Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 388: Impact of the H274Y Substitution on N1, N4, N5, and N8 Neuraminidase Enzymatic Properties and Expression in Reverse Genetic Influenza A Viruses
In conclusion, the H274Y-NA substitution of different group-1-NAs systematically reduced their affinity for MUNANA substrate without a significant impact on NA Vm. The impact of the H274Y-NA substitution on viral NA expression was different according to the studied NA. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Alexandre Gaymard Caroline Picard Guilhem Vazzoler Pascale Massin Emilie Frobert Murielle Sabatier Mendy Barthelemy Martine Valette Mich èle Ottmann Jean-S ébastien Casalegno Bruno Lina Vanessa Escuret Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 389: Ongoing Gaps in the Hepatitis C Care Cascade during the Direct-Acting Antiviral Era in a Large Retrospective Cohort in Canada: A Population-Based Study
Christina Greenaway To achieve hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination, high uptake along the care cascade steps for all will be necessary. We mapped engagement with the care cascade overall and among priority groups in the post-direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) period and assessed if this changed relative to pre-DAAs. We created a population-based cohort of all reported HCV diagnoses in Quebec (1990–2018) and constructed the care cascade [antibody diagnosed, RNA tested, RNA positive, genotyped, treated, sustained virologic response (SVR)] in 2013 and 2018. Characteristics associated with RNA testing and trea...
Source: Viruses - March 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ana Maria Passos-Castilho Donald G. Murphy Karine Blouin Andrea Benedetti Dimitra Panagiotoglou Julie Bruneau Marina B. Klein Jeffrey C. Kwong Beate Sander Naveed Z. Janjua Christina Greenaway Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 390: CD8+ T Cells Mediate Lethal Lung Pathology in the Absence of PD-L1 and Type I Interferon Signalling following LCMV Infection
In this study, utilizing single- and double-knockout mice, we aimed to determine whether ablation of PD-1 could restore T cell functionality in the absence of IFNAR1 signalling in LCMV-Arm-infected mice. Surprisingly, this did not re-invigorate the T cell response and instead, it converted chronic LCMV-Arm infection into a lethal disease characterized by severe lung inflammation with an infiltration of neutrophils and T cells. Depletion of CD8+ T cells, but not neutrophils, rescued mice from lethal disease, demonstrating that IFNAR1 is required to prevent T cell exhaustion and virus persistence in LCMV-Arm infection, and i...
Source: Viruses - March 1, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Alanna G. Spiteri Tamara Suprunenko Erin Cutts Andrew Suen Thomas M. Ashhurst Barney Viengkhou Nicholas J. C. King Markus J. Hofer Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 383: Inflammatory Response Associated with West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: Further studies are needed to understand the pathogenesis of WNND and to investigate the extent and the way the host inflammatory response either helps in controlling the infection or in worsening the outcomes. This might prove useful both for the development of target therapies and for the development of molecular markers allowing early identification of patients displaying an inflammatory response that puts them at a higher risk of developing neuroinvasive disease and who might thus benefit from early antiviral therapies. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 29, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Alessandro Pavesi Giorgio Tiecco Luca Rossi Anita Sforza Andrea Ciccarone Federico Compostella Sofia Lovatti Lina Rachele Tomasoni Francesco Castelli Eugenia Quiros-Roldan Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 384: Potential Serological Misdiagnosis of Barmah Forest Virus and Ross River Virus Diseases as Chikungunya Virus Infections in Australia: Comparison of ELISA with Neutralization Assay Results
n Liu To evaluate the frequency of errors in the diagnosis of medical laboratory-diagnosed Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections in Australia, we studied 42 laboratory-diagnosed CHIKV serum samples from one Queensland medical laboratory by ELISA IgG/IgM and measured the specific neutralization antibodies (Nab) against Barmah Forest virus (BFV), CHIKV and Ross River virus (RRV). The sero-positivity rates for the sera were as follows: anti-BFV IgG+ 19% (8/42), IgM+ 2.4% (1/42) and Nab+ 16.7% (7/42); anti-CHIKV IgG+ 90.5% (38/42), IgM+ 21.4% (9/42) and Nab+ 90.5% (38/42); anti-RRV IgG+ 88.1% (37/42), IgM+ 28.6% (12/42) and...
Source: Viruses - February 29, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Joanne Kizu Melissa Graham Wenjun Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 385: Bacteriophage vB_SepP_134 and Endolysin LysSte_134_1 as Potential Staphylococcus-Biofilm-Removing Biological Agents
In this study, a new bacteriophage vB_SepP_134 (St 134) specific to Staphylococcus epidermidis was described. This podophage, with a genome of 18,275 bp, belongs to the Andhravirus genus. St 134 was able to infect various strains of 12 of the 21 tested coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species and one clinical strain from the Staphylococcus aureus complex. The genes encoding endolysin (LysSte134_1) and tail tip lysin (LysSte134_2) were identified in the St 134 genome. Both enzymes were cloned and produced in Escherichia coli cells. The endolysin LysSte134_1 demonstrated catalytic activity against peptidoglycans isolated fr...
Source: Viruses - February 29, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Natalia N. Golosova Andrey L. Matveev Nina V. Tikunova Yana A. Khlusevich Yulia N. Kozlova Vera V. Morozova Igor V. Babkin Tatiana A. Ushakova Elena V. Zhirakovskaya Elizaveta A. Panina Elena I. Ryabchikova Artem Y. Tikunov Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 386: Genetic Diversity of the Human Adenovirus C Isolated from Hospitalized Children in Russia (2019 & ndash;2022)
Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 386: Genetic Diversity of the Human Adenovirus C Isolated from Hospitalized Children in Russia (2019–2022) Viruses doi: 10.3390/v16030386 Authors: Olga G. Kurskaya Elena A. Prokopyeva Nikita A. Dubovitskiy Mariya V. Solomatina Ivan A. Sobolev Anastasiya A. Derko Alina R. Nokhova Angelika V. Anoshina Natalya V. Leonova Olga A. Simkina Tatyana V. Komissarova Alexey E. Tupikin Marsel R. Kabilov Alexander M. Shestopalov Kirill A. Sharshov The human adenovirus (HAdV) is a common pathogen in children that can cause acute respiratory virus infection (ARVI). How...
Source: Viruses - February 29, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Olga G. Kurskaya Elena A. Prokopyeva Nikita A. Dubovitskiy Mariya V. Solomatina Ivan A. Sobolev Anastasiya A. Derko Alina R. Nokhova Angelika V. Anoshina Natalya V. Leonova Olga A. Simkina Tatyana V. Komissarova Alexey E. Tupikin Marsel R. Kabilov Alexand Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 381: Anti SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies in Pre-Exposure or Post-Exposure in No- or Weak Responder to Vaccine Kidney Transplant Recipients: Is One Strategy Better than Another?
Conclusions: This retrospective real-life study supports the relative effectiveness of tixagevimab-cilgavimab on COVID-19 infection caused by Omicron, used as a pre- or post-exposure therapy. The continued evolution of Omicron variants has made tixagevimab-cilgavimab ineffective and reinforces the need for new therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for COVID-19 active on new variants. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - February 29, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Anais Romero Charlotte Laurent Ludivine Lebourg Veronique Lem ée M élanie Hanoy Frank Le Roy Steven Grange Mathilde Lemoine Dominique Guerrot Dominique Bertrand Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 382: Fast and Ultrasensitive Detection of Monkeypox by a Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute System Coupled with a Short Amplification
ping Yu Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease monkeypox, causes lesions on the skin, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It has posed a global public health threat since May 2022. Highly sensitive and specific detection of MPXV is crucial for preventing the spread of the disease. Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute (PfAgo) is an artificial DNA-guided restriction cleavage enzyme programmable with 5′-phosphorylated ssDNA sequences, which can be developed to specifically detect nucleic acids of pathogens. Here, a PfAgo-based system was established for the detection of MPXV-specific DN...
Source: Viruses - February 29, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Ping He Wenhao Zhou Hongping Wei Junping Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 379: Deciphering the Role of Post-Translational Modifications and Cellular Location of Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) Antigens in HDV-Mediated Liver Damage in Mice
z-Aseguinolaza Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection represents the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis. We have shown that the delivery of HDV replication-competent genomes to the hepatocytes using adeno-associated virus (AAV-HDV) as gene delivery vehicles offers a unique platform to investigate the molecular aspects of HDV and associated liver damage. For the purpose of this study, we generated HDV genomes modified by site-directed mutagenesis aimed to (i) prevent some post-translational modifications of HDV antigens (HDAgs) such as large-HDAg (L-HDAg) isoprenylation or short-HDAg (S-HDAg) phosphorylation; (ii) a...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Sheila Maestro Nahia Gomez-Echarte Gracian Camps Carla Usai Cristina Olag üe Africa Vales Rafael Aldabe Gloria Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 380: Transcriptomic Responses to Koi Herpesvirus in Isolated Blood Leukocytes from Infected Common Carp
onny van Aerle Koi herpesvirus (KHV, CyHV-3) causes severe economic losses in carp farms. Its eradication is challenging due to the establishment of latency in blood leukocytes and other tissues. To understand the molecular mechanisms leading to KHV infection in leukocytes, common carp were bath-exposed to KHV at 17 °C. After confirming the presence of viral transcripts in blood leukocytes at ten days post infection, RNA-Seq was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes on the Illumina NovaSeq. KHV infection triggered a robust immune response mediated by pattern recognition receptors, mainly toll-like recept...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Irene Cano Ellen Blaker David Hartnell Audrey Farbos Karen A. Moore Adele Cobb Eduarda M. Santos Ronny van Aerle Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 373: IDV Typer: An Automated Tool for Lineage Typing of Influenza D Viruses Based on Return Time Distribution
Kuchipudi Influenza D virus (IDV) is the most recent addition to the Orthomyxoviridae family and cattle serve as the primary reservoir. IDV has been implicated in Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), and there is serological evidence of human infection of IDV. Evolutionary changes in the IDV genome have resulted in the expansion of genetic diversity and the emergence of multiple lineages that might expand the host tropism and potentially increase the pathogenicity to animals and humans. Therefore, there is an urgent need for automated, accurate and rapid typing tools for IDV lineage typing. Currently, IDV lineage...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Sanket Limaye Anant Shelke Mohan M. Kale Urmila Kulkarni-Kale Suresh V. Kuchipudi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 372: The NDV-MLS as an Immunotherapeutic Strategy for Breast Cancer: Proof of Concept in Female Companion Dogs with Spontaneous Mammary Cancer
Marcela Lizano The absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes negatively impacts the response to chemotherapy and prognosis in all subtypes of breast cancer. Therapies that stimulate a proinflammatory environment may help improve the response to standard treatments and also to immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) shows oncolytic activity, as well as immune modulating potential, in the treatment of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo; however, its potential to enhance tumor-infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer has yet to be evaluated. Since spontaneous canine mammary tumors r...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Diana S ánchez Gabriela Cesarman-Maus Laura Romero Rogelio S ánchez-Verin David Vail Marina Guadarrama Rosana Pelayo Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva Marcela Lizano Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 374: Evolution of Virology: Science History through Milestones and Technological Advancements
Lu Lu Huan Liu The history of virology, which is marked by transformative breakthroughs, spans microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. From the development of Jenner’s smallpox vaccine in 1796 to 20th-century innovations such as ultrafiltration and electron microscopy, the field of virology has undergone significant development. In 1898, Beijerinck laid the conceptual foundation for virology, marking a pivotal moment in the evolution of the discipline. Advancements in influenza A virus research in 1933 by Richard Shope furthered our understanding of respiratory pathogens. Additio...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Kunlan Zuo Wanying Gao Zongzhen Wu Lei Zhang Jiafeng Wang Xuefan Yuan Chun Li Qiangyu Xiang Lu Lu Huan Liu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 16, Pages 375: Integration of Hepatitis C and Addiction Treatment in People Who Inject Drugs: The San Patrignano HCV-Free and Drug-Free Experience
n Enrico Girardi Injection drug use represents an important contributor to hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, hence therapeutic communities (TCs) are promising points of care for the identification and treatment of HCV-infected persons who inject drugs (PWIDs). We evaluated the effectiveness and efficacy of an HCV micro-elimination program targeting PWIDs in the context of a drug-free TC; we applied the cascade of care (CoC) evaluation by calculating frequencies of infection diagnosis, confirmation, treatment and achievement of a sustained virological response (SVR). We also evaluated the risk of reinfection of PW...
Source: Viruses - February 28, 2024 Category: Virology Authors: Pierluca Piselli Antonio Boschini Romina Gianfreda Alessandra Nappo Claudia Cimaglia Gianpaolo Scarf ò Camillo Smacchia Raffaella Paoletti Sarah Duehren Enrico Girardi Tags: Article Source Type: research