Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 238: Comparative Review of the State of the Art in Research on the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and SARS-CoV-2, Scope of Knowledge between Coronaviruses
enítez This review presents comparative information corresponding to the progress in knowledge of some aspects of infection by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronaviruses. PEDV is an alphacoronavirus of great economic importance due to the million-dollar losses it generates in the pig industry. PEDV has many similarities to the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19 disease. This review presents possible scenarios for SARS-CoV-2 based on the collected literature on PEDV and the tools or strategies currently developed for SARS-CoV-2 ...
Source: Viruses - February 2, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Nora H. Rosas-Murrieta Alan Rodr íguez-Enríquez Irma Herrera-Camacho Lourdes Mill án-Pérez-Peña Gerardo Santos-L ópez Jos é F. Rivera-Benítez Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 239: HIV-1 Drug Resistance Detected by Next-Generation Sequencing among ART-Na & iuml;ve Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: In this study, we found that next-generation sequencing facilitates a more sensitive detection of HIV-1 drug resistance than SGS. The high prevalence of PDR emphasizes the importance of baseline resistance and assessing the threshold for optimal clinical detection using NGS. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 2, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Fei Ouyang Defu Yuan Wenjing Zhai Shanshan Liu Ying Zhou Haitao Yang Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 240: Assessing Reassortment between Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 10 and 17 at Different Coinfection Ratios in Culicoides sonorenesis
n Christie Mayo Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a segmented, double-stranded RNA orbivirus listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Segmented viruses can reassort, which facilitates rapid and important genotypic changes. Our study evaluated reassortment in Culicoides sonorensis midges coinfected with different ratios of BTV-10 and BTV-17. Midges were fed blood containing BTV-10, BTV-17, or a combination of both serotypes at 90:10, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 10:90 ratios. Midges were collected every other day and tested for infection using pan BTV and cox1 (housekeeping ge...
Source: Viruses - February 2, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Molly Carpenter Jennifer Kopanke Justin Lee Case Rodgers Kirsten Reed Tyler J. Sherman Barbara Graham Mark Stenglein Christie Mayo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 241: Replication of Human Norovirus in Human Intestinal Enteroids Is Affected by Fecal Sample Processing
The objective of this study was to investigate whether serially centrifuged fecal samples, RNA extraction kit (QIAamp versus MagMaX) and HIE age (newer versus older) affect HuNoV RNA fold increase in HIE. HuNoV GII.1, GII.4 and GII.6 fecal samples were prepared by serial centrifugation and filtration and the viral RNA in HIE was quantified at 1 and 72 h post-infection (hpi) following RNA extraction and RT-qPCR. The serially filtered GII.1, GII.4 and GII.6 showed successful replication in HIE, resulting in mean log increases of 2.2, 2 and 1.2, respectively, at 72 vs. 1 hpi. In contrast, only serially centrifuged GII.1 showe...
Source: Viruses - February 2, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Revati Narwankar Malak A. Esseili Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 242: The Role of Noncoding RNA in the Transmission and Pathogenicity of Flaviviruses
ong Cheng Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) constitute a class of RNA molecules that lack protein-coding capacity. ncRNAs frequently modulate gene expression through specific interactions with target proteins or messenger RNAs, thereby playing integral roles in a wide array of cellular processes. The Flavivirus genus comprises several significant members, such as dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV), which have caused global outbreaks, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in human populations. The life cycle of arthropod-borne flaviviruses encompasses their transmission between hematophagous ...
Source: Viruses - February 2, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Xianwen Zhang Yuhan Li Yingyi Cao Ying Wu Gong Cheng Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 230: Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Lockdown on the HRSV Circulation: Experience of Three Spoke Hospitals in Northern Italy
In conclusion, an increase in HRSV cases after the Pandemic has been demonstrated with an anticipated peak, while no differences were recorded in severity. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Francesca Parola Adalberto Brach del Prever Virginia Deut Giulia Costagliola Carla Guidi Neftj Ragusa Antonella Tuscano Fabio Timeus Massimo Berger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 231: Saikosaponin B2, Punicalin, and Punicalagin in Vitro Block Cellular Entry of Feline Herpesvirus-1
Zhi-Hua Qin In the realm of clinical practice, nucleoside analogs are the prevailing antiviral drugs employed to combat feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infections. However, these drugs, initially formulated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, operate through a singular mechanism and are susceptible to the emergence of drug resistance. These challenges underscore the imperative to innovate and develop alternative antiviral medications featuring unique mechanisms of action, such as viral entry inhibitors. This research endeavors to address this pressing need. Utilizing Bio-layer interferometry (BLI), we meticulously ...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Bin Liu Xiao-Qian Jiao Xu-Feng Dong Pei Guo Shu-Bai Wang Zhi-Hua Qin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 232: An Engineered M13 Filamentous Nanoparticle as an Antigen Carrier for a Malignant Melanoma Immunotherapeutic Strategy
rej Cör Bacteriophages, prokaryotic viruses, hold great potential in genetic engineering to open up new avenues for vaccine development. Our study aimed to establish engineered M13 bacteriophages expressing MAGE-A1 tumor peptides as a vaccine for melanoma treatment. Through in vivo experiments, we sought to assess their ability to induce robust immune responses. Using phage display technology, we engineered two M13 bacteriophages expressing MAGE-A1 peptides as fusion proteins with either pVIII or pIIII coat proteins. Mice were intraperitoneally vaccinated three times, two weeks apart, using two different engineered ba...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Nu ša Brišar Katja Šuster Simona Kranjc Brezar Robert Vidmar Marko Fonovi ć Andrej C ör Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 233: Isolation and Characterization of Yunnan Variants of the Pseudorabies Virus and Their Pathogenicity in Rats
g Yu Xianghua Shu Porcine pseudorabies has long existed in China and is a serious threat to the Chinese farming industry. To understand the prevalence and genetic variation of the porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its pathogenicity in Yunnan Province, China, we collected 560 serum samples across seven Yunnan Province regions from 2020 to 2021 and detected anti-gE antibodies in these samples. Sixty-one clinical tissue samples were also collected from pigs with suspected PRV that were vaccinated with Bartha-K61. PRV-gE antibodies were found in 29.6% (166/560) of the serum samples. The PRV positivity rate in clinical...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Chunlian Song Hua Ye Xue Zhang Yalun Zhang Yonghui Li Jun Yao Lin Gao Shanqiang Wang Yougeng Yu Xianghua Shu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 234: The C4 Protein of TbLCYnV Promotes SnRK1 & beta;2 Degradation Via the Autophagy Pathway to Enhance Viral Infection in N. benthamiana
In this study, we validated the interaction between the C4 protein encoded by tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYnV) and the regulatory subunit β of Nicotiana benthamiana SnRK1, i.e., NbSnRK1 β2, and identified that the Asp22 of C4 is critical for TbLCYnV C4–NbSnRK1 β2 interactions. NbSnRK1 β2 silencing in N. benthamiana enhances susceptibility to TbLCYnV infection. Plants infected with viral mutant TbLCYnV (C4D22A), which contains the mutant version C4 (D22A) that is incapable of interacting with NbSnRK1 β2, display milder symptoms and lower ...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Xinquan Li Min Zhao Wanyi Yang Xueping Zhou Yan Xie Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 229: A Canadian Survey of Research on HIV-1 Latency & mdash;Where Are We Now and Where Are We Heading?
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 229: A Canadian Survey of Research on HIV-1 Latency—Where Are We Now and Where Are We Heading? Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020229 Authors: Ana Luiza Abdalla Gabriel Guajardo-Contreras Andrew J. Mouland Worldwide, almost 40 million people are currently living with HIV-1. The implementation of cART inhibits HIV-1 replication and reduces viremia but fails to eliminate HIV-1 from latently infected cells. These cells are considered viral reservoirs from which HIV-1 rebounds if cART is interrupted. Several efforts have been made to identify these cells and their niches. There has been li...
Source: Viruses - February 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ana Luiza Abdalla Gabriel Guajardo-Contreras Andrew J. Mouland Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 228: Unveiling CRESS DNA Virus Diversity in Oysters by Virome
This study’s findings provide a basis for further research on the biological and ecological roles of viruses in oysters and their environment. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Peng Zhu Chang Liu Guang-Feng Liu Hong Liu Ke-Ming Xie Hong-Sai Zhang Xin Xu Jian Xiao Jing-Zhe Jiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 216: The Mathematical Modeling of the Host & ndash;Virus Interaction in Dengue Virus Infection: A Quantitative Study
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 216: The Mathematical Modeling of the Host–Virus Interaction in Dengue Virus Infection: A Quantitative Study Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16020216 Authors: Zhaobin Xu Hongmei Zhang Dongying Yang Dongqing Wei Jacques Demongeot Qiangcheng Zeng Infectious diseases, such as Dengue fever, pose a significant public health threat. Developing a reliable mathematical model plays a crucial role in quantitatively elucidating the kinetic characteristics of antibody–virus interactions. By integrating previous models and incorporating the antibody dynamic theory, we have constru...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Zhaobin Xu Hongmei Zhang Dongying Yang Dongqing Wei Jacques Demongeot Qiangcheng Zeng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 215: The Potential of Usnic-Acid-Based Thiazolo-Thiophenes as Inhibitors of the Main Protease of SARS-CoV-2 Viruses
Oleg V. Pyankov Nariman F. Salakhutdinov Mikhail V. Khvostov Although the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 viruses is officially over, the search for new effective agents with activity against a wide range of coronaviruses is still an important task for medical chemists and virologists. We synthesized a series of thiazolo-thiophenes based on (+)- and (−)-usnic acid and studied their ability to inhibit the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Substances containing unsubstituted thiophene groups or methyl- or bromo-substituted thiophene moieties showed moderate activity. Derivatives containing nitro subs...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Olga I. Yarovaya Aleksandr S. Filimonov Dmitriy S. Baev Sophia S. Borisevich Anna V. Zaykovskaya Varvara Yu. Chirkova Mariya K. Marenina Yulia V. Meshkova Svetlana V. Belenkaya Dmitriy N. Shcherbakov Maxim A. Gureev Olga A. Luzina Oleg V. Pyankov Nariman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 219: Examining Chronic Inflammation, Immune Metabolism, and T Cell Dysfunction in HIV Infection
ie Zhen Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a significant challenge to global public health. Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), which has transformed HIV infection from a fatal disease into a manageable chronic condition, a definitive cure remains elusive. One of the key features of HIV infection is chronic immune activation and inflammation, which are strongly associated with, and predictive of, HIV disease progression, even in patients successfully treated with suppressive ART. Chronic inflammation is characterized by persistent inflammation, immune cell metabolic dysregulation...
Source: Viruses - January 31, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Wenli Mu Vaibhavi Patankar Scott Kitchen Anjie Zhen Tags: Review Source Type: research