Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 131: Influenza A Virus and Acetylation: The Picture Is Becoming Clearer
n Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most circulated human pathogens, and influenza disease, commonly known as the flu, remains one of the most recurring and prevalent infectious human diseases globally. IAV continues to challenge existing vaccines and antiviral drugs via its ability to evolve constantly. It is critical to identify the molecular determinants of IAV pathogenesis to understand the basis of flu severity in different populations and design improved antiviral strategies. In recent years, acetylation has been identified as one of the determinants of IAV pathogenesis. Acetylation was originally discovered ...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Matloob Husain Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 132: Systematic Genomic Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 at Xiamen International Airport and the Port of Xiamen Reveals the Importance of Incoming Travelers in Lineage Diversity
This study focuses on the surveillance of imported SARS-CoV-2 variants among travelers entering Xiamen International Airport and the Port of Xiamen from February to August 2023. A total of 97 imported SARS-CoV-2 sequences among travelers from 223 cases collected from 12 different countries and regions were identified by real-time RT-PCR. Next-generation sequencing was used to generate high-quality complete sequences for phylogenetic and population dynamic analysis. The study revealed a dominant shift in variant distribution, in which the XBB subvariant (XBB.1.5, XBB.1.16, XBB.1.9, XBB.2.3, and EG.5.1) accounted for approxi...
Source: Viruses - January 17, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ruiluan You Ruotong Wu Xijing Wang Rao Fu Ningshao Xia Yixin Chen Kunyu Yang Junyu Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 129: Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 1 (CLIC1) Is a Critical Host Cellular Factor for Influenza A Virus Replication
Conclusions: This study suggests that CLIC1 is involved in later stages of IAV replication. Further investigation should clarify mechanism(s) for the development of anti-IAV drugs targeting CLIC1 protein. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mahamud-ur Rashid Kevin M. Coombs Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 130: Equine Rotavirus A under the One Health Lens: Potential Impacts on Public Health
Parreño Group A rotaviruses are a well-known cause of viral gastroenteritis in infants and children, as well as in many mammalian species and birds, affecting them at a young age. This group of viruses has a double-stranded, segmented RNA genome with high genetic diversity linked to point mutations, recombination, and, importantly, reassortment. While initial molecular investigations undertaken in the 1900s suggested host range restriction among group A rotaviruses based on the fact that different gene segments were distributed among different animal species, recent molecular surveillance and genome constellation geno...
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mariano Carossino Maria Aldana Vissani Maria E. Barrandeguy Udeni B. R. Balasuriya Viviana Parre ño Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 126: Characteristics of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Children in the Post-COVID Seasons: A Northern Italy Hospital Experience
Conclusions: The clinical presentation of RSV in the two post-COVID seasons suggests that the pathophysiology of the virus did not change across these two years. Further studies are needed to continuously monitor RSV to support an effective prevention strategy. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Davide Treggiari Chiara Pomari Giorgio Zavarise Chiara Piubelli Fabio Formenti Francesca Perandin Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 127: Functional Impacts of Epitranscriptomic m6A Modification on HIV-1 Infection
Li Wu Epitranscriptomic RNA modifications play a crucial role in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal modification of eukaryotic RNA and plays a pivotal role in RNA fate. RNA m6A modification is regulated by a group of cellular proteins, methyltransferases (writers) and demethylases (erasers), which add and remove the methyl group from adenosine, respectively. m6A modification is recognized by a group of cellular RNA-binding proteins (readers) that specifically bind to m6A-modified RNA, mediating effects on RNA stability, splicing, transport, a...
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Stacia Phillips Tarun Mishra Siyu Huang Li Wu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 128: Current Progress of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus (SFTSV) Vaccine Development
U. Jung SFTSV is an emerging tick-borne virus causing hemorrhagic fever with a case fatality rate (CFR) that can reach up to 27%. With endemic infection in East Asia and the recent spread of the vector tick to more than 20 states in the United States, the SFTSV outbreak is a globally growing public health concern. However, there is currently no targeted antiviral therapy or licensed vaccine against SFTSV. Considering the age-dependent SFTS pathogenesis and disease outcome, a sophisticated vaccine development approach is required to safeguard the elderly population from lethal SFTSV infection. Given the recent emergence...
Source: Viruses - January 16, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Dokyun Kim Chih-Jen Lai Inho Cha Jae U. Jung Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 124: Update of Natural Products and Their Derivatives Targeting Epstein & ndash;Barr Infection
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 124: Update of Natural Products and Their Derivatives Targeting Epstein–Barr Infection Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16010124 Authors: Rosamaria Pennisi Paola Trischitta Marianna Costa Assunta Venuti Maria Pia Tamburello Maria Teresa Sciortino Epstein–Barr (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that undergoes both a productive (lytic) cycle and a non-productive (latent) phase. The virus establishes enduring latent infection in B lymphocytes and productive infection in the oral mucosal epithelium. Like other herpesviruses, EBV expresses its genes in a coordinat...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rosamaria Pennisi Paola Trischitta Marianna Costa Assunta Venuti Maria Pia Tamburello Maria Teresa Sciortino Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 125: Development of Stable Infectious cDNA Clones of Tomato Black Ring Virus Tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein
wska Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) is a member of the Nepovirus genus in the Secoviridae family, which infects a wide range of important crop species worldwide. In this work, we constructed four cDNA infectious clones of the TBRV tagged with the green fluorescent protein (TBRV-GFP), which varied in (i) the length of the sequences flanking the GFP insert, (ii) the position of the GFP insert within the RNA2 polyprotein, and (iii) the addition of a self-cutting 2A protein. The presence of the GFP coding sequence in infected plants was verified by RT-PCR, while the infectivity and stability of the constructs were verified...
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Aleksandra Zarzy ńska-Nowak Julia Minicka Przemys ław Wieczorek Beata Hasi ów-Jaroszewska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 123: Navigating Evolving Challenges in Blood Safety
m Blood safety remains a paramount public health concern, and health authorities maintain a high level of vigilance to prevent transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) [...] (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - January 15, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 120: mRNA Vaccine Nanoplatforms and Innate Immunity
ng Wang mRNA-based vaccine technology has been significantly developed and enhanced, particularly highlighted by the authorization of mRNA vaccines for addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. Various biomaterials are developed in nano-scales and applied as mRNA vaccine delivery platforms. However, how these mRNA nanoplatforms influence immune responses has not been thoroughly studied. Hence, we have reviewed the current understanding of various mRNA vaccine platforms. We discussed the possible pathways through which these platforms moderate the host’s innate immunity and contribute to the development of adaptiv...
Source: Viruses - January 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Lai Wei Chunhong Dong Wandi Zhu Bao-Zhong Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 121: Myocardial Oedema as a Consequence of Viral Infection and Persistence & mdash;A Narrative Review with Focus on COVID-19 and Post COVID Sequelae
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 121: Myocardial Oedema as a Consequence of Viral Infection and Persistence—A Narrative Review with Focus on COVID-19 and Post COVID Sequelae Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16010121 Authors: Noel G. Panagiotides Michael Poledniczek Martin Andreas Martin Hülsmann Alfred A. Kocher Christoph W. Kopp Aleksandra Piechota-Polanczyk Annika Weidenhammer Noemi Pavo Patricia P. Wadowski Microvascular integrity is a critical factor in myocardial fluid homeostasis. The subtle equilibrium between capillary filtration and lymphatic fluid removal is disturbed during pathological processe...
Source: Viruses - January 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Noel G. Panagiotides Michael Poledniczek Martin Andreas Martin H ülsmann Alfred A. Kocher Christoph W. Kopp Aleksandra Piechota-Polanczyk Annika Weidenhammer Noemi Pavo Patricia P. Wadowski Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 122: Comparing the Infectivity of Recent SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Sub-Variants in Syrian Hamsters
an Neyts Since the emergence of the first omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant at the end of 2021, several sub-variants have evolved and become predominant in the human population, showing enhanced transmissibility and ability to (partly) escape the adaptive immune response. The XBB sub-variants (e.g., EG.5.1) have become globally dominant. Besides the XBB sub-variants, a phylogenetically distinct variant, i.e., BA.2.86, is also circulating; it carries several mutations in the spike protein as compared to its parental BA.2 variant. Here, we explored the infectivity of the BA.2.86 and EG.5.1 sub-variants compared to the preceding...
Source: Viruses - January 14, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Rana Abdelnabi Ria Lassauni ère Piet Maes Birgit Weynand Johan Neyts Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 115: Evidence of Differences in Cellular Regulation of Wolbachia-Mediated Viral Inhibition between Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses
P. Sinkins The intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is increasingly being utilised in control programs to limit the spread of arboviruses by Aedes mosquitoes. Achieving a better understanding of how Wolbachia strains can reduce viral replication/spread could be important for the long-term success of such programs. Previous studies have indicated that for some strains of Wolbachia, perturbations in lipid metabolism and cholesterol storage are vital in Wolbachia-mediated antiviral activity against the flaviviruses dengue and Zika; however, it has not yet been examined whether arboviruses in the alphavirus group are affecte...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Stephanie M. Rainey Daniella A. Lefteri Christie Darby Alain Kohl Andres Merits Steven P. Sinkins Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 116: Functional Analysis of KAP1/TRIM28 Requirements for HIV-1 Transcription Activation
D’Orso HIV-1 latency maintenance and reactivation are regulated by several viral and host factors. One such factor is Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-associated protein 1 (KAP1: also named TRIM28 or TIF1β). While initial studies have revealed KAP1 to be a positive regulator of latency reversal in transformed and primary CD4+ T cells, subsequent studies have proposed KAP1 to be a repressor required for latency maintenance. Given this discrepancy, in this study, we re-examine KAP1 transcription regulatory functions using a chemical genetics strategy to acutely deplete KAP1 expression to avoid th...
Source: Viruses - January 13, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Keyera Randolph Usman Hyder Ashwini Challa Erick Perez Iv án D’Orso Tags: Article Source Type: research