big Functions
Qin Human Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences (HERVs) constitute up to 8% of the human genome, yet not all HERVs remain silent passengers within our genomes. Some HERVs, especially HERV type K (HERV-K), have been found to be frequently transactivated in a variety of inflammatory diseases and human cancers. Np9, a small protein translated from the HERV-K env reading frame, has been reported as an oncogenic protein and is present in a variety of tumors and transformed cells. The Np9 protein can crosstalk with many cellular factors and is involved in the pathogenicity of various diseases, including some oncogenic virus infect...
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jiaojiao Fan Zhiqiang Qin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 582: Cardiometabolic Differences in People Living with HIV Receiving Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors Compared to Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Implications for Current ART Strategies
er Ven Willem L. Blok Janneke E. Stalenhoef In people living with HIV (PLHIV), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are part of the first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens are alternatives. Distinct cART regimens may variably influence the risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. We aimed to compare the metabolome and lipidome of INSTI and NNRTI-based regimens. The 2000HIV study includes asymptomatic PLHIV (n = 1646) on long-term cART, separated into a discovery cohort with 730 INSTI and 617 NNRTI users, and a validation coho...
Source: Viruses - April 10, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Wilhelm A. J. W. Vos Nadira Vadaq Vasiliki Matzaraki Twan Otten Albert L. Groenendijk Marc J. T. Blaauw Louise E. van Eekeren Kees Brinkman Quirijn de Mast Niels P. Riksen Anton F. H. Stalenhoef Jan van Lunzen Andre J. A. M. van der Ven Willem L. Blok Jan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 577: Understanding Citrus Viroid Interactions: Experience and Prospects
n Chang Citrus is the natural host of at least eight viroid species, providing a natural platform for studying interactions among viroids. The latter manifests as antagonistic or synergistic phenomena. The antagonistic effect among citrus viroids intuitively leads to reduced symptoms caused by citrus viroids, while the synergistic effect leads to an increase in symptom severity. The interaction phenomenon is complex and interesting, and a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms induced during this viroid interaction is of great significance for the prevention and control of viroid diseases. This paper summarize...
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yafei Wang Yan Shi Honglian Li Jiaxin Chang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 578: Achievement of Primary Prevention Cardiometabolic Targets in Women with HIV: An Urgent Call to Action to Pursue Cardiovascular Health
Conclusions: H/Dy/DT target achievement is suboptimal, especially in migrants. A more aggressive pharmacological treatment, also assessing adherence to medical prescriptions, and promotion of healthy lifestyle should be urgently implemented, possibly redrawing the current model of care. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Maria Mazzitelli Vincenzo Scaglione Claudia Cozzolino Marco Zuin Cristina Putaggio Beatrice Bragato Eleonora Vania Lolita Sasset Davide Leoni Vincenzo Baldo Annamaria Cattelan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 579: Transcriptomic Analysis of PDCoV-Infected HIEC-6 Cells and Enrichment Pathways PI3K-Akt and P38 MAPK
In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions between PDCoV and human intestinal cells (HIEC-6) by analyzing the transcriptome at different time points post-infection (12 h, 24 h, 48 h). Differential gene analysis revealed a total of 3560, 5193, and 4147 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. The common genes among the DEGs at all three time points were enriched in biological processes related to cytokine production, extracellular matrix, and cytokine activity. KEGG pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes involved in the p53 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ...
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Yuhang Jiang Guoqing Zhang Letian Li Maopeng Wang Jing Chen Pengfei Hao Zihan Gao Jiayi Hao Chang Li Ningyi Jin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 580: Plasma Lipidomic Profiles in cART-Treated Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired HIV Compared to Matched Controls
n Genderen Children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV) are growing into adulthood with HIV and treatment-associated comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. HIV is identified as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The hypothesis behind increased CVD risk associated with HIV includes vascular inflammation, dyslipidemia and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) metabolomic toxicity. To investigate differences in lipid profiles and pathophysiological mechanisms of CVD risk in adolescents with PHIV, we compared the plasma lipidome of PHIV adolescents a...
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Julie van der Post Thiara E. J. Guerra Malon van den Hof Fr édéric M. Vaz Dasja Pajkrt Jason G. van Genderen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 574: STINGing Defenses: Unmasking the Mechanisms of DNA Oncovirus-Mediated Immune Escape
idis DNA oncoviruses represent an intriguing subject due to their involvement in oncogenesis. These viruses have evolved mechanisms to manipulate the host immune response, facilitating their persistence and actively contributing to carcinogenic processes. This paper describes the complex interactions between DNA oncoviruses and the innate immune system, with a particular emphasis on the cGAS-STING pathway. Exploring these interactions highlights that DNA oncoviruses strategically target and subvert this pathway, exploiting its vulnerabilities for their own survival and proliferation within the host. Understanding these...
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mayra F Mart ínez-López Claire Muslin Nikolaos C. Kyriakidis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 575: The High Capacity of Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations to Transmit a Locally Circulating Lineage of Chikungunya Virus
Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara Luciano Moreira Alvaro Ferreira The incidence of chikungunya has dramatically surged worldwide in recent decades, imposing an expanding burden on public health. In recent years, South America, particularly Brazil, has experienced outbreaks that have ravaged populations following the rapid dissemination of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which was first detected in 2014. The primary vector for CHIKV transmission is the urban mosquito species Aedes aegypti, which is highly prevalent throughout Brazil. However, the impact of the locally circulating CHIKV genotypes and specific combinations...
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Amanda de Freitas Fernanda Rezende Silvana de Mendon ça L ívia Baldon Emanuel Silva Fl ávia Ferreira Jo ão Almeida Siad Amadou Bruno Mar çal Sara Comini Marcele Rocha Hegger Fritsch Ellen Santos Thiago Leite Marta Giovanetti Luiz Carlos Junior Alcant Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 576: High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Three Rhabdoviruses Persisting in the IRE/CTVM19 Cell Line
lina G. Karganova Cell cultures derived from ticks have become a commonly used tool for the isolation and study of tick-borne pathogens and tick biology. The IRE/CTVM19 cell line, originating from embryos of Ixodes ricinus, is one such line. Previously, reovirus-like particles, as well as sequences with similarity to rhabdoviruses and iflaviruses, were detected in the IRE/CTVM19 cell line, suggesting the presence of multiple persisting viruses. Subsequently, the full genome of an IRE/CTVM19-associated rhabdovirus was recovered from a cell culture during the isolation of the Alongshan virus. In the current work, we used...
Source: Viruses - April 9, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Alexander G. Litov Alexey M. Shchetinin Ivan S. Kholodilov Oxana A. Belova Magomed N. Gadzhikurbanov Anna Y. Ivannikova Anastasia A. Kovpak Vladimir A. Gushchin Galina G. Karganova Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 572: Herpesvirus Infection of Endothelial Cells as a Systemic Pathological Axis in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
orius Understanding the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is critical for advancing treatment options. This review explores the novel hypothesis that a herpesvirus infection of endothelial cells (ECs) may underlie ME/CFS symptomatology. We review evidence linking herpesviruses to persistent EC infection and the implications for endothelial dysfunction, encompassing blood flow regulation, coagulation, and cognitive impairment—symptoms consistent with ME/CFS and Long COVID. This paper provides a synthesis of current research on herpesvirus latency and reactivatio...
Source: Viruses - April 8, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Jean M. Nunes Douglas B. Kell Etheresia Pretorius Tags: Hypothesis Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 573: Quantitation of Enterovirus A71 Empty and Full Particles by Sedimentation Velocity Analytical Ultracentrifugation
In this study, we analyzed the application of sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) in characterizing the EPs and FPs of EV71. Our results showed that the proportions of the two forms could be quantified simultaneously by SV-AUC. We also determined the repeatability and accuracy of this method and found that both parameters were satisfactory. We assessed SV-AUC for bulk vaccine quality control, and our findings indicated that SV-AUC can be used effectively to analyze the percentage of EPs and FPs and monitor the consistency of the process to ensure the quality of the vaccine. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 8, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Anna Yang Yun Luo Jie Yang Tingbo Xie Wenhui Wang Xin Wan Kaiwen Wang Deqin Pang Dongsheng Yang Hanyu Dai Jie Wu Shengli Meng Jing Guo Zejun Wang Shuo Shen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 568: Abundant Intra-Subtype Reassortment Revealed in H13N8 Influenza Viruses
This study underscores the importance of the continued surveillance and research of less-studied influenza subtypes. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 7, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Sofia Feoktistova Marya Sayganova Kseniya Trutneva Olga Glazova Artem S. Blagodatski Liudmila Shevkova Anna Navoikova Yuriy Anisimov Eugene Albert Olga Mityaeva Pavel Volchkov Andrey Deviatkin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 569: The Susceptibility of Chickens to Zika Virus: A Comprehensive Study on Age-Dependent Infection Dynamics and Host Responses
rao Suresh V. Kuchipudi Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a public health concern, with epidemics in endemic regions and sporadic outbreaks in new areas posing significant threats. Several mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause human illness, including West Nile, Usutu, and St. Louis encephalitis, have associations with birds. However, the susceptibility of chickens to ZIKV and their role in viral epidemiology is not currently known. We investigated the susceptibility of chickens to experimental ZIKV infection using chickens ranging from 1-day-old chicks to 6-week-old birds. ZIKV caused no clinical signs in chickens of a...
Source: Viruses - April 7, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ruth H. Nissly Levina Lim Margo R. Keller Ian M. Bird Gitanjali Bhushan Sougat Misra Shubhada K. Chothe Miranda C. Sill Nagaram Vinod Kumar A. V. N. Sivakumar B. Rambabu Naik Bhushan M. Jayarao Suresh V. Kuchipudi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 571: Characterization of an African Swine Fever Virus Field Isolate from Vietnam with Deletions in the Left Variable Multigene Family Region
This study showed that ASFV-GUS-Vietnam field isolate is able to induce complete protection in the majority of the pigs against highly virulent homologous ASFV challenge, but has the potential for horizontal transmission, and can be fatal in some animals. This study highlights the need for proper monitoring and surveillance when ASFV live-attenuated virus-based vaccines are used in the field for ASF control in endemic countries. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - April 7, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Aruna Ambagala Kalhari Goonewardene Ian El Kanoa Thi Tam Than Van Tam Nguyen Thi Ngoc Ha Lai Thi Lan Nguyen Cassidy N. G. Erdelyan Erin Robert Nikesh Tailor Chukwunonso Onyilagha Lindsey Lamboo Katherine Handel Michelle Nebroski Oksana Vernygora Oliver Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research